Pepsi

Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by PepsiCo. Originally created and developed in 1893 by Caleb Bradham and introduced as Brad's Drink, it was renamed as Pepsi-Cola on August 28, 1898,[1] and then as Pepsi in 1961.

Pepsi
Pepsi logo new
TypeCola
ManufacturerPepsiCo
Country of originUnited States
Introduced1893 (as Brad's Drink)
1898 (as Pepsi-Cola)
1961 (as Pepsi)
ColorCaramel E-150d
VariantsDiet Pepsi
Pepsi Twist
Pepsi Lime
Pepsi Wild Cherry
Crystal Pepsi
Caffeine-Free Pepsi
Pepsi-Cola Made with Real Sugar
Pepsi Vanilla
Pepsi Zero Sugar
Pepsi Next
Related productsCoca-Cola
RC Cola
Websitepepsi.com

History

HMB Bern New Bern Caleb Bradham
The pharmacy of Caleb Bradham, with a Pepsi dispenser
PepsiPlaque
A plaque at 256 Middle Street, New Bern, NC

Pepsi was first introduced as "Brad's Drink"[2] in New Bern, North Carolina, United States, in 1893 by Caleb Bradham, who made it at his drugstore where the drink was sold. It was renamed Pepsi-Cola in 1898 after the root of the word "dyspepsia" and the kola nuts used in the recipe. The original recipe also included sugar and vanilla.[1] Bradham sought to create a fountain drink that was appealing and would aid in digestion and boost energy.[2]

Pepsi Cola logo 1902
The original stylized Pepsi-Cola wordmark used from 1898 until 1905.

In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse. That year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup. The next year, Pepsi was sold in six-ounce bottles, and sales increased to 19,848 gallons. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfield was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola, describing it as "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race." The advertising theme "Delicious and Healthful" was then used over the next two decades.[3]

Pepsi newspaper ad 1919
A 1919 newspaper ad for Pepsi-Cola

In 1931, at the depth of the Great Depression, the Pepsi-Cola Company entered bankruptcy—in large part due to financial losses incurred by speculating on the wildly fluctuating sugar prices as a result of World War I. Assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark.[1] Megargel was unsuccessful, and soon Pepsi's assets were purchased by Charles Guth, the President of Loft, Inc. Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained soda fountains. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores' fountains after The Coca-Cola Company refused to give him a discount on syrup. Guth then had Loft's chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula.

On three separate occasions between 1922 and 1933, The Coca-Cola Company was offered the opportunity to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company, and it declined on each occasion.[4]

Rise

During the Great Depression, Pepsi-Cola gained popularity following the introduction in 1936 of a 12-ounce bottle. With a radio advertising campaign featuring the jingle "Pepsi-Cola hits the spot / Twelve full ounces, that's a lot / Twice as much for a nickel, too / Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you", arranged in such a way that the jingle never ends. Pepsi encouraged price-watching consumers to switch, obliquely referring to the Coca-Cola standard of 6.5 ounces per bottle for the price of five cents (a nickel), instead of the 12 ounces Pepsi sold at the same price.[5] Coming at a time of economic crisis, the campaign succeeded in boosting Pepsi's status. From 1936 to 1938, Pepsi-Cola's profits doubled.[6]

Pepsi Cola logo 1940
The stylized Pepsi-Cola wordmark used from 1940 to 1950. It was reintroduced in 2014.

Pepsi's success under Guth came while the Loft Candy business was faltering. Since he had initially used Loft's finances and facilities to establish the new Pepsi success, the near-bankrupt Loft Company sued Guth for possession of the Pepsi-Cola company. A long legal battle, Guth v. Loft, then ensued, with the case reaching the Delaware Supreme Court and ultimately ending in a loss for Guth.

Niche marketing

Pepsi targeted ad 1940s
1940s advertisement specifically targeting African Americans, A young Ron Brown is the boy reaching for a bottle

Walter Mack was named the new President of Pepsi-Cola and guided the company through the 1940s. Mack, who supported progressive causes, noticed that the company's strategy of using advertising for a general audience either ignored African Americans or used ethnic stereotypes in portraying blacks. Up until the 1940s, the full revenue potential of what was called "the Negro market" was largely ignored by white-owned manufacturers in the U.S.[7] Mack realized that blacks were an untapped niche market and that Pepsi stood to gain market share by targeting its advertising directly towards them.[8] To this end, he hired Hennan Smith, an advertising executive "from the Negro newspaper field"[9] to lead an all-black sales team, which had to be cut due to the onset of World War II.

In 1947, Walter Mack resumed his efforts, hiring Edward F. Boyd to lead a twelve-man team. They came up with advertising portraying black Americans in a positive light, such as one with a smiling mother holding a six pack of Pepsi while her son (a young Ron Brown, who grew up to be Secretary of Commerce)[10] reaches up for one. Another ad campaign, titled "Leaders in Their Fields", profiled twenty prominent African Americans such as Nobel Peace Prize winner Ralph Bunche and photographer Gordon Parks.

