Pepuza

Pepuza (also spelled Pepouza) was an ancient town in Phrygia, Asia Minor (in today's Turkish district of Karahallı, Uşak Province, Aegean Region). Coordinates of the central terrasse of the settlement: UTM 35 S 0714926/4253954 (WGS-84), 38.408˚ N, 29.4615˚ E.

From the middle of the 2nd century CE to the middle of the 6th century, Pepuza was the headquarters of the ancient Christian church of Montanism, which spread all over the Roman Empire. The Montanist patriarch resided at Pepouza, and the Montanists expected the heavenly Jerusalem to descend to earth at Pepouza and the nearby town of Tymion. In late antiquity, both places attracted crowds of pilgrims from all over the Roman Empire. Women played an emancipated role in Montanism, becoming priests and also bishops. In the 6th century, this church became extinct.

Since 2001, Peter Lampe of the University of Heidelberg has directed annual archaeological campaigns in Phrygia, Turkey. During these interdisciplinary campaigns, together with William Tabbernee of Tulsa, numerous unknown ancient settlements were discovered and archaeologically documented. Two of them are the best candidates so far in the search for the identification of the two holy centers of ancient Montanism, Pepuza and Tymion. Scholars had searched for these lost sites since the 19th century.

The ancient settlement in the Karahallı area, near the village of Karayakuplu, discovered and identified as Pepuza by William Tabbernee and Peter Lampe, was settled continuously from Hellenistic times to Byzantine times. In Byzantine times, an important rock-cut monastery belonged to the town.

Literature

  • W. Tabbernee/Peter Lampe, Pepouza and Tymion: The Discovery and Archaeological Exploration of a Lost Ancient City and an Imperial Estate (deGruyter: Berlin/New York, 2008) ISBN 978-3-11-019455-5 und ISBN 978-3-11-020859-7
  • Peter Lampe, Die montanistischen Tymion und Pepouza im Lichte der neuen Tymioninschrift, in: Zeitschrift für Antikes Christentum 8 (2004) 498-512

External links

Coordinates: 38°24′29″N 29°27′41″E / 38.40806°N 29.46139°E

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Bekilli

Bekilli is a town and a district of Denizli Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. Bekilli district area neighbors the district areas of Çal and Çivril, both also depending Denizli to the west, south and east, and those of two districts of Uşak Province to the north, namely Ulubey and Karahallı.

The town of Bekilli is located midway between the province seats of Denizli and Uşak, at a distance of 82 km (51 mi) from the first and 86 km (53 mi) from the second.

The town has 11 villages. They are Bükrüce, Çamköy, Çoğaşlı, Deşdemir, Gömce, İkizbaba, Köselli, Poyrazlı, Sırıklı, Üçkuyu and Yeşiloba (also known as Medele).

The town is renowned for its vineyards and celebrates an annual wine festival. Viticulture is a principal constituent of local culture.

Until the confirmation of its site slightly north of the town and south of the present-day neighboring district center of Karahallı, at a very short distance from Bekilli, the location of Bekilli was one of the leading candidates matched with ancient Pepuza (as well as its neighboring Tymion), associated with Montanism. Nevertheless, there are interesting and yet largely unexplored traces dating from Phrygian, Lydian, Roman and early Christian and Byzantine periods within Bekilli district area itself.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Cyaneae

Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Justinianopolis

Justinianopolis (Greek: Ἰουστινιανούπολις Ioustinianoupolis) may refer to several cities named after Justinian I or Justinian II:

EuropeJustinianopolis in Cyprus, a former name of Salamis, Cyprus

Justinianopolis (Epirus), a town of ancient Epirus, now in Albania

Justinianopolis in Macedonia, a former name of Kastoria, Greece

Justinianopolis (Thrace), a town of ancient Thrace, near modern IstanbulAsiaJustinianopolis in Armenia, a former name of Erzincan, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Bithynia, a former name of Günüören, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Cappadocia, a former name of Kırşehir, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Caria, a former name of Didim, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Cilicia, a former name of Anavarza, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Galatia, a former name of Sivrihisar, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Phoenicia, a former name of Huwwarin, Syria

