Peruvian Navy

The Peruvian Navy (Spanish: Marina de Guerra del Perú, abbreviated MGP, literally "Peruvian War Navy") is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) from the Peruvian littoral. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations.

The Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates the anniversary of its creation in 1821 on October 8 and also commemorates the decisive Battle of Angamos, the final part of the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile at the end of 1879.

Peruvian Navy
Marina de Guerra del Perú
Emblem of the Peruvian Navy
Coat of arms of the Peruvian Navy
Active8 October 1821 – today
CountryPeru
AllegianceMinistry of Defense
BranchNavy
Size25,988 active personnel 51 ships, 33 aircraft
Naval headquartersCallao naval base, Peru
PatronMiguel Grau Seminario
AnniversariesOctober 8 – Navy's Foundation Day and Anniversary of the Battle of Angamos
Fleet6 Submarines
1 Cruisers
7 Frigates
6 Corvettes
2 landing ships, tank
6 River gunboats
2 Training Ships
(21 Auxiliaries)
EngagementsGran Colombia-Peru War

War of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation
Chincha Islands War
War of the Pacific

Ecuadorian–Peruvian War
Commanders
Commander-in-ChiefNicolás Ríos Polastri[1]
Insignia
Flag
Flag of the Peruvian Navy
Naval ensign
Flag of Peru (state)
Naval jack
Naval Jack of Peru
Roundel
Roundel of Peru - Naval Aviation
Low-visibility roundel
Roundel of Peru - Naval Aviation - Low Visibility

History

19th century

Angamos2
Battle of Angamos, 8 October 1879

The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on 8 October 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín. Its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence (1821–1824) using captured Spanish warships. The Peruvian Naval Infantry was also formed during the war with Spain, performing successfully in their first battle where they seized Arica from the Spanish.[2]

Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia (1828–1829) during which it conducted a blockade against the seaport of Guayaquil and then helped with the occupation of this city by Peruvian forces. It saw further action during the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy (1836–1839) and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain (1866).

The breakout of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison with the Chilean Navy. Even so, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau, commander of the ironclad Huáscar, delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos.

20th century

Following the War of the Pacific, the Peruvian Navy had to be rebuilt from the ground up. In 1900 the force amounted to only one cruiser of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven steamer, and ten smaller ships – the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value".[3] The lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition in the United Kingdom of the scout cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930) a Navy Ministry was established as well as a Navy Aviation Corps, both in 1920.

Border conflicts with Colombia in 1911 and 1932 and a war with Ecuador in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the Army. The attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and even though Peru did not declare war on the Axis until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945.

During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme[4] which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy. The navy purchased one cruiser the BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) from the Netherlands, eight Carvajal-class frigates from Italy – four newly purchased and four ex-Lupo-class frigates – as well as six PR-72P-class corvettes from France. The buildup proved to be temporary due to the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s, forcing the decommissioning of several warships and resulting in a general lack of funds for maintenance.

The economic upturn of the 1990s and into the 2000s would later permit some improvement, although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s.

21st century

BAP Almirante Grau (FM-53)
BAP Almirante Grau (FM-53), current fleet flagship

Into the 21st century, the Peruvian Navy began to modernize their ships. In 2008, the Type 209/1100 submarines were modernized[5] while the Carvajal-class frigates began to be modernized in 2011.[6] The Type 209/1200 submarines began to be modernized in late-2017 beginning with the BAP Chipana (SS-34).[5]

SIMA has continued to construct ships for the Navy. In 2013, SIMA partnered with Posco Daewoo Corporation and Daesun Shipbuilding of South Korea to construct two Makassar-class landing platform docks.[7] The BAP Pisco (AMP-156), recently launched on 25 April 2017, as well as the BAP Paita which is currently under construction will provide Peru with increased expeditionary warfare capabilities, with the ability to accommodate multiple Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel, newly purchased LAV IIs and helicopters.[7][8]

In 2018, a modernization program was initiated to upgrade Peru's Type 209/1200 submarines, the BAP Chipana, BAP Angamos, BAP Antofagasta and BAP Pisagua, with a contract with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems being made for further assistance with SIMA.[9]

Organization

The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Admiral Nicolas Rios Polastri. Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces. They are organized as follows:

Operational units are divided between three commands:

Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico

Pacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units:

  • Fuerza de Superficie (Surface Force)
  • Fuerza de Submarinos (Submarine Force)
  • Fuerza de Aviación Naval (Naval Aviation Force)
  • Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force)
  • Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (Special Operations Force)
Comandancia General de Operaciones de la Amazonía

Amazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon Basin.