Boyd also led a sales team composed entirely of blacks around the country to promote Pepsi. Racial segregation and Jim Crow laws were still in place throughout much of the U.S.; Boyd's team faced a great deal of discrimination as a result,[9] from insults by Pepsi co-workers to threats by the Ku Klux Klan.[10] On the other hand, it was able to use its anti-racism stance as a selling point, attacking Coke's reluctance to hire blacks and support by the chairman of The Coca-Cola Company for segregationist Governor of Georgia Herman Talmadge.[8] As a result, Pepsi's market share as compared to Coca-Cola's shot up dramatically in the 1950s with African American soft-drink consumers three times more likely to purchase Pepsi over Coke.[11] After the sales team visited Chicago, Pepsi's share in the city overtook that of Coke for the first time.[8]

Journalist Stephanie Capparell interviewed six men who were on the team in the late 1940s. The team members had a grueling schedule, working seven days a week, morning and night, for weeks on end. They visited bottlers, churches, ladies groups, schools, college campuses, YMCAs, community centers, insurance conventions, teacher and doctor conferences, and various civic organizations. They got famous jazzmen such as Duke Ellington and Lionel Hampton to promote Pepsi from the stage. No group was too small or too large to target for a promotion.[12]

Pepsi advertisements avoided the stereotypical images common in the major media that depicted one-dimensional Aunt Jemimas and Uncle Bens, whose role was to draw a smile from white customers. Instead, it portrayed black customers as self-confident middle-class citizens who showed very good taste in their soft drinks. They were economical too, as Pepsi bottles were twice the size.[13]

This focus on the market for black people caused some consternation within the company and among its affiliates. It did not want to seem focused on black customers for fear white customers would be pushed away.[8] In a national meeting, Mack tried to assuage the 500 bottlers in attendance by pandering to them, saying "We don't want it to become known as a nigger drink."[14] After Mack left the company in 1950, support for the black sales team faded and it was cut.[7]

Marketing

Pepsi logo
The Pepsi logo used from 1973 to 1987. From 1987 to 1991, the logo was the same, but with the wordmark in Handel Gothic.[15] This logo was used for Pepsi Throwback until 2014. It was also used on packaging for regular Pepsi during their 2018 limited-time Pepsi Generations packaging.
PepsiOld
The Pepsi globe and wordmark used from 1992 to 2003. The wordmark has been separated from the globe, italicized and made much larger (written vertically on cans) but is still in Handel Gothic.
Pepsilogo
The Pepsi globe and wordmark used from 2003 to late 2008, based on the 1992 version. The "E" is squared off, serifs are added, and the globe has been shaded to appear three-dimensional. The position of the wordmark has varied widely. This logo is still in use in some international markets.
Pepsi logo 2008
The Pepsi logo used from 2008 to 2014. The Pepsi globe is now two-dimensional again, and the red, white, and blue design has been changed to look like a smile. The font used in this logo is almost identical to the font used for Diet Pepsi from 1975 to 1986. The "e" in "pepsi" is shaped liked previous forms of the Pepsi Globe.

From the 1930s through the late 1950s, "Pepsi-Cola Hits The Spot" was the most commonly used slogan in the days of old radio, classic motion pictures, and later television. Its jingle (conceived in the days when Pepsi cost only five cents) was used in many different forms with different lyrics. With the rise of radio, Pepsi utilized the services of a young, up-and-coming actress named Polly Bergen to promote products, oftentimes lending her singing talents to the classic "...Hits The Spot" jingle.

Film actress Joan Crawford, after marrying Pepsi-Cola President Alfred N. Steele became a spokesperson for Pepsi, appearing in commercials, television specials, and televised beauty pageants on behalf of the company. Crawford also had images of the soft drink placed prominently in several of her later films. When Steele died in 1959, Crawford was appointed to the Board of Directors of Pepsi-Cola, a position she held until 1973, although she was not a board member of the larger PepsiCo, created in 1965.[16]

The Buffalo Bisons, an American Hockey League team, were sponsored by Pepsi-Cola in its later years; the team adopted the beverage's red, white, and blue color scheme along with a modification of the Pepsi logo (with the word "Buffalo" in place of the Pepsi-Cola wordmark). The Bisons ceased operations in 1970, making way for the Buffalo Sabres.

Through the intervening decades, there have been many different Pepsi theme songs sung on television by a variety of artists, from Joanie Summers to the Jacksons to Britney Spears. (See Slogans.)

In 1975, Pepsi introduced the Pepsi Challenge marketing campaign where PepsiCo set up a blind tasting between Pepsi-Cola and rival Coca-Cola. During these blind taste tests, the majority of participants picked Pepsi as the better tasting of the two soft drinks. PepsiCo took great advantage of the campaign with television commercials reporting the results to the public.[1]

Pepsi has been featured in several films, including Back to the Future (1985), Home Alone (1990), Wayne's World (1992), Fight Club (1999), and World War Z (2013).[17][18]

In 1996, PepsiCo launched the highly successful Pepsi Stuff marketing strategy. "Project Blue" was launched in several international markets outside the United States in April. The launch included extravagant publicity stunts, such as a Concorde aeroplane painted in blue colors (which was owned by Air France) and a banner on the Mir space station.

