Perga or Perge (Greek: Πέργη Perge, Turkish: Perge) was an ancient Anatolian city, once the capital of Pamphylia Secunda, now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Today, it is a large site of ancient ruins 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) east of Antalya on the coastal plain. An acropolis located there dates back to the Bronze Age.
Πέργη (in Ancient Greek)
Perge ‹See Tfd›(in Turkish)
Overview of Perga
Shown within Turkey
|Location||Aksu, Antalya Province, Turkey|
|Founded||Approximately 1000 BC|
|Periods||Greek Dark Ages to Middle Ages|
|Cultures||Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Turkish|
A treaty between the Hittite Great King Tudhaliya IV and his vassal, the king of Tarhuntassa, defined the latter's western border at the city "Parha" and the "Kastaraya River". The river is assumed to be the classical Cestrus. West of Parha were the "Lukka Lands". Parha likely spoke a late Luwian dialect like Lycian and that of the neo-Hittite kingdoms.
Perge returns to history as a Pamphylian Greek city, and with Pamphylia came under successive rule by Persians, Athenians, and Persians again. Alexander the Great, after quitting Phaselis, occupied Perge with a part of his army. The road between these two towns is described as long and difficult. Alexander's rule was followed by the Diadochi empire of the Seleucids, then the Romans.
Perge gained renown for the worship of Artemis, whose temple stood on a hill outside the town, and in whose honour annual festivals were celebrated. The coins of Perge represent both the goddess and her temple.
In 46 A.D., according to the Acts of the Apostles, St. Paul journeyed to Perga, from there continued on to Antiocheia in Pisidia, then returned to Perga where he preached the word of God (Acts 14:25). Then he left the city and went to Attaleia.
As the Cestrus silted up over the late Roman era, Perga declined as a secular city. In the first half of the 4th century, during the reign of Constantine the Great (324-337), Perga became an important centre of Christianity, which soon became the official religion of the Roman Empire. The city retained its status as a Christian centre in the 5th and 6th centuries.
St. Paul the Apostle and his, companion St. Barnabas, twice visited Perga as recorded in the biblical book, the Acts of the Apostles, during their first missionary journey, where they "preached the word" before heading for and sailing from Attalia (modern-day Antalya city), 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) to the southwest, to Antioch.
Paul and Barnabas came to Perge during their first missionary journey, but probably stayed there only a short time, and do not seem to have preached there; it was there that John Mark left Paul to return to Jerusalem. On his return from Pisidia, Paul preached at Perge.
St. Matrona of Perge of the 6th century was a female saint known for temporarily cross-dressing to avoid her abusive husband. She also is known for opposing the Monophysite policy of the emperor Anastasios I. Matrona hid in the monastery of St. Bassion as the enuch Babylos. Once revealed, she was sent to a woman’s monastery where she was head of the convent. She was famous for her miraculous gift of healing. She went on to found a nunnery in Constantinople. St Matrona died at the age of 100. Her life was told through a vita prima whose author and exact time period remains a mystery.
The Greek Notitiae episcopatuum mentions the city as metropolis of Pamphylia Secunda until the 13th century. Le Quien gives the names of 11 of its bishops: Epidaurus, present at the Council of Ancyra in 312; Callicles at the First Council of Nicaea in 325; Berenianus, at Constantinople (426); Epiphanius at the Second Council of Ephesus (449), at the First Council of Chalcedon (451), and a signatory of the letter from the bishops of the province to Emperor Leo (458); Hilarianus, at a council at Constantinople in 536; Eulogius, at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553; Apergius, condemned as a Monothelite at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680; John, at the Trullan council in 692; Sisinnius Pastillas about 754 (an iconoclast who was condemned at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787); Constans, at the same council of that condemned his predecessor; John, at the Council of Constantinople of 869–70.
