Petasos

A petasos or petasus (Greek: πέτασος) is a sun hat of Thessalian origin worn by ancient Greeks, Macedonians, Thracians and Etruscans[1], often in combination with the chlamys cape. It was usually made of wool felt, leather or straw, with a broad, floppy brim. It was worn primarily by farmers and travellers, and was considered characteristic of rural people. As a winged hat, it became the symbol of Hermes, the Greek mythological messenger god.

A type of metal helmet worn by Athenian cavalry was made in the shape of a petasos. Some examples have holes around the outer edge of the brim, presumably so a fabric cover could be attached. These are known from reliefs and vase paintings, with at least one archaeological example found in an Athenian tomb.[2]

Man wearing Petasos Coinage of Kapsa Macedon circa 400 BCE
Hermes wearing Petasos. Coinage of Kapsa, Macedon, circa 400 BC

Gallery

Achilles embassy Louvre G264 n3

Hermes wearing petasos with caduceus

Petasos

Views of a petasos

Youth leopard skin Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2639

Petasos-wearing youth with spear and leopardskin

Tomb scene Petit Palais ADUT00355 n2

Cavalryman with petasos dangling over the back

KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander I. 498-454 BC. AR Obol (8mm, 0.46 g). Struck circa 460-450 BC. Young male head right, wearing petasos

Coin of Alexander I, struck circa 460-450 BC. Young male head right, wearing petasos.

MACEDON, Kapsa. Late 5th-4th centuries BC. AR Diobol (10mm, 1.20 g, 5h). Head of Hermes right, wearing winged petasos One-handled lekythos

Coinage of Kapsa, Macedon, circa 400 BC.

See also

References

  1. ^ https://books.google.ae/books?id=CILWtN-fSG8C&lpg=PA68&ots=IM7Xx_P7nm&dq=petasos%20hat&pg=PA68#v=onepage&q=petasos%20hat&f=false
  2. ^ Nicholas Sekunda, The Ancient Greeks (Osprey Publishing, 1986, 2005), p. 19.
Albanian hat

The Albanian hat, also known by its French name—chapeau albanois, was a type of hat worn by Albanians and primarily by Albanian mercenaries throughout Europe from the 15th to 18th century. It is described as high-crowned hat woven from ivy branches.

Baby bumper headguard cap

A baby bumper headguard cap, also known as a falling cap, or pudding hat, is a protective hat worn by children learning to walk, to protect their heads in case of falls.Known as a pudding or black pudding, a version used during the early 17th century until the late 18th century was usually open at the top and featured a sausage-shaped bumper roll that circled the head like a crown. It was fastened with straps under the chin.

The modern-day version can be many colors and may cover the entire head like a helmet.

Cavalier hat

A cavalier hat is a variety of wide-brimmed hat popular in the seventeenth century. These hats were often made from felt, and usually trimmed with an ostrich plume. They were often cocked up or had one side of the brim pinned to the side of the crown of the hat (similar to the slouch hat) which was then decorated with feathers.

Cavalier hats get their name from supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War, known as cavaliers, noted for wearing extravagant clothing. It was a common hat style throughout Europe during the seventeenth century, until it was later replaced in fashion by the tricorne.

Futou

Futou (襆頭), also known as the wushamao (烏紗帽), is the headwear of Ming dynasty officials, consisting of a black hat with two wing-like flaps of thin, oval shaped boards on each side. According to the Da Ming Hui Dian (大明會典), ordinary citizens are not allowed to wear this headdress unless attending wedding ceremonies or events involving any noble families/officials. In modern China, wushamao is commonly used as a metaphor for officials and government posts.

Hatpin

A hatpin is a decorative and functional pin for holding a hat to the head, usually by the hair. In Western culture, hatpins are almost solely used by women and are often worn in a pair. They are typically around 6–8 inches (15–20 cm) in length, with the pinhead being the most decorated part.

Kausia

The kausia (Ancient Greek: καυσία) was an ancient Macedonian flat hat.

It was worn during the Hellenistic period but perhaps even before the time of Alexander the Great and was later used as a protection against the sun by the poorer classes in Rome.

