Perfume River

The Perfume River (Sông Hương or Hương Giang; ) is a river that crosses the city of Huế, in the central Vietnamese province of Thừa Thiên-Huế Province. In the autumn, flowers from orchards upriver from Huế fall into the water, giving the river a perfume-like aroma, hence the sobriquet.

Perfume River
Riviere des Parfums Hue
The Perfume River in Huế
Native nameSông Hương  (Vietnamese)
ProvinceThừa Thiên–Huế Province
Physical characteristics
Source confluenceBằng Lãng
Length30 km (19 mi)
Basin features
 - leftTả Trạch
 - rightHữu Trạch
Coucher de soleil Huế
a scenic landscape of Hương river in Huế.

Source and flow

The Perfume River has two sources; both begin in the Dãy Trường Sơn mountain range and meet at Bằng Lãng Fork. The Tả Trạch (left tributary) originates in the Trường Đồng mountains and flows northwest towards the fork. The river then flows in south-north direction past the temples of Hòn Chén and Ngọc Trản, then flows north-west, meandering through the Nguyệt Biều and Luong Quan plains. Continuing on, the Sông Hương (Hương River) flows to the northeast to Huế and passes the resting place of the Nguyễn emperors. The river continues, passing Hen islet and various villages, crossing the Sinh junction (capital of ancient Châu Hóa) before emptying into the Tam Giang lagoon.

From Bằng Lãng to the Thuan An estuary, the river is 30 km long and runs very slowly (as the river level is not much above sea level). The river darkens as it winds along the foot of Ngọc Trản mountain, where there is a deep abyss.

Surrounding area

The 105m Ngự Bình mountain is strikingly symmetrical. On both sides of the Even Mount (Bang Son) are two small mounts, Ta Bat Son (left mount) and Huu Bat Son (right mount). After observing that Bang Son resembled a screen, the Nguyễn Dynasty decided to build up Huế, which became known as their "Forbidden Purple City". Emperor Gia Long approved the design of geomancers, which chose this mount as a front altar of the imposing and solid defending wall system, and renamed it Ngự Bình.

In popular culture

  • The Perfume River is featured in the Vietnam War film Full Metal Jacket (1987); the action in the second half of the film (57:18) occurs around the city of Huế and the Perfume River.

The Perfume River and The City of Hue are central to the 1985 novel Word of Honor by Nelson DeMille

External links

Coordinates: 16°33′N 107°38′E / 16.550°N 107.633°E

2nd Corps (Vietnam People's Army)

2nd Corps (Vietnamese: Quân đoàn 2) or Hương Giang Corps (Vietnamese: Binh đoàn Hương Giang, literally: Corps of the Perfume River) is one of the four regular army corps of the Vietnam People's Army. First organised in 1974 during the Vietnam War, 2nd Corps had a major role in the Ho Chi Minh Campaign that ended the war. Today the corps is stationed in Lạng Giang District, Bắc Giang.

Commander: Maj. Gen. Phạm Văn Hưng

Political Commissar: Maj. Gen. Trần Võ Dũng

A Feast of Consequences

A Feast of Consequences is an album by Fish. It is his tenth solo studio album since he left Marillion in 1988 and the first since 13th Star (2007). It was released on Fish's own imprint Chocolate Frog Record Company.

Battle of Huế

The Battle of Huế – also called the Siege of Huế – was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War. Between 30 January and 3 March 1968, in the South Vietnamese city of Huế, 11 battalions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), four U.S. Army battalions, and three U.S. Marine Corps battalions – totaling 18 battalions – defeated 10 battalions of the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong (VC).

By the beginning of the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive on January 30, 1968 – coinciding with the Vietnamese lunar New Year (Vietnamese: Tết Nguyên Đán) – large, conventional, U.S. forces had been committed to combat operations on Vietnamese soil for almost three years.

