Perinthus

Perinthus or Perinthos (Ancient Greek: ἡ Πέρινθος)[1][2] was a great and flourishing town of ancient Thrace, situated on the Propontis. According to John Tzetzes, it bore at an early period the name of Mygdonia (Μυγδονία).

It lay 22 miles west of Selymbria, on a small peninsula[3] of the bay which bears its name, and was built like an amphitheatre, on the declivity of a hill.[4] It was originally a Samian colony,[5] and, according to George Syncellus, was founded about 599 BC.[6] German archaeologist Theodor Panofka, however, makes it contemporary with Samothrace, that is about 1000 BC.[7] It was particularly renowned for its obstinate defence against Philip V of Macedon[8][9] At that time it appears to have been a more important and flourishing town even than Byzantium and being both a harbour and a point at which several main roads met, it was the seat of extensive commerce.[10] This circumstance explains the reason why so many of its coins are still extant from which we learn that large and celebrated festivals were held here.[7]

After the fourth century AD it assumed the name of Heraclea or Heracleia (Ἡράκλεια);[11] which we find sometimes used alone, and sometimes with additions Heraclea Thraciae and Heraclea Perinthus.[10][12]

Justinian restored the old imperial palace, and the aqueducts of the city.[10] Coins of Perinthus have also survived.[13]

Its site is near modern Marmara Ereğlisi, in Turkey.[14][15]

Perinthus is located in the Aegean Sea area
Perinthus
Perinthus
Location of Perinthus.

References

  1. ^ Ptolemy. The Geography. 3.11.6, 8.11.7.
  2. ^ Xenophon, Anab. 7.2.8.
  3. ^ Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 4.18.
  4. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica (Historical Library). 16.76.
  5. ^ Marcian, p. 29; Plutarch, Qu. Gr. 56
  6. ^ George Syncellus, Chronicle, p. 238.
  7. ^ a b  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Perinthus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  8. ^ Diodorus Siculus. Bibliotheca historica (Historical Library). 16.74-77.
  9. ^ Plutarch Phoc. 14.
  10. ^ a b c Procopius de Aed. 4.9.
  11. ^ Tzetzes, Chil. 3.812.
  12. ^ Procopius, B. Vand. 1.12; Zosimus 1.62; Justin, 16.3; Eutrop. 9.15; Amm. Marc. 22.2; Itin. Ant. pp. 175, 176, 323.
  13. ^ "Perinthos, Thrace - Ancient Greek Coins". Wildwinds.com. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  14. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 52, and directory notes accompanying.
  15. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Perinthus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 40°58′15″N 27°57′16″E / 40.97089°N 27.95454°E

600s BC (decade)

This article concerns the period 609 BC – 600 BC.

Antigenes (general)

Antigenes (Ancient Greek: Ἀντιγένης; died 316 BC) was a general of Alexander the Great, who also served under Philip II of Macedon, and lost an eye at the siege of Perinthus (340 BC). After the death of Alexander in 323 he obtained the satrapy of Susiana. He was one of the commanders of the Argyraspides and, with his troops, took the side of Eumenes. On the defeat of Eumenes in 316, Antigenes fell into the hands of his enemy Antigonus, and was burnt alive by him.

Apollodorus (general)

Apollodorus was an Athenian general of the 4th century BCE. He commanded the Persian auxiliaries which the Athenians had solicited from the king of Persia, Artaxerxes III, against Philip of Macedon in 340. Artaxerxes, who was keen to block the advance of Philip, ordered his satraps to render all aid they could, and the satrap Arsites stepped in to provide mercenaries. Apollodorus became engaged with these troops in protecting the town of Perinthus (modern Marmara Ereğlisi) while Philip invaded its territory. Apollodorus's forces had laid in significant provisions, and successfully repelled the siege.Apollodorus was buried with civic honors in the Athenian Kerameikos.

Artaxerxes III

Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia (; Old Persian: 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 Artaxšaçā) (c. 425 BC – 338 BC) was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon and Nectanebo II in Egypt.

In his Historia Scholastica Petrus Comestor identified Artaxerxes III as the successor of Ahasuerus in the book of Esther (Esther 1:1/10:1).Before ascending the throne Artaxerxes was a satrap and commander of his father's army. Artaxerxes came to power after one of his brothers was executed, another committed suicide, the last murdered and his father, Artaxerxes II died. Soon after becoming king, Artaxerxes murdered all of the royal family to secure his place as king. He started two major campaigns against Egypt. The first campaign failed, and was followed up by rebellions throughout the western part of his empire. In 343 BC, Artaxerxes defeated Nectanebo II, the Pharaoh of Egypt, driving him from Egypt, stopping a revolt in Phoenicia on the way.

In Artaxerxes' later years, Philip II of Macedon's power was increasing in Greece, where he tried to convince the Greeks to revolt against the Achaemenid Empire. His activities were opposed by Artaxerxes, and with his support, the city of Perinthus resisted a Macedonian siege.