Justinianopolis in Phrygia, a former name of Pepuza, Turkey

Justinianopolis in Pisidia, a later name of Conana, now in Turkey

Justinianopolis in Syria, a former name of Burqush, SyriaAfricaJustinianopolis in Africa, a former name of Sousse, Tunisia

Justinianopolis in Africa, a former name of Chebba, Tunisia

Justinianopolis in Egypt, a former name of Qift, Egypt

Karahallı

Karahallı is a town and district of Uşak Province in the inner Aegean region of Turkey. Karahallı district area neighbors those of two other districts of the same province to the north, namely Ulubey and Sivaslı, and to the south those of two districts depending Denizli Province which are Çivril and Bekilli.

Karahallı center is at a distance of 62 km (39 mi) from the province center of Uşak lying to its north. The district has fourteen depending villages, namely; Alfaklar, Buğdaylı, Beki, Çoğuplu, Çokaklı, Delihıdırlı, Dumanlı, Duraklı, Külköy, Kaykıllı, Kırkyaren, Kavaklı, Karayakuplu and Paşalar.

The district area is crossed by Banaz Stream and is divided roughly equally between agricultural lands and woodland, mostly oaks.

The name of the town makes reference to its founder, the 14th century Turkmen bey Kara Halil. The township was made into a district in 1953, simultaneous to the separation of Uşak Province from Kütahya Province, and Uşak's becoming a province seat.

There is a recently built dam and its reservoir, which is arranged into a recreational area that stands out notably by the presence of an ancient bridge, possibly associated with the Lydians and the Persians, and the Royal Road, although research specific to the bridge is yet to be made. It is built over Banaz Stream (Banaz Çayı) which later joins Büyük Menderes River and the locality is called Clandras or Klandras.

The ancient site of Pepuza, proclaimed as new Jerusalem in the traditions of Montanism, sometimes referred to as the lost sect of Christianity (mid-2nd century) is located within the boundaries of Karahallı district, and is an important visitor's attraction.

Another important ancient construction is Cılandıras Bridge over Banaz Stream.

In Ottoman times, the township was an important center for textile products, made especially of wool woven following Turkish traditions. Weaving activity is still pursued in an intensive manner with the presence of more than a thousand electric power looms across the district.

Cultivation of grapes intended for production of wine in the nearby center of Bekilli is also an important economic activity.

The region of Karahallı experienced considerable levels of outside immigration in recent decades, both towards other centers of its region and towards Europe. People who originate in Karahallı and live outside the district now outnumber those living in Karahallı.

Among notable natives is Azra Akın, Miss World in 2002, herself born in the Netherlands, but whose father, the former Eskişehirspor player Nazmi Akın, is from Karahallı.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Maximilla

Maximilla was a prophetess and an early advocate of Montanism, a heretical Christian sect founded in the third century A.D. by Montanus. Some scholars believe that Maximilla and Priscilla, another prophet, were actually the co-founders of Montanism. Other scholars dismiss this as unproven. Either way, it generally agreed upon that Maximilla and Priscilla provided the primary prophetic content and some of the oracles for the movement.According to the anti-Montanist polemic written by an anonymous author and preserved in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, Maximilla and Priscilla were pawns of the devil who spoke and acted in “a frenzied manner.” According to their followers, Maximilla and Priscilla were prophetesses like early Christian prophetesses.While Maximilla was claiming to prophesy in Pepuza, Zoticus of Comana became resistant to her teachings and tried to refute what she said. However, he was stopped by her followers and fellow Montanists. Apolinarius of Hierapolis also claimed that a person named Julian of Apimea rebuked her.

Montanism

Montanism , known by its adherents as the New Prophecy, was an early Christian movement of the late 2nd century, later referred to by the name of its founder, Montanus .