Perga is today an archaeological site and a tourist attraction. There were numerous excavations and discoveries since 1946. Ancient Perge, one of the chief cities of Pamphylia, was situated between the Rivers Catarrhactes (Düden Nehri) and Cestrus (Aksu), 60 stadia (about 11.1 kilometres (6.9 mi)) from the mouth of the latter; the site is in the modern Turkish village of Murtana on the Suridjik sou, a tributary of the Cestrus, formerly in the Ottoman vilayet of Konya. Its ruins include a theatre, a palaestra, a temple of Artemis and two churches. The temple of Artemis was located outside the town. Many of the coins struck in the city portrayed both the goddess and her sanctuary.
Another big ancient city in the area is Selge, Pisidia, located about 20km to the northeast.
The Perge has been dubbed as “Turkey’s second Zeugma” for the alluring appearance of the mosaics that have been unearthed so far. In 2003, archaeologists discovered well-preserved Greek mosaics showcasing Oceanus and Medusa. In 2017, discovered a mosaic depicting the sacrifice of Iphigenia.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press..
Acts 13 is the thirteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the first missionary journey of Paul and Barnabas to Cyprus and Pisidia. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.Acts 14
Acts 14 is the fourteenth chapter of the Acts of the Apostles in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. It records the first missionary journey of Paul and Barnabas to Phrygia and Lycaonia. The book containing this chapter is anonymous but early Christian tradition uniformly affirmed that Luke composed this book as well as the Gospel of Luke.Aksu River (Turkey)
The Aksu (ancient name in Greek Κέστρoς, Kestros), is a river in Antalya Province (southwestern Turkey), which rises in the mountains of Toros. The course of the Aksu is between the Düden to the west and of the Köprüçay to the east.Apollonius's theorem
In geometry, Apollonius's theorem is a theorem relating the length of a median of a triangle to the lengths of its side. It states that "the sum of the squares of any two sides of any triangle equals twice the square on half the third side, together with twice the square on the median bisecting the third side".
Specifically, in any triangle ABC, if AD is a median, then
It is a special case of Stewart's theorem. For an isosceles triangle with |AB| = |AC|, the median AD is perpendicular to BC and the theorem reduces to the Pythagorean theorem for triangle ADB (or triangle ADC). From the fact that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, the theorem is equivalent to the parallelogram law.
The theorem is named for the ancient Greek mathematician Apollonius of Perga.Apollonius (crater)
Apollonius is a lunar impact crater located near the eastern limb of the Moon. It lies in the region of uplands to the west of Mare Undarum and northeast of the Sinus Successus on the Mare Fecunditatis. It was named after Greek mathematician Apollonius of Perga. It is southwest of the crater Firmicus, and north of Condon.
The outer rim of Apollonius is somewhat worn and is overlain by a pair of small craters (including Apollonius E) across the western wall. The nearly flat interior floor has a low albedo and has been covered by lava. It lacks a central peak or notable small craters across the bottom.Apollonius of Perga
Apollonius of Perga (Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Περγαῖος; Latin: Apollonius Pergaeus; late 3rd – early 2nd centuries BC) was a Greek geometer and astronomer known for his theories on the topic of conic sections. Beginning from the theories of Euclid and Archimedes on the topic, he brought them to the state they were in just before the invention of analytic geometry. His definitions of the terms ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola are the ones in use today.
Apollonius worked on many other topics, including astronomy. Most of the work has not survived except in fragmentary references in other authors. His hypothesis of eccentric orbits to explain the apparently aberrant motion of the planets, commonly believed until the Middle Ages, was superseded during the Renaissance.Aurelia Paulina
Aurelia Paulina was a local prominent noblewoman in Anatolia who lived in the 2nd century and perhaps in the 3rd century in the Roman Empire. She was a contemporary to the rule of Roman Emperor Commodus (reigned 180–192) and the Severan dynasty.