There is evidence for a renewed building policy at Persepolis in his later life, where Artaxerxes erected a new palace and built his own tomb, and began long-term projects such as the Unfinished Gate.

Battle of Tzirallum

The Battle of Tzirallum was one of the civil wars of the Tetrarchy fought on 30 April 313 between the Roman armies of emperors Licinius and Maximinus. The battle location was on the "Campus Serenus" at Tzirallum, identified as the modern-day town of Çorlu, in Tekirdağ Province, in the Turkish region of Eastern Thrace. Sources put the battle between 18 and 36 Roman miles from Heraclea Perinthus, the modern-day town of Marmara Ereğlisi.

Beodizo

Beodizo was a settlement and station (mutatio) of ancient Thrace, inhabited during Byzantine times.Its site is located 9 miles (14 km) northwest of Perinthus in European Turkey.

Caenophrurium

Caenophrurium (also written as Cænophrurium, Cenophrurium and Coenophrurium; Greek: Καινοφρούριον, Kainophrourion) was a settlement in the Roman province of Europa (the southeasternmost part of Thrace), between Byzantium and Heraclea Perinthus. It appears in late Roman and early Byzantine accounts. Caenophrurium translates as the "stronghold of the Caeni", a Thracian tribe.

Cercops

Cercops (Greek: Κέρκωψ) was one of the oldest Orphic poets. He was called a Pythagorean by Clement of Alexandria, which might have meant a Neopythagorean. Cicero, was said by Epigenes of Alexandria to have been the author of an Orphic epic poem entitled "the Descent to Hades" which seems to have been extant in the Alexandrian period. Others attribute this work to Prodicus of Samos, or Herodicus of Perinthus, or Orpheus of Camarina.Epigenes also assigns to Cercops the Orphic ἱερος λογός which was ascribed by some to Theognetus of Thessaly, and was a poem in twenty-four books.The book The works of Aristotle (1908, p. 80 Fragments) mentioned.

Aristotle says the poet Orpheus never existed; the Pythagoreans ascribe this Orphic poem to a certain Cercon (which likely means Cercops).

Daminon Teichos

Daminon Teichos (Ancient Greek: Δαμινόν τεῖχος), also Daunium or Daunion (Δαύνιον), was a Greek city in ancient Thrace, located in the region of the Propontis.It is cited in the Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax in its recitation of the towns of the area, appearing between Perinthus and Selymbria. It was a member of the Delian League and is cited on Athenian tribute registries between 454/3 and 418/7 BCE.Its site is not located exactly, but it has been suggested that the area is located in the current Turkish coast near Gümüsyaka.

Europa (Roman province)

Europa was a Roman province within the Diocese of Thrace.

Geomori (Samos)

The Geomori (Ancient Greek: Γεωμόροι, 'land-sharers') were a group of wealthy aristocrats who ruled Samos as an oligarchy in the seventh or sixth century BC. They remained an important political group on Samos into the fifth century BC.

Graphium arycles

Graphium arycles, the spotted jay, is a species of butterfly of the family Papilionidae found in the Indomalayan ecozone. It is scarce and likely to be found in the extreme north east of India. It is not known to be threatened but the nominate subspecies is protected by law in India.

Hestiaeus of Perinthus

Hestiaeus of Perinthus (Greek: Ἑστιαῖος Περίνθιος) was one of Plato's students.

List of Thracian Greeks

This is a list of ancient Greeks in Thrace

Lucius Fabius Cilo

Lucius Fabius Cilo, full name Lucius Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus, was a Roman senator of the second century. He was born in Hispania, around 150 AD.

It was between 180 and 184 he became the Legate for the XVI Flavia Firma; later, he served as military prefect, c. 187-189. Around 185, he became Proconsul of the Roman Province of Gallia Narbonensis and afterwards legate of III Gallica, about 189 to 192.

Cilo was made consul suffectus in 193. In this role, he provided for the tumulation of the body of Commodus in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, by order of Pertinax (Historia Augusta, "Commodus", xvii 4). The following year, during the rule of Septimius Severus, his intimate friend, Cilo fought against the usurper Pescennius Niger near Perinthus.

Nominated urban prefect for the year 203, he saved the life of procurator and, later, emperor Marcus Opellius Macrinus when his patron Gaius Fulvius Plautianus fell into disgrace (Cassius Dio, Roman History, lxxix). The next year he was nominated consul for the second time.