The Project Blue design arrived in the United States test marketed in June 1997, and finally released in 1998 worldwide to celebrate Pepsi's 100th anniversary. It was at this point the logo began to be referred to as the Pepsi Globe.

By 2002, the strategy was cited by Promo Magazine as one of 16 "Ageless Wonders" that "helped redefine promotion marketing".[19]

In 2007, PepsiCo redesigned its cans for the fourteenth time, and for the first time, included more than thirty different backgrounds on each can, introducing a new background every three weeks.[20] One of its background designs includes a string of repetitive numbers, "73774". This is a numerical expression from a telephone keypad of the word "Pepsi". The same number is the SMS short code for Pepsi.[21]

In late 2008, Pepsi overhauled its entire brand, simultaneously introducing a new logo and a minimalist label design. The redesign was comparable to Coca-Cola's earlier simplification of its can and bottle designs. Pepsi also teamed up with YouTube to produce its first daily entertainment show called Poptub. This show deals with pop culture, internet viral videos, and celebrity gossip.

Pepsi has official sponsorship deals with the National Football League, National Hockey League, and National Basketball Association. It was the sponsor of Major League Soccer until December 2015 and Major League Baseball until April 2017, both leagues signing deals with Coca-Cola.[22][23] Pepsi also has the naming rights to the Pepsi Center, an indoor sports facility in Denver, Colorado. In 1997, after his sponsorship with Coca-Cola ended, retired NASCAR Sprint Cup Series driver turned Fox NASCAR announcer Jeff Gordon signed a long-term contract with Pepsi, and he drives with the Pepsi logos on his car with various paint schemes for about 2 races each year, usually a darker paint scheme during nighttime races. Pepsi has remained as one of his sponsors ever since. Pepsi has also sponsored the NFL Rookie of the Year award since 2002.[24]

Pepsi also has sponsorship deals in international cricket teams. The Pakistani national cricket team is one of the teams that the brand sponsors. The team wears the Pepsi logo on the front of their test and ODI test match clothing.

In July 2009, Pepsi started marketing itself as Pecsi in Argentina in response to its name being mispronounced by 25% of the population and as a way to connect more with all of the population.[25]

In October 2008, Pepsi announced that it would be redesigning its logo and re-branding many of its products by early 2009. In 2009, Pepsi, Diet Pepsi, and Pepsi Max began using all lower-case fonts for name brands. The brand's blue and red globe trademark became a series of "smiles", with the central white band arcing at different angles depending on the product until 2010. Pepsi released this logo in U.S. in late 2008, and later it was released in 2009 in Canada (the first country outside of the United States for Pepsi's new logo), Brazil, Bolivia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Colombia, Argentina, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Panama, Chile, Dominican Republic, the Philippines, and Australia. In the rest of the world, the new logo was released in 2010. The old logo is still used in several international markets, and has been phased out most recently in France and Mexico. The UK started to use the new Pepsi logo on cans in an order different from the US can. Starting in mid-2010, all Pepsi variants, regular, diet, and Pepsi Max, have started using only the medium-sized "smile" Pepsi Globe.

In 2011, for New York Fashion Week, Diet Pepsi introduced a "skinny" can that is taller and has been described as a "sassier" version of the traditional can that Pepsi said was made in "celebration of beautiful, confident women". The company's equating of "skinny" and "beautiful" and "confident" drew criticism from brand critics, consumers who did not back the "skinny is better" ethos, and the National Eating Disorders Association, which said that it took offense to the can and the company's "thoughtless and irresponsible" comments. PepsiCo Inc. is a Fashion Week sponsor. This new can was made available to consumers nationwide in March.[26]

In April 2011, Pepsi announced that customers would be able to buy a complete stranger a soda at a new "social" vending machine, and even record a video that the stranger would see when they pick up the gift.[27]

In March 2013, Pepsi for the first time in 17 years reshaped its 20-ounce bottle. However, some areas did not get the updated bottles until early 2014.[28]

In November 2013, Pepsi issued an apology on their official Swedish Facebook page for using pictures of Cristiano Ronaldo as a voodoo doll in various scenes before the Sweden v Portugal 2014 FIFA World Cup playoff game.[29][30]

In November 2015, Pepsi announced it would launch a new variation called "1893".[31] This variation was released in 2016 as a Pepsi variation made with all natural ingredients.[32]

On April 4, 2017, Pepsi posted a commercial, dubbed “Live for Now (Pepsi)” to YouTube. In the commercial, Kendall Jenner is seen taking off her wig, removing her necklace, and leaving her photoshoot to join a protest going on. The protest ends when Jenner hands a police officer a can of Pepsi soda, reuniting everyone. The advertisement generated public controversy and criticism for trivializing protest movements such as Black Lives Matter. On April 5, 2017, Pepsi issued an apology and removed the commercial from YouTube.[33]

In 2018 May, Pepsi began selling 0,33L cans with designs of older Pepsi generations, with stylized prints of celebrities associated with the brand and the older designs of the Pepsi logo.