Dirección General de Capitanías y Guardacostas

Directive General of Captains and Coast Guard, oversees Coast Guard operations

Coast Guard

PRESIDENTE DE LA REPÚBLICA DESTACA CAPACIDAD INDUSTRIAL DE LA MARINA DE GUERRA (33189918716)
BAP Río Quilca (PM-207) of the Peruvian Coast Guard
Bell AB-212 Peruvian Navy
AVINAV Bell AB-212 with fast-roping Marines
Peruvian Marines
Peruvian Marines of various specialties

Coast Guard, tasked with law enforcement on Peruvian territorial waters, rivers and lakes. The Peruvian Coast Guard often performs anti-drug trafficking operations within the nation's waters.

Naval Aviation

The Naval Aviation Force (in Spanish): (Fuerza de Aviación Naval, AVINAV) is the air branch of the Peruvian Navy, its roles include anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, maritime surveillance, reconnaissance and transport of marine personnel. It is also responsible for airborne operations of the Peruvian Marines.

Naval Infantry

Naval Infantry Brigade
Other units
  • 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion – Tumbes
  • 4th Naval Infantry Battalion – Puno
  • 1st Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion – Iquitos
  • 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion – Pucallpa
  • Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral SurMollendo

Bases

Callao naval base
Callao naval base.

Although most of the fleet is based at Callao, this has not been considered an ideal location since it is also the main outlet for Peruvian trade, causing space and security problems. In the 1980s the building of a new naval base at Chimbote was considered though high costs and a poor economic situation made the project unfeasible.[10]

Personnel

BAP Mariátegui CIC
Standing watch on BAP Mariátegui (FM-54).
Peruvian submarine crew
Submarine crew saluting while at sea.
Personnel (as of 2001)[11]
Commissioned Officers 2,107
Non-commissioned officers 16,863
Cadets 620
NCO in training 1,533
Enlisted 4,855
Civilians 5,079
Total 25,988 (excl. civilians)

Ranks

  • Ranks of the officers of the Navy[12]
  • Ranks of the sub-officers of the Navy[13]
  • Ranks of the enlisted of the navy[14]

