Percentage point

A percentage point or percent point is the unit for the arithmetic difference of two percentages. For example, moving up from 40% to 44% is a 4 percentage point increase, but is a 10 percent increase in what is being measured.[1] In the literature, the percentage point unit is usually either written out,[2] or abbreviated as pp or p.p. to avoid ambiguity. After the first occurrence, some writers abbreviate by using just "point" or "points".

Consider the following hypothetical example: In 1980, 50 percent of the population smoked, and in 1990 only 40 percent smoked. One can thus say that from 1980 to 1990, the prevalence of smoking decreased by 10 percentage points although smoking did not decrease by 10 percent (it decreased by 20 percent) – percentages indicate ratios, not differences.

Percentage-point differences are one way to express a risk or probability. Consider a drug that cures a given disease in 70 percent of all cases, while without the drug, the disease heals spontaneously in only 50 percent of cases. The drug reduces absolute risk by 20 percentage points. Alternatives may be more meaningful to consumers of statistics, such as the reciprocal, also known as the number needed to treat (NNT). In this case, the reciprocal transform of the percentage-point difference would be 1/(20pp) = 1/0.20 = 5. Thus if 5 patients are treated with the drug, one could expect to heal one more case of the disease than would have occurred in the absence of the drug.

For measurements involving percentages as a unit, such as, growth, yield, or ejection fraction, statistical deviations and related descriptive statistics, including the standard deviation and root-mean-square error, the result should be expressed in units of percentage points instead of percentage. Mistakenly using percentage as the unit for the standard deviation is confusing, since percentage is also used as a unit for the relative standard deviation, i.e. standard deviation divided by average value (coefficient of variation).

Related units


  1. ^ Brechner, Robert (2008). Contemporary Mathematics for Business and Consumers, Brief Edition. Cengage Learning. p. 190. ISBN 9781111805500. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  2. ^ Wickham, Kathleen (2003). Math Tools for Journalists. Cengage Learning. p. 30. ISBN 9780972993746. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
1804 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1804 was the fifth quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1804. Incumbent Democratic-Republican President Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina. It was the first presidential election conducted following the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which reformed procedures for electing presidents and vice presidents.

Jefferson was re-nominated by his party's congressional nominating caucus without opposition, and the party nominated Governor George Clinton of New York to replace Aaron Burr as Jefferson's running mate. With former President John Adams in retirement, the Federalists turned to Pinckney, a former ambassador and Revolutionary War hero who had been Adams's running mate in the 1800 election.

Though Jefferson had only narrowly defeated Adams in 1800, he was widely popular due to the Louisiana Purchase and a strong economy. He carried almost every state, including most states in the Federalist stronghold of New England. Several states did not hold a popular vote for president, but Jefferson dominated the popular vote in the states that did. Jefferson's 45.6 percentage point victory margin in the popular vote remains the highest victory margin in a presidential election in which there were multiple major party candidates.

1936 United States presidential election in California

The 1936 United States presidential election in California was held on November 3, 1936, as part of the 1936 United States presidential election. California voters chose twenty-two electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

California voted for the Democratic candidate, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, in a landslide over the Republican challenger, Kansas Governor Alfred Mossman Landon, carrying every county and nearly sixty-seven percent of the vote to Landon’s 31.7 percent. Roosevelt’s percentage of the vote is the highest of any presidential candidate in California history, besting Warren G. Harding’s 66.2 percent in 1920. While his 35.25-percentage point margin of victory over Landon is the largest for any Democratic candidate, it is the second largest overall behind Harding’s 41.92 percent in 1920 and ahead of Theodore Roosevelt’s 34.9 percent in 1904.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last time that a presidential candidate from either political party completely swept all of California’s counties in an election. The only other candidate to manage this has been Harding in his landslide 1920 victory.Roosevelt was the last Democrat until Hillary Clinton in 2016 to carry Orange County in a presidential election, and the last until John Kerry in 2004 to carry Alpine County. Also, this was the only one of FDR’s four presidential campaigns where he carried Riverside County, which had never previously voted Democratic since its first election in 1896 and would not so again until Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.