Highway 1, passing through the city of Huế, was an important supply line for ARVN, US, and Allied Forces from the coastal city of Da Nang to the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). It also provided access to the Perfume River (Vietnamese: Sông Hương or Hương Giang) at the point where the river ran through Huế, dividing the city into northern and southern parts. Huế was also a base for United States Navy supply boats.

Considering its logistical value and its proximity to the DMZ (only 50 kilometres (31 mi)), Huế should have been well-defended, fortified, and prepared for any communist attack. However, the city had few fortifications and was poorly defended.

While the ARVN 1st Division had cancelled all Tet leave and was attempting to recall its troops, the South Vietnamese and U.S. forces in the city were unprepared when the Viet Cong and the PAVN launched the Tet Offensive, attacking hundreds of military targets and population centers across the country, including Huế.The PAVN/Vietcong forces rapidly occupied most of the city. Over the next month, they were gradually driven out during intense house-to-house fighting led by the Marines and ARVN. In the end, although the Allies declared a military victory, the city of Huế was virtually destroyed, and more than 5,000 civilians were killed (2,800 of them executed by the PAVN and Viet Cong, according to the South Vietnamese government). The communist forces lost an estimated 2,400 to 8,000 killed, while Allied forces lost 668 dead and 3,707 wounded. The losses negatively affected the American public's perception of the war, and political support for the war began to wane.

Black paradisefish

The black paradisefish (Macropodus spechti) is a species of gourami endemic to Vietnam. It is an inhabitant of hill streams, lowland streams, and irrigation ditches in farmland. This species grows to a standard length of 5.8 cm (2.3 in). It is found in the Thu Bon River and Perfume River; its habitat is hill streams, along backwaters of large rivers and small stream and irrigation channels on farmland. Aside from possibly being used as an ornamental fish, nothing else is known about the species.

Báo Quốc Pagoda

Báo Quốc Pagoda (Vietnamese: Chùa Báo Quốc) is a Buddhist temple in the historic city of Huế in central Vietnam. It was one of the three national pagodas of the city during the time of the Nguyễn Dynasty.The temple is located on Báo Quốc Street, in the ward of Phường Đúc in Huế. It lies on the southern side of the Perfume River and is approximately one kilometre west of the city centre. The temple is located on a small hill called Hàm Long and a spring from the top of the hill flows down into the grounds of the temple.

Bùi Đắc Tuyên

Bùi Đắc Tuyên (裴得宣, ?–1795) was a mandarin of Tây Sơn dynasty.

Born in Tuy Viễn District (mordern Tây Sơn District), Bình Định Province. He was a son of Bùi Đức Lương, and also an elder brother of Bùi Thị Nhạn, and an uncle of Bùi Thị Xuân.Nguyễn Quang Toản ascended the throne at a very young age. Tuyên was favoured by the young emperor and came into power. He was granted the position thái sư (太師 "Grand Preceptor"), and banished one of important ministers, Trần Văn Kỷ, from the capital Phú Xuân (mordern Huế).His behavior had aroused the anger of many ministers and generals. In 1795, Trần Văn Kỷ persuaded Vũ Văn Dũng to stage a coup against Tuyên. Vũ Văn Dũng, Phạm Công Hưng and Nguyễn Văn Huấn, besieged Tuyên's house, arrested him, and threw him into prison.Dũng ordered Nguyễn Quang Thùy to arrest Ngô Văn Sở, whom was a political ally of Tuyên, in Tonkin. In the same time, Huấn was sent to Quy Nhơn to arrest Bùi Đắc Trụ, the son of Tuyên, in Quy Nhơn. Sở and Trụ were taken to Phú Xuân, and thrown into Perfume River together with Tuyên. The younger emperor could do nothing but weep.

Huda Beer

Huda Beer is a lager beer produced and bottled in Huế, Vietnam, by Hue Brewery Ltd. The lager won a silver medal at the World Beer Championships in 2013.Huda is available as canned, bottled and draught beer.

Hue Brewery Ltd.'s headquarters are located at Nguyen Sinh Cung Street in the city of Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, on the Perfume River.