Ships

Current ships

Ship Origin Type Class In service Notes
Submarines (5 in service)
BAP Angamos (SS-31) Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes ex-BAP Casma.
BAP Antofagasta (SS-32) Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes
BAP Pisagua (SS-33) Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes
BAP Chipana (SS-34) Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 No ex-BAP Blume. Currently being upgraded.[5]
BAP Islay (SS-35) Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1100 Yes Upgraded in 2008
BAP Arica (SS-36) Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1100 Yes Upgraded in 2008
Guided missile frigates (7 in service)
BAP Villavicencio (FM-52) Italy guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate Yes
BAP Almirante Grau (FM-53) Peru guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate Yes BAP Montero until 2017, when became fleet flagship
BAP Mariátegui (FM-54) Peru guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate Yes
BAP Aguirre (FM-55) Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Orsa (F-567), overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard along with BAP Bolognesi. Currently in sea trials.
BAP Palacios (FM-56) Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Lupo (F-564)
BAP Bolognesi (FM-57) Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Perseo (F-566), overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard with locally-made CMS and ESM systems, a Kronos NV 3D radar, MASS countermeasures system and 4 MM40 Block III Exocet missiles replacing Otomat.[15]
BAP Quiñones (FM-58) Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Sagittario (F-565)
Guided missile corvettes (6 in service)
BAP Velarde (CM-21) France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Santillana (CM-22) France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP De los Heros (CM-23) France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Herrera (CM-24) France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Larrea (CM-25) France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Sánchez Carrión (CM-26) France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
Amphibious (3 in service, 1 in construction)
BAP Pisco (AMP-156) Peru Landing Platform, Dock Makassar class Yes Ordered in July 13, 2013; launched in April 25, 2017; commissioned in June 21, 2018[16].
BAP Paita (AMP-157) Peru Landing Platform, Dock Makassar class No ordered in March 15, 2018; laid down in December 2017[17]
BAP Callao (DT-143) United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Washoe County
BAP Eten (DT-144) United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Traverse County
River gunboats vessels (6 in service)
BAP Loreto (CF-11) United States River gunboat Loreto class Yes
BAP Amazonas (CF-12) United States River gunboat Loreto class Yes
BAP Marañón (CF-13) United Kingdom River gunboat Marañón class Yes
BAP Ucayali (CF-14) United Kingdom River gunboat Marañón class Yes
BAP Clavero (CF-15) Peru River gunboat Clavero class Yes severely damaged by an uncontrolled fire in her first operational deployment on May 25, 2010; leaving two crewmen badly injured.[18] Returned to service on July 27, 2012 during the BRACOLPER 2012 exercise.[19]
BAP Castilla (CF-16) Peru River gunboat Clavero class Yes laid down on April 9, 2010 in the SIMA Iquitos shipyard, launched on June 8, 2013 and commissioned on March 14, 2016, second and final ship of its class, has some improvements over its sister ship, mainly in armament[20]
Training ships (2 in service)
BAP Unión (BEV-161) Peru Sail training ship Yes laid down on December 8, 2012 in the SIMA Callao shipyard, commissioned January 27, 2016, with an estimated cost of US$50 millions.[21][22]
BAP Marte (ALY-313) Canada Sailing yacht Yes assigned to the Peruvian Naval School as a training ship
Tugs and support ships (5 in service)
BAP Unanue (AMB-160) United States Diving support ship Sotoyomo class Yes ex-USS Wateree
BAP San Lorenzo (ART-323) Germany Torpedo recovery vessel Yes
BAP Morales (RAS-180) Peru Diving support offshore tugboat Morales class Yes ordered in 2014, 50 TBP class locally designed tugboat, equipped to support diving, firefighting and rescue operations.[23] Delivered in November 2016
BAP Selendón Peru Harbour tugboat 20 TBP class tug Yes Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011.[24] Delivered in the first quarter of 2012.
BAP Medina Peru Harbour tugboat 20 TBP class tug Yes Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011. Delivered in late 2012.[24]
Tankers and barges (4 in service)
BAP Caloyeras (ACA-111) United States Water barge YW-83 class Yes ex-US YW-128
BAP Noguera (ACP-118) United States Fuel barge YO type Yes ex-US YO-221
BAP Gauden (ACP-119) United States Fuel barge YO type Yes ex-US YO-171
BAP Tacna (ARL-158) Netherlands Replenishment Ship Amsterdam class Yes ex-HNLMS Amsterdam
Built in 1995, acquired in July 2014 from the Royal Netherlands Navy, commissioned on December 4, 2014 at the Den Helder naval base, Netherlands.[25]
Hospital vessels (5 in service)
BAP Morona (ABH-302) Peru River hospital ship Morona class Yes
BAP Corrientes (ABH-303) Peru Small river hospital craft Yes
BAP Curaray (ABH-304) Peru Small river hospital craft Yes
BAP Pastaza (ABH-305) Peru Small river hospital craft Yes
BAP Puno (ABH-306) United Kingdom Lake hospital ship Yavarí class Yes ex-Yapura
operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
Scientific research vessels (6 in service)
BAP Carrasco (BOP-171) Spain Oceanographic research ship NC-704 class Yes 95-m long steel-hulled vessel designed to operate in the Antarctic region as well as in Peruvian waters. Construction contract signed in December 2014 with Freire Shipyard. Keel-laying scheduled for June 22, 2015, to be delivered July 2016.[26] Commissioned in May 2017.[27]
BAP Stiglich (AH-172) Peru Hydrographic survey ship Morona class Yes
BAP Zimic (COMBSH-173) Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship Dokkum class Yes ex-HNLMS Abcoude minesweeper. ex-BAP Carrasco, repowered in 2006 with 2 Volvo Penta engines at SIMA Callao, in 2015 received a high power multibeam echosounder.
BAP La Macha (AEH-174) Peru Hydrographic survey ship Yes
BAP Carrillo (AH-175) Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship van Straelen class Yes ex-HNLMS van Hamel minesweeper
BAP Melo (AH-176) Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship van Straelen class Yes ex-HNLMS van der Wel minesweeper. Repowered in 2006 with 2 Volvo Penta engines at SIMA Callao.