Paulina originated from a wealthy family, although not of Senatorial rank from the province of Syria. She emigrated to Perga the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia in Anatolia. Paulina married an Anatolian noble called Aquilus from Sillyon. Sometime after, Paulina and Aquilus received Roman citizenship from Commodus, thus receiving and adding the name Aurelius to their names.According to surviving inscriptions, it is understood that Paulina held the offices of priestess of the Goddess Artemis in Perga. Artemis was the most important Goddess in Perga. Aquilus with Paulina shared the title of as priest and priestess of the imperial cult in Perga. Inspired by the former benefactions of Plancia Magna and her family, Paulina donated to Perga a trapezoidal courtyard outside the southern city gate, constructing a large monumental nymphaeum (a monumental fountain, not much remains of the monument). The monumental fountain was originally an ancient well. Inscriptions reveal that Aurelia Paulina constructed and decorated the nymphaeum.Paulina dedicated the nymphaeum to Artemis and the reigning Roman Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus (reigned 193–211); his wife Roman Empress Julia Domna and their sons: Lucius Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla) and Publius Septimius Geta and other relatives of Julia Domna. After the nymphaeum, stand life size statues of three women. One of these statues may represent Paulina, but a fragment of the head survives.
An extant statue survives of Paulina. She is shown in Syrian dress; wearing heavy jewelry covering her chest and her long chain ending in a large shell pendant which is associated with Artemis. The extant dress of Paulina in this statue is a typical female portrait of Syrian women from this period and perhaps Paulina wants to emphasize her links with Julia Domna, who was Syrian.Over the large arch of the nymphaeum, there is a pediment with a relief of a distinctively feminine symbolism depicting the deities Eros, Artemis and Dionysus. Between the three deities depicts a priestess with a large shell pendant, perhaps resembling Paulina. Paulina commissioning to build the nymphaeum, donating a statue of her near the baths and her religious participations had brought to herself and her family great blessings and great honor to Perga, her native homeland and the Severan dynasty.Deferent and epicycle
In the Hipparchian and Ptolemaic systems of astronomy, the epicycle (from Ancient Greek: ἐπίκυκλος, literally upon the circle, meaning circle moving on another circle) was a geometric model used to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets. In particular it explained the apparent retrograde motion of the five planets known at the time. Secondarily, it also explained changes in the apparent distances of the planets from the Earth.
It was first proposed by Apollonius of Perga at the end of the 3rd century BC. It was developed by Apollonius of Perga and Hipparchus of Rhodes, who used it extensively, during the 2nd century BC, then formalized and extensively used by Ptolemy of Thebaid in his 2nd century AD astronomical treatise the Almagest.
Epicyclical motion is used in the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient Greek astronomical device for compensating for the elliptical orbit of the Moon, moving faster at perigee and slower at apogee than circular orbits would, using four gears, two of them engaged in an eccentric way that quite closely approximates Kepler's second law.
Epicycles worked very well and were highly accurate, because, as Fourier analysis later showed, any smooth curve can be approximated to arbitrary accuracy with a sufficient number of epicycles. However, they fell out of favour with the discovery that planetary motions were largely elliptical from a heliocentric frame of reference, which led to the discovery that gravity obeying a simple inverse square law could better explain all planetary motions.Gaius Julius Cornutus Bryonianus
Gaius Julius Cornutus Bryonianus was a Roman who lived in the 1st century in the Roman Empire. Bryonianus originally came from Perga, the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia. Bryonianus could have been related to a certain Bryonianus Lollianus, a local man of Equestrian Rank from Side, Pamphylia.
Bryonianus served as an Agonothetes (magistrate of games) during the Varian Games in Perga. He had built a large, prestigious palace where he lived. The palace was built near the baths in Perga and its remains are still there.
Bryonianus in the reign of Roman Emperor Claudius (41-54), had built Perga’s Palaestra. The monument measures 76 x 76 meters and Bryonianus dedicated this building and its inscription to Claudius. The Palaestra’s structure has been preserved well. In the reign of Roman Emperor Nero (54-68) Bryonianus did a bilingual (see Multilingualism) dedication to Nero.