The company the owned the brand is acquired by Carlsberg Group.


Huế (Vietnamese: [hwě] (listen) is a city in central Vietnam that was the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater.

The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.

Huế Beer

Hue Beer (Vietnamese: Bia Huế) is a lager beer produced and bottled in Huế, Vietnam, by Hue Brewery Ltd. It was first imported to the United States in 1994, just after the lifting of the U.S. embargo on Vietnam. The company, established in 1990, is partly owned by Carlsberg.

Hue Brewery Ltd.'s headquarters are located at Nguyen Sinh Cung Street in the city of Huế, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, on the Perfume River.

Hương Trà District

Hương Trà is a district-level town (thị xã) of Thua Thien-Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 114,985. The district covers an area of 521 km². The district capital lies at Tứ Hạ.The district is located on the northern outskirts of Huế, the major town in the district and the second largest town in central Vietnam after Da Nang.

The district consists of the 7 phường (ward): Tứ Hạ, Hương Văn, Hương Xuân, Hương Vân, Hương Chữ, Hương An, Hương Hồ and 9 xã (commune): Hương Toàn, Hương Vinh, Hương Phong, Hải Dương, Hương Thọ, Bình Thành, Bình Điền, Hương Bình, Hồng Tiến. Tứ Hạ is located on National Road 1A, the nation's main north-south artery, 16 km north of Huế.

The district lies between the Perfume River, which runs through the city centre, and the Bồ River to the north. The area has both mountainous terrain and plains.

Located in Nham Bieu hamlet, Huong Ho commune of the district is Huyen Khong Son Thuong Monastery where visitors can talk to experienced monks about the art of calligraphy, painting, photography and poetry.

Imperial City, Huế

The Imperial City (Vietnamese: Hoàng thành) is a walled enclosure within the citadel (Kinh thành) of the city of Huế, the former imperial capital of Vietnam.

List of rivers of Vietnam

This is a list of streams and rivers in Vietnam:

Bạch Đằng River

Bassac River

Bến Hải River

Black River (Vietnam)

Bo River

Cả River

Cấm River (Vietnam)

Cầu River

Cau Lau River

Chu River

Đồng Nai River

Gianh River

Han River

Kiến Giang River

Kinh Thầy River

Kỳ Cùng River

Long Đại River

Lục Nam River

Luoc River

Sekong River

Ma River


Nhật Lệ River

Perfume River (Hương Giang)

Red River (Asia)

Saigon River

Sepon River

Son River

Srepok River

Thạch Hãn River

Thái Bình River

Thu Bồn River

Thuong River

Tiền River

Trà Bồng River

Trà Khúc River

Van Uc River

Ve River

Yen River

Mount Ngự Bình

Ngự Bình (Vietnamese: Núi Ngự Bình) is a mountain in the Vietnamese city of Huế. It is also called the "Royal Screen".

Pagoda of the Celestial Lady

The Pagoda of the Celestial Lady (Vietnamese: Chùa Thiên Mụ; also called Linh Mụ Pagoda) is a historic temple in the city of Huế in Vietnam. Its iconic seven-story pagoda is regarded as the unofficial symbol of the city, and the temple has often been the subject of folk rhymes and ca dao about Huế.The pagoda sits on the Hà Khê hill, in the ward of Hương Long in Huế. It is around 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from the Citadel of Huế constructed by the Nguyễn Dynasty and sits on the northern bank of the Perfume River.