Museum Ships

Vessel Origin Type Class Decommissioned Notes
BAP América (RH-90) United Kingdom River gunboat América class restored at SIMA Iquitos shipyard, on display in Clavero naval station.
BAP Abtao (SS-42) United States Sierra-type submarine[28] Abtao class 1998 become a museum ship in 2004

Recently Decommissioned Ships

Vessel Origin Type Class Decommissioned Notes
BAP Bayovar (ATP-154) Russia Oil tanker Grigoriy Nesterenko type 2017 ex-Petr Schmidt, auctioned in March 21, 2018[29]
BAP Zorritos (ATP-155) Russia Oil tanker Grigoriy Nesterenko type 2017 ex-Grigoriy Nesterenko, auctioned in March 21, 2018[29]
BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) Netherlands Cruiser De Zeven Provinciën class 26 September 2017[30] ex-HNLMS De Ruyter (C801)
BAP Guardian Rios (ARA-123) United States Offshore tugboat Cherokee class 2015 ex-USS Pinto, inactive since 2014, to be scrapped
BAP Dueñas (ARB-126) United States Harbour tugboat PC-461-class 2015 ex-USS PC-1138, decommissioned in 1956 and sold, then first converted into icebreaker and finally into a tugboat (hull shortened), acquired by the Peruvian Navy in 1984. Inactive since 2014, to be scrapped[31]
BAP Unión (ABE-161) Peru Transport ship Ilo class December 2014 ex-BAP Mollendo (ATC-131). Decommissioned in late 2014, towed to be scrapped in Ecuador.
BAP Carvajal (FM-51) Italy guided missile frigate Carvajal-class frigate 26 December 2013 Transferred to the Coast Guard under the name BAP Guardiamarina San Martin (PO-201) after being stripped down of its missile weaponry and main radar, reclassified as Patrullera Oceánica (Offshore patrol vessel).[32]
BAP Paita (DT-141) United States Tank landing ship Terrebonne Parish class September 2012 ex-USS Walworth County (LST-1164), sunk as a target during the exercise Independencia
BAP Pisco (DT-142) United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class 2012 ex-USS Waldo County (LST-1163), scrapped that year after sold.
BAP Ferré (DM-74) United Kingdom Guided-missile destroyer Daring class 13 July 2007[33] ex-HMS Decoy
BAP Talara (ATP-152) Peru Replenishment tanker Talara class 12 August 2008[34] capable of underway replenishment at sea from the stern
BAP Lobitos (ATP-153) United States Oil tanker Sealift Pacific class 20 July 2008[35] ex-USNS Sealift Caribbean (T-AOT-174)

Equipment

Name Origin Type Version Used by Notes
Naval artillery
Oto Melara 127/54 Compact Gun Italy dual-purpose naval gun 127/54 Compact Lupo-class
Oto Melara 76/62 Compact Gun Italy dual-purpose naval gun 76/62 Compact PR-72P-class
Oto Melara Twin 40 Compact Gun Italy Close-in weapon system (CIWS) Twin Forty Lupo-class
PR-72P-class
Makassar-class
Anti-ship missiles
MBDA Otomat Italy Anti-ship missile (AShM) Otomat II Block 3 Lupo-class on December 8, 2008 an updated Otomat missile was successfully launched from BAP Aguirre, hit a target at a range in excess of 150 km (93 mi).[36]
MBDA Exocet France Anti-ship missile (AShM) MM40 Block 3 Lupo-class four fire control systems and sixteen missiles ordered on December 15, 2010.[37] Scheduled to be installed in the 4 Aguirre class frigates.
MBDA Exocet France Anti-ship missile (AShM) MM38 PR-72P-class
MBDA Exocet France Anti-ship missile (AShM) AM39 Block 1 ASH-3D Sea King Land-based. Currently not embarked in any surface unit of the Peruvian Navy
Surface-to-air missile
MBDA Aspide Italy Surface-to-air missile (SAM) Aspide 1A Lupo-class
9K38 Igla Russia MANPADS 9K310 Igla-1 PR-72P-class
Peruvian Naval Infantry
used in MGP-86 mount for close air defence
to be replaced with the FN-6 missile system
FN-6 China MANPADS FN-6 Peruvian Naval Infantry a small batch acquired in July 2009 for US$1.1 million[38]
Torpedoes
Atlas Elektronik SUT Germany 533 mm heavyweight torpedo SUT 264 Type 209 submarine
Atlas Elektronik SST Germany 533 mm heavyweight torpedo SST-4 mod 0 Type 209 submarine
Mark 44 torpedo United States 324 mm lightweight torpedo Mk 44 mod 1 Lupo-class
AB-212ASW
ASH-3D
Alenia-Whitehead A244/S Italy 324 mm lightweight torpedo A244/S Lupo-class
AB-212ASW
ASH-3D