Bryonianus could have married a Roman woman called Tertulla. From this marriage, he had a son called Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus a future proconsul, suffect consul and a friend to historian Pliny the Younger.Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus the Younger
Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus was a prominent Roman citizen, the son of Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus though the identity of his mother is unknown. He was born and raised in Perga, the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia. Unfortunately very little is known on him.
This Tertullus married a Roman woman from Perga called Plancia Magna, who was a prominent citizen and patron of Perga. Magna was the daughter of Roman Senator and Proconsul Marcus Plancius Varus and Herodian Princess Julia. Tertullus and Magna had a son and only child called Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus.Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus
Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus was a man of Roman Senatorial rank who lived in the Roman Empire in the 2nd century.
Cornutus was the son and only child of Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus the Younger and Plancia Magna. His paternal grandparents were the Proconsul and Suffect Consul Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus and possibly Tertulla. While his maternal grandparents were the Roman Senator and Proconsul Marcus Plancius Varus and Herodian Princess Julia. His family were prominent citizens and patrons in Perga.
Cornutus was of Roman, Jewish, Nabataean, Edomite, Greek, Armenian and Persian ancestry. Through his maternal grandmother, Cornutus' ancestors were King Archelaus of Cappadocia, King of Judea Herod the Great and his wife Mariamne. Cornutus along with his mother, maternal uncle Gaius Plancius Varus and his maternal relatives were among the last known descendants of the Herodian Dynasty. He appeared to be an apostate to Judaism. It is unlikely that Cornutus attempted to exert influence on Judean Politics. He was born and raised in Perga, the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia.
In the Agora in Perga, the local government in Perga had dedicated and honored Cornutus with an inscription on a statue base. This inscription honors Cornutus and his family. Cornutus and his ancestors are highly praised as the benefactors of Perga and the inscription states how lawful, considerable and rewarding citizens they were. This inscriptions reveals how prominent he and his family were and shows the respect that the citizens of Perga had for Cornutus and his family.Gaius Plancius Varus
Gaius Plancius Varus was a Roman who lived between the 1st century and 2nd century in the Roman Empire. Varus was the son of the Roman Senator and Proconsul Marcus Plancius Varus, and the Herodian Princess Julia. His sister was Plancia Magna; he was therefore the maternal uncle to Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus. Varus was born and raised in Perga, the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia.
His maternal grandparents were King Tigranes VI of Armenia and his wife Opgalli, while his maternal uncle was prince Gaius Julius Alexander. Varus was of Roman, Jewish, Nabataean, Edomite, Greek, Armenian and Persian ancestry. Varus’ maternal ancestors were King Archelaus of Cappadocia, King of Judea Herod the Great, and his wife Mariamne. Varus along with his maternal cousins were among the last known descendants of the Herodian Dynasty. He appeared to be an apostate to Judaism. It is unlikely that Varus attempted to exert influence on Judean politics.
Varus served as a Roman Senator and became a consul at an unknown date during the reign of the Roman Emperor Hadrian who ruled the Roman Empire from 117-138. It is unknown whether Varus had married or had any children.
In Perga, the city’s most magnificent structure was the Hellenistic Gate that was the entrance to the city. Inside in the courtyard of the Hellenistic Gate, there are inscribed bases of statues that bear the names of Varus and his father. From these inscriptions it is understood that Varus with his father were wealthy, influential and generous citizens in Perga. Varus and his father were made benefactors who contributed to the prosperity of Perga. Due to the goodness and generosity of Varus and his father, they were both accepted as the second founders of the city. They were both honored with the title ‘’Ktistes’’ or ’’Founder’‘.Julia (daughter of Tigranes VI of Armenia)
Julia was a Herodian Princess who lived in the 1st century and possibly in the 2nd century in the Roman Empire.
