Perugia Papacy

Perugia was a long-time papal residence during the 13th century. Five popes were elected here: Pope Honorius III (1216–1227), Pope Clement IV (1265–1268), Pope Honorius IV (1285–1287), Pope Celestine V (1294), and Pope Clement V (1305–1314).[1] These elections took place in the Palazzo delle Canoniche adjoining the Perugia Cathedral.

The Cathedral contained the tombs of Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), Pope Urban IV (1261–1264), and Pope Martin IV (1281–1285).[1] These were destroyed by Gérard du Puy, the cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI (1370–1378).[2]

During du Puy's tenure as papal governor during the War of the Eight Saints he pillaged the Duomo construction site for materials for his private fortress.[3] According to Heywood, due to du Puy's construction, "so certain did it appear that the Papal Curia was about to be transferred to Perugia that foreign merchants began to negotiate for the hire of shops and warehouses in the city."[3] The tomb of Pope Benedict XI (1303–1304) is still extant in S. Domenico.

Lorenzo maitani (attr.), monumento di benedetto XI, 1305 circa, 01
The tomb of Pope Benedict XI in Perugia

Overview

At least five popes spent significant periods of residence in Perugia.

Gregory IX bas-relief in the U.S. House of Representatives chamber

Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241) resided in Perugia from June 1228-February 1230 and 1234-December 1236.

Innocent IV - Council of Lyon - 002r detail

Pope Innocent IV (1243-1254) resided in Perugia from November 1251 – 1253.

Pope Urban IV

Pope Urban IV (1261-1264) resided in Perugia in 1264 until his death.

B Benedikt XI

Pope Benedict XI (1303-1304) resided in Perugia until his death in July 1304.

IX.Bonifac

Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404) resided in Perugia from September 1392 until July 1393

Background

Pope Zacharias convinced Lombard King Ratchis to abandon his siege of the city in 749.[1] The city was also included in the "Donation of Pepin", and thus added to the Papal States.[1]

History as a papal residence

Innocent III

Pope Innocent III (1198–1216) was in Perugia in September 1198 to consecrate S. Lorenzo; by October, he had left for Todi.[4] Innocent III died in Perugia in 1216, where the cardinals gathered to elect Honorius III.

Gregory IX

According to Heywood,

"During their relentless persecution of the second Frederick, the popes, and especially Gregory IX, were often resident in Perugia. There they were able to mature their ambitious schemes in safety; while the city that sheltered and protected them reaped a rich reward for its loyalty in praise and privileges. Thither, in June, 1228, came Gregory, driven from Rome by a Ghibelline revolt; and thence he directed the invasion of the Kingdom of Naples. He was still in Perugia when, in May, 1229, Frederick landed at Brindisi, and, unfurling the Banner of the Cross against the Banner of the Keys, repelled and defeated the conquering armies of the Church. Only in February, 1230, did the pope return to Rome, and, in 1234, he was again in Perugia, where he remained until December, 1236."[5]

According to Heywood, Perugia "virtually assumed the position of Papal Vicar in Umbria."[6] The two apparently had a falling out by the time of Martin IV, who excommunicated the entire city of Perugia for disobeying his order not to exact vengeance upon the Bishopric of Foligno, and he and his cardinals were burned in effigy in Perugia.[7]

Innocent IV

After the death of Frederick II, Pope Innocent IV (1243–1254) returned to Italy and reached Perugia in November 1251.[8] He did not resume his journey towards Rome until 1253, when he was summoned by Senator Brancaleone.[8] According to Heywood,

"During his residence in Perugia, he did all in his power to prove his gratitude for her unwavering loyalty, and, in a Privilege of the 3rd of October, 1252, which was addressed to the Bishop of the city and which is still preserved among the municipal archives, he recalls the exceeding great affliction and labor which she had endured 'pro fidei puritate atque devotionis sinceritate servanda erga Romanam Ecclesiam matrem suam.' Moreover, during those prosperous years, Perugia reasserted her authority over many towns which through fear of the Emperor she had permitted to throw off their allegiance."[9]

Urban IV

Pope Urban IV (1261–1264) resided in Perugia in 1264, while fleeing with his Curia from Pietro Di Vico, who was planning to ambush him in Orvieto.[10] Urban Iv remained in Perugia until his death.