Cilo served also under Caracalla. When the emperor decided to kill his own brother and co-ruler Geta and Papinian, Cilo, who had counselled harmony between the brothers, was seized by the urbaniciani, and only after the soldiers had torn off his senator's robe and pulled off his boots, Caracalla stopped them. According to Cassius Dio:

He [Caracalla] also wished to take the life of Cilo, his tutor and benefactor, who had served as prefect of the city under his father, and whom he himself had often called "father." The soldiers who were sent to Cilo first plundered his silver plate, his robes, his money, and everything else of his, and then led him along the Sacred Way with the purpose of taking him to the palace and there putting him out of the way; he had only low slippers on his feet, since he had chanced to be in the bath when arrested, and was wearing a short tunic. The soldiers tore the clothing off his body and disfigured his face, so that the populace as well as the city troops began to make an outcry; accordingly, Antoninus, in awe and fear of them, met the party, and shielding Cilo with his cavalry cloak (he was wearing military dress), cried out: "Insult not my father! Strike not my tutor!" As for the military tribune who had been bidden to slay him and the detail of soldiers sent with him, they were put to death, ostensibly because they had plotted Cilo's destruction, but in reality because they had not killed him.

Antoninus pretended to love Cilo to such a degree that he declared, "Those who have plotted against him have plotted against me" [...] -- Cassius Dio, Roman History, lxxviii 4-5He married Cilonia Fabia.

A domus on the Aventine was given as a present by Severus to Cilo. This domus, showed also in the Forma Urbis Romae, is under the basilica and the monastery of Santa Balbina, and was close to the horti Ciloniae Fabiae.

Lucius Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus

Lucius Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus was a Roman senator, who held a number of offices in the imperial service during the reign of Antoninus Pius. He is known to have been a suffect consul in the early years of the reign of Marcus Aurelius, most likely in the year 162. He is known entirely from inscriptions.

His cursus honorum is partially known from an inscription set up at Marmaraereglisi / Perinthus in Thracia. Antiquus began his career as one of the decemviri stlitibus judicandis, one of the four boards that form the vigintiviri; membership in one of these four boards was a preliminary and required first step toward gaining entry into the Roman Senate. Next was commissioned military tribune with Legio III Gallica, which was stationed in Syria. He was appointed quaestor as a candidate of the emperor, and upon completion of this traditional Republican magistracy Antiquus would be enrolled in the Senate. Two more of the traditional Republican magistracies followed: plebeian tribune, then praetor around the year 150.

After stepping down as praetor, Antiquus was appointed curator of the viae tres Trajana: the Via Clodia, Via Cassia, and Via Ciminia; Alföldy dates this office from around the year 152 to around 155. Then he was commissioned legatus or commander of Legio I Minervia from around the year 155 to around 158. The third office he held before acceding to the consulate was as governor of the imperial province of Thracia, which Alföldy dates from around the year 158 to around 161.His life after he stepped down as consul is a blank.

Marmara Ereğlisi

Marmara Ereğlisi is a town, located in a district bearing the same name, in Tekirdağ Province in the Marmara region of Turkey.

The mayor was, as of January 2011, Uyan (CHP).

Selymbria

Selymbria (Greek: Σηλυμβρία), or Selybria (Σηλυβρία), or Selybrie (Σηλυβρίη), was a town of ancient Thrace town on the Propontis, 22 Roman miles east from Perinthus, and 44 Roman miles west from Constantinople, near the southern end of the wall built by Anastasius I Dicorus for the protection of his capital.According to Strabo, its name signifies "the town of Selys;" from which it has been inferred that Selys was the name of its founder, or of the leader of the colony from Megara, which founded it at an earlier period than the establishment of Byzantium, another colony of the same Greek city-state. In honour of Eudoxia, the wife of the emperor Arcadius, its name was changed to Eudoxiupolis or Eudoxioupolis (Εὐδοξιούπολις), which it bore for a considerable time; but the modern name of its site, Silivri, shows that it subsequently resumed its original designation.

Respecting the history of Selymbria, only detached and fragmentary notices occur in the Greek writers. In Latin authors, it is merely named; although Pliny the Elder reports that it was said to have been the birthplace of Prodicus, a disciple of Hippocrates. It was here that Xenophon met Medosades, the envoy of Seuthes II, whose forces afterwards encamped in its neighbourhood. When Alcibiades was commanding for the Athenians in the Propontis (410 BCE), the people of Selymbria refused to admit his army into the town, but gave him money, probably in order to induce him to abstain from forcing an entrance. Some time after this, however, he gained possession of the place through the treachery of some of the townspeople, and, having levied a contribution upon its inhabitants, left a garrison in it. Selymbria is mentioned by Demosthenes in 351 BCE, as in alliance with the Athenians; and it was no doubt at that time a member of the Byzantine confederacy. According to a letter of Philip II of Macedon, quoted in the oration de Corona, it was blockaded by him about 343 BCE; but others consider that this mention of Selymbria is one of the numberous proofs that the documents inserted in that speech are not authentic.In Christian times, Selymbria was the seat of an archbishop; no longer a residential see, it remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.Its site is located at Silivri in European Turkey.

Thracia

Thracia or Thrace (Θρᾴκη Thrakē) is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

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