Quốc Ân Temple

Quốc Ân Temple (Chùa Quốc Ân) is a Buddhist temple in the city of Huế, central Vietnam.In the main hall is a banner, containing a verse of praise of the temple and its founder, written by Nguyễn Phúc Chu, one of the Nguyễn lords who once ruled central and southern Vietnam and the city of Huế. The temple is situated on a small hill in the ward of Trường An in the city of Huế. It is located about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from the Phú Cam bridge that spans the Perfume River, which passes through Huế.The temple was founded by Zen Master Thích Nguyên Thiều (1648–1728), between 1682 and 1685, and was known as the Vĩnh Ân Temple. Thích Nguyên Thiều was originally from China, and was a disciple of Thích Khoáng Viên, from Guangdong in southern China. In 1677, he immigrated to southern Vietnam by boat, to settle in territory ruled by the Nguyễn Lords. He had initially arrived in Bình Định further south, founding the Chùa Thập Tháp Di-đà (Vietnamese for Temple of the Ten Towers of Amitabha). After building his first temple, he travelled the region expounding the dharma, before travelling to Huế to found the Hà Trung Temple in Vinh Hà district before moving to the Ngự Bình mountain district to build the Vĩnh Ân Temple.

In 1689, the Nguyễn Lord Nguyễn Phúc Trân had the name of the temple changed to the Quốc Ân Temple, and gave the temple an exemption from the land taxation system. Chùa Quốc Ân is the seat of a Buddhist patriarch lineage of central Vietnam, since Z en Master Thích Nguyên Thiều was the 33rd patriarch of the Lâm Tế Zen School. Today, the bulk of Buddhists in central and southern Vietnam are believed to have taken refuge under Thích Nguyên Thiều's lineage of disciples and students. After the passing of Thích Nguyên Thiều, the ruling Nguyễn Lord of the time, Nguyễn Phúc Chu posthumously conferred him with imperial titles.During the time of the Nguyễn Dynasty, which was founded in 1802 and was derived from the Nguyễn Lords, the temple was renovated many times. In 1805 Long Thành, the elder sister of Emperor Gia Long personally funded a renovation project.At the time, the temple was a modest and simple. In 1822, the temple was the subject of another imperial funded renovation project, this time funded by Gia Long's son and successor, Emperor Minh Mạng. In 1825, the abbot died and a stupa was built in the garden of the temple, in which his remains were interred. The temple was the subject of another phase of expansion and renovation between 1837-42. From 1846-63, a triple gate was built, along with further shrines.At the front of the temple complex is the main ceremonial hall, while the patriarch hall is at the rear, while the sangha's quarters are at the sides. The main hall has a shrine commemorating the birth of Prince Siddhartha, who went on to achieve enlightenment as Gautama Buddha. In the front yard of the temple, there is a plaque in 1729 erected by the Nguyễn Lord of the time, Nguyễn Phúc Chu, praising the spiritual achievements of the temple founder, Thích Nguyên Thiều.

Rhodeus rheinardti

Rhodeus rheinardti is a tropical freshwater fish belonging to the Acheilognathinae subfamily of the family Cyprinidae. It originates in the Perfume River, near Hué, Vietnam. It was originally described as Danio rheinardti by G. Tirant in 1883. When spawning, the females deposit their eggs inside bivalves, where they hatch and the young remain until they can swim.

Schistura huongensis

Schistura huongensis is a species of ray-finned fish in the most speciose genus of the stone loach family Nemacheilidae, Schistura. It has been recorded from the drainage basins of the Perfume River and Cam Lo in central Vietnam. It can be found in the slack water upstream of riffles in medium sized mountain rivers and streams with a fast current.

Thuận An estuary

The Thuận An estuary (Vietnamese: Cửa Thuận An, demotic names: cửa Eo, cửa Nộn), is an important estuarine port on the Perfume River in central Vietnam's Thừa Thiên–Huế Province.

Vietnam's Green Corridor

The Green Corridor of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Hành lang xanh của Việt Nam) is the international and national project name for one of the last remaining lowland wet evergreen forests, and supports significant populations of threatened species. It is located in Thừa Thiên–Huế Province, and is also part of Vietnam's Annamite Mountain Range. The area includes some of the longest remaining stretches of lowland river with intact forest habitat in Vietnam, which feed into the Perfume River. The rainforests of the Central Annamites likely existed as continuous undisturbed forest cover for thousands of years, and, as a result, offer unique habitats for many species. The name "Green Corridor" (Vietnamese Hành lang xanh) originates in preparatory project documents of the WWF.

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