Rivalry with Coca-Cola

According to Consumer Reports, in the 1970s, the rivalry continued to heat up the market. Pepsi conducted blind taste tests in stores, in what was called the "Pepsi Challenge". These tests suggested that more consumers preferred the taste of Pepsi (which is believed to have more lemon oil, and less orange oil, and uses vanillin rather than vanilla) to Coke. The sales of Pepsi started to climb, and Pepsi kicked off the "Challenge" across the nation. This became known as the "Cola Wars".

In 1985, The Coca-Cola Company, amid much publicity, changed its formula. The theory has been advanced that New Coke, as the reformulated drink came to be known, was invented specifically in response to the Pepsi Challenge. However, a consumer backlash led to Coca-Cola quickly reintroducing the original formula as "Coca-Cola Classic".

In 1989, Billy Joel mentioned the rivalry between the two companies in the song "We Didn't Start the Fire". The line "Rock & Roller Cola Wars" refers to Pepsi and Coke's usage of various musicians in advertising campaigns. Coke used Paula Abdul, while Pepsi used Michael Jackson. Both companies then competed to get other musicians to advertise its beverages.

According to Beverage Digest's 2008 report on carbonated soft drinks, PepsiCo's U.S. market share is 30.8 percent, while The Coca-Cola Company's is 42.7 percent.[34] Coca-Cola outsells Pepsi in most parts of the U.S., notable exceptions being central Appalachia, North Dakota, and Utah. In the city of Buffalo, New York, Pepsi outsells Coca-Cola by a two-to-one margin.[35]

Overall, Coca-Cola continues to outsell Pepsi in almost all areas of the world. However, exceptions include: Oman, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, and Northern Ontario.[36]

Pepsi had long been the drink of French-Canadians, and it continues to hold its dominance by relying on local Québécois celebrities (especially Claude Meunier, of La Petite Vie fame) to sell its product.[37] PepsiCo introduced the Quebec slogan "here, it's Pepsi" (Ici, c'est Pepsi) in response to Coca-Cola ads proclaiming "Around the world, it's Coke" (Partout dans le monde, c'est Coke).

As of 2012, Pepsi is the third most popular carbonated drink in India, with a 15% market share, behind Sprite and Thums Up. In comparison, Coca-Cola is the fourth most popular carbonated drink, occupying a mere 8.8% of the Indian market share.[38] By most accounts, Coca-Cola was India's leading soft drink until 1977, when it left India because of the new foreign exchange laws which mandated majority shareholding in companies to be held by Indian shareholders. The Coca-Cola Company was unwilling to dilute its stake in its Indian unit as required by the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA), thus sharing its formula with an entity in which it did not have majority shareholding. In 1988, PepsiCo gained entry to India by creating a joint venture with the Punjab government-owned Punjab Agro Industrial Corporation (PAIC) and Voltas India Limited. This joint venture marketed and sold Lehar Pepsi until 1991, when the use of foreign brands was allowed; PepsiCo bought out its partners and ended the joint venture in 1994. In 1993, The Coca-Cola Company returned in pursuance of India's Liberalization policy.[39]

Classic Pepsi bottles in supermarket in Kyiv
Pepsi bottles in USSR period style in supermarket in Kyiv

In Russia, Pepsi initially had a larger market share than Coke, but it was undercut once the Cold War ended. In 1972, PepsiCo struck a barter agreement with the then government of the Soviet Union, in which PepsiCo was granted exportation and Western marketing rights to Stolichnaya vodka in exchange for importation and Soviet marketing of Pepsi.[40][41] This exchange led to Pepsi being the first foreign product sanctioned for sale in the Soviet Union.[42]

Reminiscent of the way that Coca-Cola became a cultural icon and its global spread spawned words like "cocacolonization", Pepsi-Cola and its relation to the Soviet system turned it into an icon. In the early 1990s, the term "Pepsi-stroika" began appearing as a pun on "perestroika", the reform policy of the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev. Critics viewed the policy as an attempt to usher in Western products in deals there with the old elites. Pepsi, as one of the first American products in the Soviet Union, became a symbol of that relationship and the Soviet policy. This was reflected in Russian author Victor Pelevin's book "Generation P".

In 1992, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Coca-Cola was introduced to the Russian market. As it came to be associated with the new system and Pepsi to the old, Coca-Cola rapidly captured a significant market share that might otherwise have required years to achieve. By July 2005, Coca-Cola enjoyed a market share of 19.4 percent, followed by Pepsi with 13 percent.[43]

Pepsi did not sell soft drinks in Israel until 1991. Many Israelis and some American Jewish organizations attributed Pepsi's previous reluctance to expand operations in Israel to fears of an Arab boycott. Pepsi, which has a large and lucrative business in the Arab world, denied that, saying that economic, rather than political, reasons kept it out of Israel.[44]