Depictions of the kausia can be found on a variety of coins and statues found from the Mediterranean to the Greco-Bactrian kingdom and the Indo-Greeks in northwestern India. The Persians referred to both the Greeks and Macedonians as "Yauna" (Ionians), but made a distinction between "Yauna by the sea" and those "with hats that look like shields" (yauna takabara), probably referring to the Macedonian kausia hat. According to Bonnie Kingsley the kausia may have came to the Mediterranean as a campaign hat worn by Alexander and veterans of his campaigns in India but according to Ernst Fredricksmeyer the kausia was too established a staple of the Macedonian wardrobe for it to have been imported from Asia to Macedonia.A modern descendant of the hat may be the Pakol: the familiar and remarkably similar men's hat from Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Kokoshnik

The kokoshnik (Russian: коко́шник, IPA: [kɐˈkoʂnʲɪk]) is a traditional Russian headdress worn by women and girls to accompany the sarafan. The kokoshnik tradition has existed since the 10th century in the ancient Russian city Veliky Novgorod. It spread primarily in the northern regions of Russia and were very popular from 16th to 19th century. It is still to this day an important feature of Russian dance ensembles and folk culture and inspired the Kokoshnik style of architecture.

Miner's cap

The miner's cap (German: Fahrhaube) is part of the traditional miner's costume. It consists of a white material (linen) and served in the Middle Ages to protect the miner when descending below ground (unter Tage). Later it was replaced by the miner's hat (Fahrhut or Schachthut), from which the leather cap or helmet were developed and subsequently today's mining helmets.

Modius (headdress)

The modius is a type of flat-topped cylindrical headdress or crown found in ancient Egyptian art and art of the Greco-Roman world. The name was given by modern scholars based on its resemblance to the jar used as a Roman unit of dry measure, but it probably does represent a grain-measure, and symbolized powers over fecundity in those wearing it.

The modius is worn by certain deities, including Mut, Eleusinian deities and their Roman counterparts, the Ephesian Artemis and certain other forms of the goddess, Hecate, and Serapis. On some deities it represents fruitfulness.It is thought to be a form mostly restricted to supernatural beings in art, and by rarely worn in real life, with two probable exceptions. A tall modius is part of the complex headdress used for portraits of Egyptian queens, ornamented variously with symbols, vegetative motifs, and the uraeus. It was also the distinctive headdress of Palmyrene priests.

Mooskappe

The Mooskappe is an old, traditional miners head covering. It was intended to protect miners when working underground from the impact of small rockfalls and from hitting their heads against the gallery roof (Firste). The term is German and this type of hat was worn especially in the Harz Mountains of Germany.

It is known that the Mooskappe was definitely used in the Harz and Barsinghausen mining regions. It appears in steel engravings from about 1850, for example by Wilhelm Ripe, as an important item of safety gear. In 1824 Heinrich Heine visited the Caroline and Dorothea mines at Clausthal. He wrote about these visits in various places including in his work Die Harzreise where he says:

These [miners] wore dark, wide, usually steel blue, jackets, usually hanging below their bellies, trousers of similar hue, a hide apron tied behind them and a small, green, felt hat, entirely rimless, like a truncated ball.(Diese (Bergleute) tragen dunkle, gewöhnlich stahlblaue, weite, bis über den Bauch herabhängende Jacken, Hosen von ähnlicher Farbe, ein hinten aufgebundenes Schurzfell und kleine grüne Filzhüte, ganz randlos wie ein abgekappter Kegel.)

The Mooskappe was usually made of a hard, green felt, but there were also "crocheted" (gehäkelte) designs. The shape is either clearly cylindrical but it can also be dome-shaped.

Motoring hood

A motoring hood or driving hood was a women's fashion in the early 20th century whose purpose was to protect the wearer from dirt and dust while driving or riding in an automobile.

Mounteere Cap

Mounteere Cap (also known as a Montero Cap) is a type of cap formerly worn in Spain for hunting. It has a spherical crown and (frequently fur-lined) flaps able to be drawn down to protect the ears and neck.

Palla (garment)

Palla is a traditional ancient Roman mantle worn by women, fastened by brooches. It was similar to the pallium that a man would wear. The shape was rectangular instead of semi-circular as with the traditional toga.

Pedal pushers

Pedal pushers are calf-length trousers that were popular during the 1950s and the early 1960s. Often cuffed and worn tight to the skin, they are related in style to capri pants, and are sometimes referred to as "clam diggers". The name "pedal pushers" originated from the style originally worn by cyclists, because long pants can catch in bicycle chains, but the style quickly became identified with teenage girls.

Pileus (hat)

The pileus (Greek: πῖλος – pilos, also pilleus or pilleum in Latin) was a brimless, felt cap worn in Illyria, Ancient Greece and surrounding regions, later also introduced in Ancient Rome. The Greek πιλίδιον (pilidion) and Latin pilleolus were smaller versions, similar to a skullcap. The plis, an Albanian felt cap, originated from a similar felt cap worn by the Illyrians, and is worn even today in Albania, Kosovo and surrounding regions.

Printer's hat

A printer's (or carpenter's or pressman's) hat is a traditional, box-shaped, folded paper hat, formerly worn by craft tradesmen such as carpenters, masons, painters and printers.