1952 United States presidential election in New Mexico

The 1952 United States presidential election in New Mexico took place on November 4, 1952. All 48 States were part of the United States presidential election. New Mexico voters chose four electors to represent them in the Electoral College, which voted for President and Vice President.

New Mexico was won by World War II hero and supreme allied commander Dwight D. Eisenhower by a wide 11 percentage point margin. Running against Eisenhower was Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson, who only carried the majority of the American South during his two runs for the presidency. This was the tenth consecutive U.S. Presidential Election which New Mexico participated in.

1956 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1956 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 6, 1956 as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Voters chose 32 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Pennsylvania strongly voted for the Republican nominee, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, over the Democratic nominee, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson. Pennsylvania was the home state of President Eisenhower, as he moved to the Gettysburg area after World War II. Eisenhower won Pennsylvania by a solid 13.19 percentage point margin, and carried every county except Philadelphia and four heavily unionized coal counties in the southwestern "Black Country".

1958 Leeds City Council election

The Leeds municipal elections were held on Thursday 10 April 1958, with one third of the seats and a double vacancy in Bramley to be elected.Labour achieved a further swing of 0.3%, to take two more seats from the Conservatives. The two gains were in Westfield - where the incumbents 7.5% swing was not enough to hold on - and Wortley, with Labour narrowly gaining on a 78 vote majority as the main beneficiaries of the Liberal absence this time around. As well as those two gains, Labour gained one in the new aldermen division, increasing their majority on the council to 34. A notable feat of the election was the Liberals managing to push the Conservatives into third in the two wards of Holbeck and Middleton - a post-war first. Turnout rose by a percentage point on the previous year, to 37.2%.

1959 Leeds City Council election

The Leeds municipal elections were held on Thursday 7 May 1959, with one third of the seats and extra vacancies in East Hunslet and Stanningley up for election.Mirroring their national recovery, the Conservatives achieved a 3% swing to win the popular vote and make the only gain of the night in the marginal Wortley. The Liberals fielded their greatest number of candidates since 1951, and as such received their highest vote since then. Turnout fell by just under a percentage point from the year before to 36.3%.

1966 Hawaii gubernatorial election

The 1966 Hawaii gubernatorial election was Hawaii's third gubernatorial election. The election was held on November 8, 1966, and resulted in a victory for the Democratic candidate, incumbent Governor of Hawaii John A. Burns over Republican candidate, State Senator Randolph Crossley. Despite the close race, Burns received more votes than Crossley in every county in the state except Honolulu, which Crossley won by less than one percentage point.

1972 Houston Astros season

The 1972 Houston Astros season was a season in American baseball. The team finished second in the National League West with a record of 84–69, 10½ games behind the Cincinnati Reds and just a percentage point ahead of the Los Angeles Dodgers.

Basis point

A per ten thousand sign or basis point (often denoted as bp, often pronounced as "bip" or "beep") is (a difference of) one hundredth of a percent or equivalently one ten thousandth. The related concept of a permyriad is literally one part per ten thousand. Figures are commonly quoted in basis points in finance, especially in fixed income markets.

Cannabis in Maine

In the U.S. state of Maine, marijuana (cannabis) is legal for recreational use. It was originally prohibited in 1913. Possession of small amounts of the drug was decriminalized in 1976 under state legislation passed the previous year. The state's first medical cannabis law was passed in 1999, allowing patients to grow their own plants. The cities of Portland and South Portland decriminalized the possession and recreational use of marijuana in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

In 2016, a ballot initiative, Question 1, proposed the statewide legalization of marijuana use and sale. With all precincts reporting, the results showed a "Yes" vote passing by less than 1 percentage point. However, opponents of the measure sought a recount. Opponents of the measure conceded their effort on December 17, after the recount showed no change in the outcome and that the legalization of cannabis in Maine would go forward.