Pepsiman

Pepsiman is an official Pepsi mascot from Pepsi's Japanese corporate branch, created sometime around the mid-1990s. Pepsiman took on three different outfits, each one representing the current style of the Pepsi can in distribution. Twelve commercials were created featuring the character. His role in the advertisements is to appear with Pepsi to thirsty people or people craving soda. Pepsiman happens to appear at just the right time with the product. After delivering the beverage, sometimes Pepsiman would encounter a difficult and action-oriented situation which would result in injury. Another more minor mascot, Pepsiwoman, also featured in a few of her own commercials for Pepsi Twist; her appearance is basically a female Pepsiman wearing a lemon-shaped balaclava.[45]

In 1996, Sega-AM2 released the Sega Saturn version of its arcade fighting game Fighting Vipers. In this game Pepsiman was included as a special character, with his specialty listed as being the ability to "quench one's thirst". He does not appear in any other version or sequel. In 1999, KID developed a video game for the PlayStation entitled Pepsiman. As the titular character, the player runs "on rails" (forced motion on a scrolling linear path), skateboards, rolls, and stumbles through various areas, avoiding dangers and collecting cans of Pepsi, all while trying to reach a thirsty person as in the commercials.[46][47][48]

Car contest in Novosibirsk

In 2002, at Novosibirsk, Pepsi created a contest to win a car, where customers who bought a bottle of Pepsi could win a car by choosing the right key for the car. However, when a man was able to open a car, he was sued by Pepsi, as Pepsi considered that he had forced the car open by applying pressure on the lock instead of selecting the right key, although the man stated that he had complied with every step of the contest rules.[49]

"We Will Rock You" music video

In 2004, advertising agency BBDO Paris produced a three-minute music video-style commercial for Pepsi featuring singers Britney Spears, Beyoncé and Pink as gladiatrices sent into an ancient Roman colosseum to battle one another. Instead, they throw down their weapons and perform a cover version of Queen's 1977 hit song "We Will Rock You" to a cheering, foot-stomping crowd. They then drink cans of Pepsi while the Emperor (played by Enrique Iglesias) is thrown into the arena to face a lion.[50]

Ingredients

Nutrition facts
Serving size 12 fl oz (355 ml)
Servings per container 1
Amount per serving
Calories 150[51] Calories from fat 0
% Daily value*
Total fat 0 g 0%
   Saturated fat 0 g 0%
   Trans fat 0 g
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Sodium 15 mg 1%
Potassium 0 mg 0%
Total carbohydrate 41 g 14%
   Dietary fiber 0 g 0%
   Sugars 41 g
Protein 0 g
Vitamin A 0%      Vitamin C 0%
Calcium 0%      Iron 0%
*Percent daily values are based on a 2,000‑calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs.

In the United States, Pepsi is made with carbonated water, high fructose corn syrup, caramel color, sugar, phosphoric acid, caffeine, citric acid, and natural flavors. A can of Pepsi (12 fl ounces) has 41 grams of carbohydrates (all from sugars), 30 mg of sodium, 0 grams of fat, 0 grams of protein, 38 mg of caffeine, and 150 calories.[52][53] Pepsi has 10 more calories and 2 more grams of sugar and carbohydrates than Coca-Cola. Caffeine-Free Pepsi contains the same ingredients but without the caffeine.