In his illustration for Through the Looking-Glass, John Tenniel's carpenter wears a hat of this type.

Several self-portraits of Eric Gill, and a photograph by Howard Coster, in the National Portrait Gallery collection, show him wearing what appears to be a printer's hat.

Reed Painter

The Reed Painter (fl. 420s–410s BC) is an anonymous Greek vase painter of white-ground lekythoi, a type of vessel for containing oil often left as grave offerings. Works are attributed to either the "Reed Painter" or his atelier.

The vessels of the Reed Painter are typical of white-ground lekythoi in that they often focus on real people, in contrast to the earlier black-figure tradition that featured scenes of mythical figures pertaining to Dionysiac cult. The purpose of the lekythos is often reflected in its subject matter. This artist's most common theme is a scene depicting a visit to a tomb. The figures, usually a woman bringing offerings or a youth leaning on a spear, display quiet dignity rather than emotion. The tomb, topped by a pediment, provides important evidence for funerary monuments in Attica at the time. The artist takes his name from his characteristic use of reeds in the landscape, particularly in depictions of Charon, the ferryman of the dead in Greek mythology.A lekythos by the Reed Painter is one of only a few white-figure examples that depict a horseman at a tomb; unusually, the youth sits at the tomb with his horse rather than riding it. He may be an ephebe in training for the cavalry, as he wears the black cloak (chlamys) that was characteristic attire for the Athenian ephebe at certain processions and festivals. He also wears a helmet in the shape of the petasos, a hat typically worn by travelers, the metal version of which appears on Athenian reliefs and is known from archaeology. He carries two hunting spears, and not the kamax, the long thin spear principally used by Greek cavalry.Around the turn of the 21st century a number of the artist's lekythoi were discovered in a mass burial of plague victims in Athens. Work from the atelier of the Reed Painter is concentrated in Attica, though a few examples have been found as exports to Gela and Corinth.The Reed Painter worked in true white-ground technique, in which polychrome figures are outlined on the white ground, first in a dilute brown glaze and then in a more-fluid matt black or red. Women's skin was painted white on white, with solid colors on garments. The colors — including bright red, yellow, purple, blue, and green — were added after firing. The unstable pigments have flaked away and often left figures on surviving vases with the appearance of nudity when they were intended to be clothed.

Smoking cap

Smoking caps, otherwise known as thinking caps and lounging caps, are caps worn by men while smoking to stop their hair from smelling of smoke. They are also worn to keep the head warm. They were popular in 19th-century England and usually used by gentlemen in the privacy of their home. They are often worn with a smoking jacket. They are probably of Chinese, Arabic, or Turkish origin. They are similar to the fez, and the kufi.

Turms

In Etruscan religion, Turms (usually written as 𐌕𐌖𐌓𐌌𐌑 Turmś in the Etruscan alphabet) was the equivalent of Roman Mercury and Greek Hermes, both gods of

trade and the messenger god between people and gods. He was depicted with the same distinctive attributes as Hermes and Mercury: a caduceus, a petasos (often winged), and/or winged sandals. He is portrayed as a messenger of the gods, particularly Tinia (Jupiter), although he is also thought to be ‘at the service’ (ministerium) of other deities.Etruscan artwork often depicts Turms in his role as psychopomp, conducting the soul into the afterlife. In this capacity he is sometimes shown on Etruscan sarcophagi—in one case side by side with Charun and Cerberus. In another depiction, in which the god is labelled as 𐌕𐌖𐌓𐌌𐌑 𐌀𐌉𐌕𐌀𐌑 Turmś Aitaś or ‘Turms of Hades’, he brings the shade of Tiresias to consult with Odysseus in the underworld. Turms also appears in images depicting the Judgement of Paris, as well as in scenes with Hercle (Heracles) or Perseus.The name Turms is of distinctively Etruscan origin, like that of Fufluns but in contrast to deities such as Hercle and Aplu (Apollo), whose names were borrowed from Greek.Turms is known more from decoration on everyday objects, such as mirrors, than from cult images, although one dedication has been taken to indicate the existence of a temple of Turms at Cortona.Bernard Combet-Farnoux interprets comments by Servius and Macrobius as indicating that “Hermes-Turms” had the epithet Camillus, meaning ‘servant’ (i.e. of the other deities). A scholium on Callimachus adds that “Cadmilos is Hermes in Tyrrhenia”; Combet-Farnoux considers Camillus and Cadmilos to be variants of the same name.Turms is also the name of a character in a historical novel by Mika Waltari, The Etruscan, which takes place during the end of Etruscan civilization.

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