She was of Jewish, Nabataean, Edomite, Greek, Armenian and Persian ancestry. She was the daughter of the Herodian Prince, later King Tigranes VI of Armenia and his wife Opgalli. Her father in the spring of 58 was crowned as King of Armenia by Roman Emperor Nero in Rome and ruled there until 63. Julia had a brother called Gaius Julius Alexander, who was the Roman Client King of the Kingdom of Cetis. The Kingdom of Cetis was a small region in Cilicia.
Her paternal grandparents were the Judean Prince Alexander and his unnamed wife. Through her father, Julia was the great, granddaughter of Cappadocian Princess Glaphyra and Judean Prince Alexander. Julia was the great, great granddaughter of King Archelaus of Cappadocia, King of Judea Herod the Great and his wife Mariamne. Julia along with her brother and father were last the known descendants of the Kings of Cappadocia.
Little is known on Julia’s life. She was an apostate to Judaism. It is unlikely that Julia attempted to exert influence on Judean Politics. Julia at an unknown date married a Roman Senator called Marcus Plancius Varus. Varus was a prominent and wealthy Roman, who came from a distinguish family in Galatia and his family owned large estates in Galatia. Varus served as a Proconsul in Bithynia and later in Pontus during the reign of Roman Emperor Vespasian who ruled in the Roman Empire 69-79.
After Varus finished his time serving as a Proconsul, Varus and Julia settled and lived in Perga the capital of the Roman province of Pamphylia. Julia became a priestess and served in the temple of the Ancient Greek Goddess Artemis in Perga. Artemis was the most important Goddess in Perga.
Julia bore Varus two children who were:
Son, Gaius Plancius Varus, who became a Roman Senator and served as a consul during the reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian, who reigned 117-138. Gaius like his father became a prominent patron and prominent citizen in Perga.
Daughter, Plancia Magna. Plancia Magna married a man of Roman Senatorial rank from Perga, a local citizen called Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus. Cornutus Tertullus and Plancia Magna had a son called Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus, who was Julia and her husband’s only grandchild. Plancia Magna like her father and brother became a prominent patron and prominent citizen in Perga.Marcus Plancius Varus
Marcus Plancius Varus was an Anatolian Roman noble who lived in the 1st century in the Roman Empire. His paternal ancestors were originally from Latium in Central Italy. They had immigrated to Anatolia in the time of the late Roman Republic. Varus came from a local, wealthy family who were prominent and they came from an unknown town in Galatia. His family owned large estates in Galatia. Apart from this, not much is known on the family and early life of Varus.
Between the years of 56-69, Varus served as a Praetor during the reign of the Roman Emperor Nero. He entered the Roman Senate as a praetor and through this entry, became a Roman Senator. After his service as a praetor, Varus implied treasonable behavior by a Roman called Dolabella. A Roman woman called Triaria (second wife of Lucius Vitellius the younger and sister-in-law to the brief future Roman Emperor Aulus Vitellius) terrified the City Prefect Titus Flavius Sabinus (brother to future Roman Emperor Vespasian) warning Sabinus not to seek a reputation for clemency by endangering Nero.
During the reign of Roman Emperor Vespasian (69-79), Varus served as governor of the public province of Bithynia and Pontus. During his time in Nicaea, the capital of the Roman province of Bithynia, Varus had struck coinage honoring the Roman State and of himself. At unknown date Varus married the Herodian Princess Julia, the daughter of King Tigranes VI of Armenia and sister of prince Gaius Julius Alexander.
After concluding his governorship, Varus and Julia finally settled and lived in Perga, the capital of the Roman Province of Pamphylia. Julia bore Varus two children who were:
Son, Gaius Plancius Varus, who became a Roman Senator and served as a consul during the reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian, who reigned 117-138.