Montanism held similar views about the basic tenets of Christian doctrine to those of the wider Christian Church, but it was labelled a heresy for its belief in new prophetic revelations. The prophetic movement called for a reliance on the spontaneity of the Holy Spirit and a more conservative personal ethic. Parallels have been drawn between Montanism and modern-day movements such as Pentecostalism and the charismatic movement.It originated in Phrygia, a province of Asia Minor, and flourished throughout the region, leading to the movement being referred to elsewhere as "Cataphrygian" (meaning it was "from Phrygia") or simply as "Phrygian". It spread rapidly to other regions in the Roman Empire before Christianity was generally tolerated or legal. It persisted in some isolated places into the 6th century.

New Jerusalem

In the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible, New Jerusalem (יְהוָה שָׁמָּה, YHWH-shammah, or YHWH [is] there") is Ezekiel's prophetic vision of a city centered on the rebuilt Holy Temple, the Third Temple, to be established in Jerusalem, which would be the capital of the Messianic Kingdom, the meeting place of the twelve tribes of Israel, during the Messianic era. The prophecy is recorded by Ezekiel as having been received on Yom Kippur of the year 3372 of the Hebrew calendar.In the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, the city is also called the Heavenly Jerusalem, as well as being called Zion in other books of the Christian Bible.

Prisca (Prophet)

Prisca, often written in the diminutive form Priscilla, was a 2nd-century C.E. foundational leader and prophet of the religious movement known today as Montanism based in the Phrygian towns of Pepuza and Tymion. She, along with the prophets Montanus and Maximilla, proselytized a form of Christianity in which the Holy Spirit would enter the human body and speak through it.

With the exception of Tertullian, all historical information concerning her life, as well as the movement of which she was inextricably entwined, comes from extremely hostile sources written more than a century after her death.

Catholic writers in the 4th century condemned Montanism as a heresy and its female leaders as seductresses.No information exists concerning her life before her entrance into the movement. In joining the sect she was said to have abandoned her husband. Though the 4th century polemicists portrayed Montanus as the head of the sect, modern scholars debate the extent to which the three prophets shared power. In Epiphanius of Salamis’ Panarion, he subdivided adherents of the New Prophecy into many smaller categories, one of which was Priscillianists. Epiphanius defined a Priscillianist as having particular reverence for Priscilla as a spiritual leader but treated it and Montanism as interchangeable labels. In the early 3rd century, Priscilla likely took over leadership with Quintilla after the deaths of Montanus and Maximilla.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Tymion

Tymion was an ancient town in Phrygia, Asia Minor (in today's Turkish district of Karahallı, Uşak Province, Aegean Region). Its site is located at the Turkish village of Şükranje.

From the middle of the 2nd century CE to the middle of the 6th century CE, Tymion was an important town for the ancient Christian church of Montanism. The Montanists, whose church spread all over the Roman Empire, expected the New Jerusalem to descend to earth at Tymion and the nearby town of Pepuza; Pepuza was the headquarters of Montanism and the seat of the Montanist patriarch. One of the founders of Montanism, Montanus, called both towns "Jerusalem." In late antiquity, both places attracted crowds of pilgrims from all over the Roman Empire. Women played an emancipated role in Montanism. They could become priests and also bishops. In the 6th century CE, this church became extinct.

Since 2001, Peter Lampe of the University of Heidelberg has directed annual archaeological campaigns in Phrygia, Turkey. During these interdisciplinary campaigns, together with William Tabbernee of Tulsa, numerous unknown ancient settlements were discovered and archaeologically documented. Two of them are the best candidates so far in the search for the identification of the two holy centers of ancient Montanism, Pepuza and Tymion. Scholars had searched for these lost sites since the 19th century.

The archaeological site at Şükranje (Karahallı area) that Peter Lampe identified as Tymion was already settled in late Bronze and early Iron Ages. It flourished in Roman and Byzantine times as a rural town where predominantly tenant farmers lived. They worked on an imperial estate and were often oppressed by travelling magistrates or imperial slaves. In a petition, the farmers asked for help from the emperor. The emperor Septimius Severus wrote back that his procurator would support the farmers. The imperial rescript is preserved on an inscription.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

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