Benedict XI

Pope Benedict XI (1303–1304) took refuge in Perugia upon his election where he died in July 1304, triggering an eleven-month election in the "Palazzo del Papa."[11] Pope Clement V (1305–1314) was elected, who moved the papacy to Avignon, causing the Avignon Papacy.[11]

Boniface IX

Pope Boniface IX (1389–1404) resided in Perugia from September 1392 until 1393 during the Western Schism.[12] His legate, Pileo, the archbishop of Ravenna, had been guarding the citadel and the city in his absence.[12] While in the city, Boniface IX recalled the Guelphic exiles and achieved a military victory against Giovanni Sciarra da Vico.[12] One of these exiles was murdered in the streets in July 1393 and Pandolfo de' Baglioni, a noble, interfered with the Podesta's ability to hand down a sentence; in retaliation, an angry mob killed Pandolfo and much of his family.[12] As the city erupted in violence, the pope and his aides fled to Assisi.[12]

Papal Palace

A portion of the Canonica (rectory), which had previously been "invaded" by the civic magistrates, was occupied by the popes, and later became known as the Palazzo del Papa; it was later used as the residence of the papal governor (Palazzo del Governatore).[13] The Canonica was connected to the Bishop's Palace by massive arches which now comprise the Via delle Volte.[13] The Great Hall was capable of seating 600 persons.[13] The palace, then the residence of the papal governor, burned to the ground in 1534.[14] Pope Pius IV (1559-1565) granted the site and the remains to Cardinal Fulvio della Corgna.[14]

The Piazza della Paglia was renamed Piazza del Papa in 1816, when a statute of Pope Julius III (1550–1555) was moved there.[15]

Later papal relations

In 1375, Perugia was one of the first cities to join Florence in rebellion against Gregory XI in the War of the Eight Saints.[1] Pope Boniface IX (1389–1404) reclaimed the city in 1403.[1] In 1416, Pope Martin V (1417–1431) recognized Braccio da Montone as lord of Perugia.[1] Pope Julius II (1503–1513) conquered Gian Paolo Baglione in the city in 1506, and Pope Leo X (1513–1521) ordered him decapitated in 1520.[1] Thereafter, Perugia was again an immediate dependency of the Holy See.[1] The city rebelled against Pope Paul III's (1534–1549) salt tax in 1540.[1] Pierluigi Farnese suppressed the rebellion for Paul III, who built a fortress in the city.[1] Pope Julius III (1550–1555) restored many of the cities privileges thereafter.[1] When the Perugians rebelled again in 1848 they demolished Paul III's tower.[1] Pontifical troops retook the city again in 1859.[1]

Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903), a former bishop of Perugia, made the see an archdiocese upon his election.[1]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Perugia" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. ^ Keys to Umbria: City Walks. May 22, 2009 (retrieved). "Interior of the Duomo Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine".
  3. ^ a b Heywood, 1910, pp. 254-255.
  4. ^ Heywood, 1910, p. 65.
  5. ^ Heywood, 1910, pp. 69-70.
  6. ^ Heywood, 1910, p. 70.
  7. ^ Heywood, 1910, p. 74.
  8. ^ a b Heywood, 1910, p. 75.
  9. ^ Heywood, 1910, pp. 75-76.
  10. ^ Heywood, 1910, p. 77.
  11. ^ a b Heywood, 1910, p. 101.
  12. ^ a b c d e Creighton, 1882, A history of the papacy during the period of the reformation, Volume 1, p. 121-22.
  13. ^ a b c Heywood, 1910, p. 353.
  14. ^ a b Heywood, 1910, p. 350.
  15. ^ Heywood, 1910, p. 265.

References

Perugia

Perugia (Italian pronunciation: [peˈruːdʒa] (listen); Latin: Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.

The city is located about 164 kilometres (102 miles) north of Rome and 148 km (92 miles) southeast of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany, Lazio, and Marche.

The history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period; Perugia was one of the main Etruscan cities.

The city is also known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308 (about 34,000 students), the University for Foreigners (5,000 students), and some smaller colleges such as the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" (Italian: Accademia di Belle Arti "Pietro Vannucci") public athenaeum founded in 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded in 1788, and other institutes.

Perugia is also a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy. The city hosts multiple annual festivals and events, e.g., the Eurochocolate Festival (October), the Umbria Jazz Festival (July), and the International Journalism Festival (in April), and is associated with multiple notable people in the arts.

The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve, near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria.Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city) and one fresco. Another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia.

The city's symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city.

1st–4th centuries
During the Roman Empire (until 493)
including under Constantine (312–337)
5th–8th centuries
Ostrogothic Papacy (493–537)
Byzantine Papacy (537–752)
Frankish Papacy (756–857)
9th–12th centuries
Papal selection before 1059
Saeculum obscurum (904–964)
Crescentii era (974–1012)
Tusculan Papacy (1012–1044/1048)
Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)
13th–16th centuries
Viterbo (1257–1281)
Orvieto (1262–1297)
Perugia (1228–1304)
Avignon Papacy (1309–1378)
Western Schism (1378–1417)
Renaissance Papacy (1417–1534)
Reformation Papacy (1534–1585)
Baroque Papacy (1585–1689)
17th–20th centuries
Age of Enlightenment (c. 1640-1740)
Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848)
Roman Question (1870–1929)
Vatican City (1929–present)
21st century
History of the papacy

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