Daughter, Plancia Magna. Plancia Magna married a man of Roman Senatorial rank from Perga, a local citizen called Gaius Julius Cornutus Tertullus. Cornutus Tertullus and Plancia Magna had a son called Gaius Julius Plancius Varus Cornutus, who was Varus and Julia’s only grandchild. Plancia Magna became a prominent patron and prominent citizen in Perga.Julia became a priestess and served in the temple of the Ancient Greek Goddess Artemis in Perga. Artemis was the most important Goddess in Perga. In Perga, the city’s most magnificent structure was the Hellenistic Gate that was the entrance to the city. Inside in the courtyard of the Hellenistic Gate, there are inscribed bases of statues that bear the names of Marcus Plancius Varus and his son.
From these inscriptions it is understood that Varus along with his son were wealthy, influential and generous citizens in Perga. Varus and his son were made benefactors whom they contributed to the prosperity of Perga. Due to the goodness and generosity of Varus and his son, they were both accepted as the second founders of the city. For who they were both honored with the title ‘’Ktistes’’ or ’’Founder’‘.
Varus also had contributed to the construction of the North Gate of Nicaea/İznik, now called Istanbul Gate, that was built between 70-71. He had appeared to have died before 81. There is a possibility that Varus could be buried west of this Gate. His epitaph was written and dedicated in common Emperorship by Vespasian and his son Titus. Varus’ epitaph is preserved inside the Istanbul Gate. His epitaph was written in metal letters:
Proconsul M. Plancius Varus devoted this monument to Nicaea capital of state and exalted home of emperors, which the monument is completed by effort of Gaius Cassius Chrestus.Pamphylia
Pamphylia (Ancient Greek: Παμφυλία, Pamphylía, modern pronunciation Pamfylía ) was a former region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey). It was bounded on the north by Pisidia and was therefore a country of small extent, having a coast-line of only about 120 km (75 miles) with a breadth of about 50 km (30 miles). Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy.Pamphylian Greek
Pamphylian is a little-attested and isolated dialect of Ancient Greek that was spoken in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. Its origins and relation to other Greek dialects are uncertain. A number of scholars have distinguished in Pamphylian dialect important isoglosses with Arcadocypriot which allow them to be studied together. Pamphylia means "land of all phyles (tribes)". The Achaeans may have settled the region under the leadership of Amphilochus, Calchas, and Mopsus. However, other cities in Pamphylia were established by different Greek tribes: Aspendos was a colony of Argos, Side was a colony of Aeolian Cyme, Sillyon was a colony of an unknown Greek mother city, and Perga was a colony established by a wave of Greeks from northern Anatolia. The isolation of the dialect took place even before the appearance of the Greek article. Pamphylian is the only dialect that does not use articles other than Mycenean Greek and poetic language.Perseus (geometer)
Perseus (Greek: Περσεύς; c. 150 BC) was an ancient Greek geometer, who invented the concept of spiric sections, in analogy to the conic sections studied by Apollonius of Perga.Philonides of Laodicea
Philonides (Greek: Φιλωνίδης, c. 200 – c. 130 BCE) of Laodicea in Syria, was an Epicurean philosopher and mathematician who lived in the Seleucid court during the reigns of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Demetrius I Soter.
He is known principally from a Life of Philonides which was discovered among the charred papyrus scrolls at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. Philonides was born into a family with good connections with the Seleucid court. He is said to have been taught by Eudemus and Dionysodorus the mathematician. Philonides attempted to convert Antiochus IV Epiphanes to Epicureanism, and later instructed his nephew, Demetrius I Soter, in philosophy. Philonides was highly honoured in the court, and he is also known from various stone inscriptions.He was renowned as a mathematician, and is mentioned by Apollonius of Perga in the preface to the second book of his Conics.Philonides was a zealous collector of the works of Epicurus and his colleagues, and is said to have published over 100 treatises, probably compilations of the works he collected.Plancia Magna
Plancia Magna (Greek: Πλανκία Μαγνά) was a prominent woman from Anatolia who lived between the 1st century and 2nd century in the Roman Empire.
Journeys of Paul the Apostle
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