Central Reserve Bank of Peru

The Central Reserve Bank of Peru (Spanish: Banco Central de Reserva del Perú; BCRP) is the Peruvian central bank. It mints and issues metal and paper money, the sol.

Its branch in Arequipa was established in 1871, and it served the city by issuing money as well as maintaining a good reputation for savings accounts in Southern Peru. It is the equivalent of the Federal Reserve of the United States or the European Central Bank in Europe.

The Constitution states that the purpose of the Central Reserve Bank is to preserve monetary stability. The Central Reserve Bank's target annual inflation is 2.0 percent, with a tolerance of one percentage point upward and downward; its policies are aimed at achieving that goal.

The Constitution also assigns the following functions to the Central Reserve Bank: regulating currency and credit of the financial system, administering the international reserves in its care, issuing banknotes and coins, reporting regularly to the country on national finances, and managing the profitability of funds.

Central Sava Statistical Region

The Central Sava Statistical Region (Slovene: Zasavska statistična regija) is a statistical region in Slovenia. This statistical region in the Sava Hills is the smallest region in the country in terms of both area and population. In mid-2013 almost 43,300 people lived on 264 km², meaning that together with the Central Slovenia Statistical Region it is the most densely populated statistical region. The natural and geographic features of this region create conditions for industrial activities and more than a third of gross value added is still generated by manufacturing, mining, and other industry. In 2013, the region once again recorded the highest negative annual population growth rate (−11.9‰), which was mainly a result of migration to other statistical regions. Among all statistical regions in 2013, this region had the highest negative net migration between regions; namely, −9.5. This region also stands out by age of mothers at childbirth.

In 2013 first-time mothers in the region were on average 28.5 years old, whereas first-time mothers in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region were on average 1 year older. In the same year, the number of unemployed persons increased further. The registered unemployment rate was among the highest in the country (16.6%). In comparison with other regions, this is 7 percentage points more than in the region with the lowest registered unemployment rate, Upper Carniola, and almost 1 percentage point less than in the region with the highest unemployment rate, the Mura Statistical Region. According to the labour migration index, this is the most residential statistical region. In 2013, 60% of people in the region worked in their region of residence, and 40% worked in another region.

Discount window

The discount window is an instrument of monetary policy (usually controlled by central banks) that allows eligible institutions to borrow money from the central bank, usually on a short-term basis, to meet temporary shortages of liquidity caused by internal or external disruptions. The term originated with the practice of sending a bank representative to a reserve bank teller window when a bank needed to borrow money.The interest rate charged on such loans by a central bank is called the discount rate, base rate, or repo rate, and is separate and distinct from the prime rate. It is also not the same thing as the federal funds rate or its equivalents in other currencies, which determine the rate at which banks lend money to each other. In recent years, the discount rate has been approximately a percentage point above the federal funds rate (see Lombard credit). Because of this, it is a relatively unimportant factor in the control of the money supply and is only taken advantage of at large volume during emergencies.

Mackerras pendulum

The Mackerras pendulum was devised by the Australian psephologist Malcolm Mackerras as a way of predicting the outcome of an election contested between two major parties in a Westminster style lower house legislature such as the Australian House of Representatives, which is composed of single-member electorates and which uses a preferential voting system such as a Condorcet method or IRV.

The pendulum works by lining up all of the seats held in Parliament for the government, the opposition and the crossbenches according to the percentage-point margin they are held by on a two-party-preferred basis. This is also known as the swing required for the seat to change hands. Given a uniform swing to the opposition or government parties, the number of seats that change hands can be predicted.

South Bend Blue Sox

The South Bend Blue Sox was a women's professional baseball team who played from 1943 through 1954 in the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. A founding member, the team represented South Bend, Indiana, and played their home games at Bendix Field (1943–1945) and Playland Park (1946–1954).

The Blue Sox was one of two teams to play in every AAGPBL season without relocating, the other being the Rockford Peaches. Often a second-division team, they appeared in six playoff series and won two league titles.