Variants

Fictional drinks

  • Pepsi Perfect: A vitamin-enriched Pepsi variation shown in the movie Back to the Future Part II in scenes set in the year 2015. This was later released as a limited-edition drink.[54]
  • Pepsi Nex: Pepsi variation shown in the 2011 Japanese anime series, Tiger & Bunny. Pepsi then released a Pepsi Nex variant in Japan in 2012 for promotional purposes.[55]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b c d "The History of Pepsi Cola". Archived from the original on April 15, 2001. Retrieved August 13, 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Soda Museum.
  2. ^ a b The History of the Birthplace of Pepsi-Cola. Pepsistore.com. Retrieved on February 4, 2012.
  3. ^ "Pepsi – FAQs". PepsiCo. Retrieved October 12, 2009. 1909: Automobile racing pioneer Barney Oldfield becomes the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi when he appears in newspaper ads describing Pepsi: "A bully drink...refreshing, invigorating, a fine bracer before a race." The theme "Delicious and Healthful" appears and will be used intermittently over the next two decades.
  4. ^ Mark Pendergrast (2000). For God, Country and Coca-Cola. Basic Books. pp. 192–193. ISBN 0-465-05468-4.
  5. ^ "1939 Radio Commercial (Twice as Much for a Nickel)". Archived from the original on June 15, 2007. Retrieved August 13, 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. ^ Jones, Eleanor & Ritzmann, Florian. "Coca-Cola at Home". Retrieved June 17, 2006.
  7. ^ a b "How Pepsi Opened Door to Diversity". Wall Street Journal. January 9, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d Martin, Douglas (May 6, 2007). "Edward F. Boyd Dies at 92; Marketed Pepsi to Blacks". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2007.
  9. ^ a b Archer, Michelle (January 22, 2007). "Pepsi's challenge in 1940s: Color barrier". USA Today. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
  10. ^ a b Stewart, Jocelyn Y. (May 5, 2007). "Edward Boyd, 92; Pepsi ad man broke color barriers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  11. ^ Brian D. Behnken, Gregory D. Smithers (2015). "Racism in American Popular Media: From Aunt Jemima to the Frito Bandito". p. 34. ABC-CLIO
  12. ^ Stephanie Capparell, "How Pepsi Opened Door to Diversity." CHANGE 63 (2007): 1-26 online.
  13. ^ Stephanie Capparell, The Real Pepsi Challenge: The Inspirational Story of Breaking the Color Barrier in American Business (2007).
  14. ^ Smiley, Tavis (February 27, 2007). "Edward Boyd". PBS. Archived from the original (interview) on September 29, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2007.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  16. ^ "LA Times: Joan Crawford Appointed to Pepsi Board". Joancrawfordbest.com. May 7, 1959. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  17. ^ Bricken, Rob (March 7, 2013). "20 Lies Back to the Future II Told Us (Besides the Hoverboard)". Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  18. ^ Leigh, Stephen (September 15, 2011). "The Worst Movie Product Placements Of All Time". Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2015.
  19. ^ PepsiCo – Company – Honors (2002), Promo Magazine, 2002.
  20. ^ Pepsi Can Gallery Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Pepsigallery.com. Retrieved on February 4, 2012.
  21. ^ https://usshortcodedirectory.com/directory/short-code-73774/
  22. ^ "PepsiCo nabs NBA sponsorship rights from Coca-Cola". Fortune.com. January 9, 2015.
  23. ^ "MLB drops Pepsi for Coca-Cola". CNN. April 3, 2017.
  24. ^ "Pepsi MAX Confirms 30-Second Ad and Consumer Activation for Super Bowl XLVI – PURCHASE, N.Y., Jan. 30, 2012 /PRNewswire/". Prnewswire.com. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  25. ^ Vescovi, Valentina (July 15, 2009). "In Argentina, Pepsi Becomes 'Pecsi'". AdAge.com.
  26. ^ "Diet Pepsi's Skinny Can Stirs Controversy at New York's Fashion Week". Fox News. February 11, 2011.
  27. ^ "PepsiCo Introduces Social Vending System, the Next Generation in Interactive Vend Technology".
  28. ^ "Pepsi introduces new shape for 20-ounce bottle". MyFox Detroit. Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
  29. ^ "Pepsi apologizes for Cristiano Ronaldo voodoo doll pictures". Yahoo. November 21, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  30. ^ "Pepsi". Facebook. November 21, 2013. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  31. ^ "Pepsi Is Launching a Mysterious New Soda Called '1893'". Fortune. November 6, 2015. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  32. ^ "Pepsi's Mysterious New Craft Soda Is Here: Pepsi 1893 Original and Ginger Cola". Retrieved September 22, 2016.
  33. ^ Victor, Daniel (5 April 2017). "Pepsi Pulls Ad Accused of Trivializing Black Lives Matter". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  34. ^ "Special Issue: Top-10 CSD Results for 2008" Archived April 19, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Beverage Digest, March 30, 2009 (PDF)
  35. ^ "History of Pepsi vs. Coke Rivalry at Rivals4Ever". Rivals4ever.com. Archived from the original on November 27, 2011. Retrieved December 10, 2011.
  36. ^ Vive la difference, Strategy Magazine, October 2004
  37. ^ "The Pepsi 'Meunier' Campaign" (PDF). Canadian Advertising Success Stories (Cassies) Case Library. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
  38. ^ The top 5 sodas in India by market share, Euromonitor International via Bloomberg, June 26, 2012 Archived November 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "India: Soft Drinks, Hard Cases" Archived February 3, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, The Water Dossier, March 14, 2005
  40. ^ Robert Laing (March 28, 2006). "Pepsi's comeback, Part II". Mail & Guardian online. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 21, 2007.
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Bibliography
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  • Stoddard, Bob. Pepsi-Cola – 100 Years (1997), General Publishing Group, Los Angeles, California
  • "History & Milestones" (1996), Pepsi packet
  • Louis, J.C. & Yazijian, Harvey Z. "The Cola Wars" (1980), Everest House, Publishers, New York

External links

Cola wars

The cola wars are a series of mutually-targeted television advertisements and marketing campaigns since the 1980s between two long-time rival soft drink producers, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo. The battle between the two dominant brands in the United States intensified to such an extent that the term “Cola wars” was used to describe the feud. Each employed numerous advertising and marketing campaigns to outdo the other.

Short periods of intense competition between the two firms contrast with how the two firms avoid competition most of the time by focusing on different consumers, sponsoring different sports, differentiating their logos, choosing different colors for their packaging, and building different images for their brand.In periods of intense competition, one firm challenges the other by asserting superiority on one specific aspect of their products. This leads to direct competition and changes in market shares or in prices. For example, Pepsi marketed bigger bottles for the same price as Coca-Cola during the Great Depression in the 1930s. The memory of such periods of frontal competition may help both firms maintain the more profitable status quo. Both firms generally prefer not to compete on real product differences, such as price or taste, because this offers only short-term opportunities for additional profit.