Peacekeeping operations

The Peruvian Navy has been actively involved in several United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. As of June 2006 Naval Infantry and Special Operations troops have been deployed to United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) (embedded in the Argentine forces[39] ) and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Peruvian naval officers have also been deployed to United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI), United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as United Nations Militar Observers (UNMOs). By 2012 the Peruvian Navy sent its first officer to serve in United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei.

Gallery

BAP Carvajal Unitas 46-05

BAP Carvajal (FM-51).

BAP Sanchez Carrion Unitas 45-04

BAP Sánchez Carrión (CM-26).

Peruvian submarines during an exercise

Submarines BAP Pisagua (SS-33), BAP Chipana (SS-34), and BAP Islay (SS-35).

BAP Callao Unitas 45-04

Naval infantry coming ashore from BAP Callao (DT-143).

BAP Mollendo (ATC 131)

BAP Mollendo (ATC-131).

NUEVAS EMBARCACIONES LLEVARÁN SEGURIDAD Y PROGRESO A LAS CUENCAS AMAZÓNICAS. (25053006414)

BAP Clavero and BAP Castilla berthed in Iquitos Naval Base

BAP Unión (Callao)

BAP Unión leaving the Callao harbour

See also

Notes

  1. ^ PERÚ, Empresa Peruana de Servicios Editoriales S. A. EDITORA. "Peru Gov't names new Air Force and Navy general commanders". andina.pe.
  2. ^ "Comandancia de Fuerzas de Infanteria – Marina de Guerra del Perú". marina.mil.pe. Marina de Guerra del Perú. Archived from the original on December 29, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
  3. ^ Keltie, J. S., ed. (1900). The Statesman's Year Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1900. New York: MacMillan. p. 887. (Retrieved via Google Books 3/4/11.)
  4. ^ "Armed Forces Strength in selected years, 1829 – 1992". Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c "Peruvian Navy begins Type 209/1200 submarine modernization". Naval Today. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  6. ^ "Marina de Guerra del Perú | COMOPERPAC". Peruvian Navy. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Peru launched its First LPD – BAP Pisco Landing Platform Dock". Navy Recognition. May 4, 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2017.
  8. ^ "GDLS culmina las entregas de LAV II a la Infantería de Marina peruana-noticia defensa.com". Defensa.com. August 19, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2017.
  9. ^ "Peruvian Navy begins Type 209/1200 submarine modernization". Naval Today. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  10. ^ "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 1985.
  11. ^ [1], based on Supreme Decree DS No. 69 DE/SG of 2001. Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ [2] Archived April 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ [3] Archived February 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ [4] Archived July 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Fish, Tim (June 29, 2011). "Briefing: South America Naval Capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly: 289.
  16. ^ Sanchez, Alejandro. "Peruvian Navy commissions BAP Pisco". Jane's 360. IHS. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  17. ^ Sanchez, Alejandro. "Peru to construct second landing platform vessel". Jane's 360. IHS. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  18. ^ "Dos heridos deja incendio de BAP "Clavero" en el río Putumayo, informan" (in Spanish). Andina. May 25, 2010. Archived from the original on March 5, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  19. ^ Marina de Guerra del Perú (August 2, 2012). "Perú: Unidades fluviales de Brasil y Colombia participaron en el ejercicio BRACOLPER 2012" (in Spanish). Base Naval. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  20. ^ "Marina de Guerra del Perú entregó PIAS "Río Putumayo II" y Cañonera Fluvial B.A.P "Castilla" (CF-16) en eficaz contribución a los programas de inclusión social del Estado". Peruvian Navy Website. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  21. ^ "Servicios Industriales de la Marina construirán Buque Escuela a Vela". Peruvian Navy. December 7, 2012. Archived from the original on April 16, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  22. ^ Benvenuto, Carlos Ramírez (December 6, 2012). "Un nuevo buque escuela para la Marina y el Perú" (PDF). El Comercio (in Spanish). Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  23. ^ "Positivos avances en construcción del Remolcador Auxiliar de Salvamento B.A.P. "Morales" RAS-180". Peruvian Navy Website. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved May 2, 2016.
  24. ^ a b "NotiSIMA Año 5, Edición 31" (PDF) (in Spanish). SIMA. July 17, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  25. ^ "En Holanda, se afirmó el Pabellón Nacional del Buque Logístico B.A.P. Tacna" (in Spanish). Peruvian Navy. Archived from the original on December 13, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  26. ^ Ing, David; Toremans, Guy. "Spain's Freire shipyard set to cut steel on Peru's new survey ship". IHS. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
  27. ^ Toremans, Guy (May 9, 2017). "Peruvian Navy commissions new multirole oceanographic research vessel". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on May 10, 2017. Retrieved May 10, 2017.
  28. ^ Historic Naval Ships Association BAP ABTAO (SS-42) Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ a b "Venta por Subasta Pública Nro. 001-2018 – DIRBINFRATER". Marina de Guerra del Perú. Retrieved July 28, 2018.
  30. ^ Sanchez, Alejandro (September 26, 2017). "Peruvian Navy designates new flagship". Jane's 360. IHS. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
  31. ^ "Lapeer (PC 1138) ex-PC-1138". NavSource Online: Submarine Chaser Photo Archive. NavSource Naval History. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  32. ^ "Marina de Guerra del Perú realizará ceremonia de Zarpe de Expedición Científica a la Antártida – ANTAR XXII, Colocación de la Quilla del Remolcador Auxiliar de Salvamento y Patrullera Marítima, Transferencia del BAP Carvajal a DICAPI". Peruvian Navy. Archived from the original on December 27, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
  33. ^ "Supreme Decree No. 014-2007-DE/MGP" (PDF). (1.33 MB). July 13, 2007.
  34. ^ "Supreme Decree No. 018-2008-DE/MGP" (PDF). (361 KB). August 23, 2009.
  35. ^ "Supreme Decree No. 014-2008-DE/MGP" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 8, 2011. (84.9 KB). August 23, 2009.
  36. ^ "Peruvian Navy Carries Out Record Breaking Launch". Jean Dupont. MBDA. December 17, 2008. Archived from the original on June 11, 2009. Retrieved September 7, 2009.
  37. ^ "PCM transfiere más de S/. 114 millones para adquisición de material militar" (in Spanish). Andina. December 15, 2010. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  38. ^ "Perú: Adquisición de misiles MANPADS". Alejo Marchessini. Defensa.com. July 27, 2009. Archived from the original on May 1, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
  39. ^ "UNFICYP Facts and Figures – United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus". United Nations. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2014.

Sources

  • Baker III, Arthur D., The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2002–2003.
    Naval Institute Press, 2002.
  • Basadre, Jorge, Historia de la República del Perú. Editorial Universitaria, 1983.
  • "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 855: 31 (June 17, 1985).
  • Ortiz Sotelo, Jorge, Apuntes para la historia de los submarinos peruanos. Biblioteca Nacional, 2001.
  • Rial, Juan, Los militares tras el fin del régimen de Fujimori-Montesinos.
  • "Los Programas de Renovacion y Modernizacion de la Marina de Guerra del Peru", Alejo Marchessini – Revista Fuerzas de Defensa y Seguridad (FDS) N° 430. Paginas 32 a 35.
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