In the 1943 inaugural season, The Blue Sox finished in third place with a 51–40 mark, only .001 percentage point behind second place Kenosha Comets. Together, pitchers Margaret Berger and Doris Barr threw 79 of the 91 games played by the Sox. Berger was credited with 25 wins and Barr with 15, while Berger posted her greatest triumph in a 13-inning match, which she won 1–0.

The next three years, South Bend finished 64–55 (1944), 49–60 (1945), 70–42 (1946), 57–54 (1947) and 57–59 (1948). After falling in their playoff intents, in the 1949 season the team posted the best record in with a 75–36 mark. That year they were swept in the playoffs, 4-to-0, by Rockford, after getting a first-round bye along with them. The South Bend club went on to win their next four playoffs in claiming back-to-back championship titles in 1951 and 1952. After that, the Blue Sox finished in last place both in the 1953 and 1954 seasons.

Apart from the aforementioned Barr and Berger, the South Bend included talented players as Mary Baker (C), Jean Faut (P) Betsy Jochum (OF/1B), Elizabeth Mahon (OF), Betty Whiting (IF), and Dottie Schroeder (SS), who played with four teams to become the only girl to play through the 12 years of existence of the circuit.

St. Louis Terriers

The St. Louis Terriers were a baseball club that played in the short-lived Federal League in 1914 and 1915. They played their home games at Handlan's Park. The St. Louis Chapter of SABR placed a marker at the site of Handlan's Park, now on the campus of Saint Louis University, on October 17, 2007. The team was owned by ice magnate Phil Ball, who later was owner of the St. Louis Browns.

In their inaugural season, the Terriers posted a 62-89 record (.411) and finished in last place, 25 games behind the league champion Indianapolis Hoosiers. The team improved significantly the next year as they were pennant contenders until the last game of the season. The Terriers had an 87-67 mark (.565), ending up in second place 1/10 of a percentage point behind the champion Chicago Whales, who finished 86-66 (.566).


A stardate is a fictional system of time measurement developed for the television and film series Star Trek. In the series, use of this date system is commonly heard at the beginning of a voice-over log entry, such as "Captain's log, stardate 41153.7. Our destination is planet Deneb IV …". While the general idea resembles the Julian date currently used by astronomers, writers and producers have selected numbers using different methods over the years, some more arbitrary than others. This makes it impossible to convert all stardates into equivalent calendar dates, especially since stardates were originally intended to avoid mentioning exactly when Star Trek takes place.

Swing (Australian politics)

The term swing refers to the extent of change in voter support, typically from one election or opinion poll to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage point. For the Australian House of Representatives and the lower houses of the parliaments of all the states and territories except Tasmania and the ACT, Australia employs preferential voting in single-member constituencies. Under the full-preference instant-runoff voting system, in each seat the candidate with the lowest vote is eliminated and their preferences are distributed, which is repeated until only two candidates remain. While every seat has a two-candidate preferred (TCP) result, seats where the major parties have come first and second are commonly referred to as having a two-party-preferred (TPP) result. The concept of "swing" in Australian elections is not simply a function of the difference between the votes of the two leading candidates, as it is in Britain. To know the majority of any seat, and therefore the swing necessary for it to change hands, it is necessary to know the preferences of all the voters, regardless of their first preference votes. It is not uncommon in Australia for candidates who have comfortable leads on the first count to fail to win the seat, because "preference flows" go against them.

Swing (politics)

An electoral swing analysis (or swing) shows the extent of change in voter support, typically from one election to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage. A multi-party swing is an indicator of a change in the electorate's preference between candidates or parties (mainly from conservative/centre-right to social democratic/centre-left or vice versa). A swing can be calculated for the electorate as a whole, for a given electoral district or for a particular demographic.

A swing is particularly useful for analysing change in voter support over time, or as a tool for predicting the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems. Swing is also usefully deployed when analysing the shift in voter intentions revealed by (political) opinion polls or to compare polls concisely which may rely on differing samples and on markedly different swings and therefore predict extraneous results.

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