Colisée Pepsi

Colisée Pepsi (formerly known as Colisée de Québec) was a multi-purpose arena located in Quebec City, Quebec. It was the home of the Quebec Nordiques from 1972 to 1995, during their time in the World Hockey Association and National Hockey League. It was also the home of the Quebec Remparts of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League from 1999 until its closing in 2015. The Colisée hosted the Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournament annually in February until its closing in 2015, with almost 2,300 young hockey players from 16 countries participating annually.

Consumers Energy 400

The Consumers Energy 400 is a Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race held annually in the month of August at Michigan International Speedway in Brooklyn, Michigan since 1969. The race was not held in 1973 after track owner Roger Penske replaced the race with a Champ Car event. The inaugural event was scheduled to be 600 miles (970 km), but was shortened because of inclement weather. Afterward, the race distance was changed to 400 miles (640 km). The event has had numerous companies sponsor the race, including Pepsi and Carfax. It is the second of two NASCAR Cup Series races held annually at Michigan (the first race is held in June).

Crystal Pepsi

Crystal Pepsi is a soft drink made by PepsiCo. It was first sold in Europe in the early 1990s. The United States and Canada received it from 1992 to 1994, with brief rereleases throughout the mid-2010s. It was briefly sold in the UK and Australia. The product's original market life was sabotaged by competitor Coca-Cola, in a "kamikaze" plan which sacrificed its Tab Clear product in order to end them both. Crystal Pepsi is notable for a fanatical revival by the public decades later, leading to a corporate response with these re-releases.

Diet Pepsi

Diet Pepsi is a no-calorie carbonated cola soft drink produced by PepsiCo, introduced in 1964 as a variant of Pepsi with no sugar. First test marketed in 1963 under the name Patio Diet Cola, it was re-branded as Diet Pepsi the following year, becoming the first diet cola to be distributed on a national scale in the United States. In the 1960s and 1970s its competition consisted of Tab, produced by The Coca-Cola Company, and Diet Rite soda, produced by Royal Crown. Diet Coke was a later entrant to the diet cola market; though shortly after entering production in 1982 it became the primary competing diet cola to Diet Pepsi.

While the U.S. represents the largest single market for Diet Pepsi, it was launched in the U.K. in 1983 and has since become available on a global scale. The beverage composition, flavor variations and packaging varies based on the country of production. In some countries—primarily in Eastern Europe—the product is labeled and sold under the name Pepsi Light. In the UK it was called Pepsi Diet to bring it inline with the European version, until 2015 when it was renamed Diet Pepsi once again.

LTi Printing 250

The LTi Printing 250 is a NASCAR Xfinity Series race that takes place at Michigan International Speedway. First held in 1992, the race was a 200 miles (320 km) event from its inception through 1999, and was extended to 250 miles starting with the 2000 race, it is held the day before the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series FireKeepers Casino 400.

The 2007 Carfax 250 was the first-ever carbon neutral stock car event. Through partnerships with The Conservation Fund and Carbonfund.org, Carfax offset all carbon emissions generated by the race, including carbon emissions from fans attending the race.

Nashville 300

The Nashville 300 is a discontinued NASCAR Nationwide Series race that took place at Nashville Superspeedway on Holy Saturday.

National Football League Rookie of the Year Award

Various entities present a National Football League Rookie of the Year Award each season to the top rookie(s) in the National Football League (NFL). The NFL considers the rookie of the year awards by the Associated Press (AP) to be its official honor. The AP awards and Pepsi's rookie of the year award are presented each year at the NFL Honors.

PepsiCo

PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Harrison, New York, in the hamlet of Purchase. PepsiCo has interests in the manufacturing, marketing, and distribution of grain-based snack foods, beverages, and other products. PepsiCo was formed in 1965 with the merger of the Pepsi-Cola Company and Frito-Lay, Inc. PepsiCo has since expanded from its namesake product Pepsi to a broader range of food and beverage brands, the largest of which included an acquisition of Tropicana Products in 1998 and the Quaker Oats Company in 2001, which added the Gatorade brand to its portfolio.

As of January 26, 2012, 22 of PepsiCo's brands generated retail sales of more than $1 billion apiece, and the company's products were distributed across more than 200 countries, resulting in annual net revenues of $43.3 billion. Based on net revenue, PepsiCo is the second largest food and beverage business in the world. Within North America, PepsiCo is the largest food and beverage business by net revenue. Ramon Laguarta has been the chief executive of PepsiCo since 2018. The company's beverage distribution and bottling is conducted by PepsiCo as well as by licensed bottlers in certain regions.

Pepsi 420

The Pepsi 420 was a NASCAR Winston Cup Series stock car race held at Nashville International Raceway from 1958 to 1984.

Pepsi Center

Pepsi Center is a multi-purpose arena located in Denver, Colorado, USA. The arena is home to the Denver Nuggets of the National Basketball Association (NBA), the Colorado Avalanche of the National Hockey League (NHL), and the Colorado Mammoth of the National Lacrosse League (NLL). When not in use by one of Denver's sports teams, the building frequently serves as a concert venue.The arena is named for its chief corporate sponsor, PepsiCo.

Pepsi Chart

The Pepsi Chart (previously known as "The Pepsi Network Chart Show") was a networked Sunday afternoon Top 40 countdown on UK radio that started life on 1 August 1993 with Neil 'Doctor' Fox hosting the show live from the Capital Radio studios in London. The Pepsi Chart show carried an emphasis in fun and was the UK's first personality-led chart show: the presenter was live and exciting, big-prize competitions were held, and the Top 10 was official - i.e. it was entirely sales-based resulting in a shared song order with the BBC's Radio 1 Official Chart Show and also theoretically played out at the same time.

The Pepsi Chart was produced for CRCA by Unique Productions who along with the (then) programme director of Capital Radio Richard Park, and Fox, came up with the new show concept. The show was broadcast on between 80 and 110 local commercial radio stations across the UK via SMS satellite. Locums for the 'Doctor' included Capital's own Steve Penk and Key 103 Manchester's Darren Proctor. Occasional guest presenters filled in, such as Richard Blackwood of MTV UK & Ireland fame.

Pepsi Max

Pepsi Max (also known as Pepsi Black in some countries) is a low-calorie, sugar-free cola, marketed by PepsiCo as an alternative to their drinks Pepsi and Diet Pepsi. It is sold primarily in European and Asian markets.

A drink with the same name but different formulation (containing ginseng and higher quantities of caffeine) was sold in the United States until it was renamed "Pepsi Zero Sugar" in late 2016.

Pepsi Max 400

The Pepsi Max 400 was a NASCAR Sprint Cup Series stock car race held annually at the Auto Club Speedway in Fontana, California. It was the second of two Sprint Cup Series races held at the Auto Club Speedway (the other being the Auto Club 500) and in 2009 and 2010 it was run in October as part of the Chase for the Sprint Cup.

Pepsi P1

The Pepsi P1 and Pepsi P1S are Android smartphones manufactured by Koobee, an OEM, under licence from PepsiCo. and were only available through a crowdfunding campaign on Chinese crowdfunding site JD.com.

TNT KaTropa

The TNT KaTropa (formerly known as the Talk 'N Text Tropang Texters) is a professional basketball team currently owned by Smart Communications, a subsidiary of the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), playing in the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) since 1990.

The franchise began in 1990 when Pepsi-Cola Products Philippines, Inc. (PCPPI) acquired a PBA franchise. Under PCPPI, the franchise played under the names Pepsi and 7 Up. In 1996, the franchise came under the control of Pilipino Telephone Corporation (Piltel) and played under the name Mobiline. In 2001, the franchise was renamed Talk 'N Text after the operations of Piltel was absorbed by Smart Communications.

The team is currently one of three PBA teams under the control of businessman Manuel V. Pangilinan – the others are the Meralco Bolts and NLEX Road Warriors. To date, the franchise has won seven official PBA titles (and one special PBA tournament championship), it also remains as one of the league's powerhouses and it is one of the oldest teams in PBA.

Times Union Center

The Times Union Center (originally Knickerbocker Arena, then Pepsi Arena) is an indoor arena located in Albany, New York. It is configurable and can accommodate from 6,000 to 17,500 people, with a maximum seating capacity of 15,500 for sporting events.

The building, designed by Crozier Associates and engineered by Clough Harbour & Associates, was built by Beltrone/MLB at a cost of $69.4 million.

The arena also has 25 luxury suites; each has sixteen seats, cable television, a refrigerator, and a private bathroom. They are located at the top of the inner bowl. All suites are rented on three-year terms; all are currently sold out.

Úrvalsdeild karla (football)

The Úrvalsdeild karla (Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈurvalsˌteilt ˈkʰartla], Men's Select Division) is the highest football league in Iceland. It has been played since 1912. Because of the harsh winters in Iceland, it is generally played in the spring and summer (May to September). It is administered by the Football Association of Iceland (KSI) and is contested by 12 teams. At the end of the 2015–2016 season, the UEFA ranked the league 35th in Europe. From 27 April 2009, the league has been known as Pepsi deildin (i.e. The Pepsi League) due to a three-year sponsorship deal with Ölgerðin (the Icelandic franchisee for Pepsi).The league includes 12 clubs who play each other two times, once at home and once away. The two teams with the fewest points at the end of the season are relegated to 1. deild karla (First Division) and replaced by the top two teams of that division. Internationally, the winner of the Úrvalsdeild enters the UEFA Champions League in the second qualifying round. Second, third and fourth placed teams qualify for the UEFA Europa League in the first qualifying round.For the first time in the competition's history, the 2008 season saw 12 teams compete in the premier division, a part of KSI's attempt to strengthen Icelandic football.

Therefore, only one team was relegated in the 2007 season and three clubs were promoted from the First Division.

KR hold the most titles, with 26, Valur is next with 22, while ÍA and Fram Reykjavík follow with 18 each. FH holds 8 and Víkingur has retained 5 championship titles. The current champions of Iceland are Valur.

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