People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force

The People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force (PLASSF or SSF ; Chinese: 中国人民解放军战略支援部队) is the cyber-, space-, and electronic-warfare service branch of China's People's Liberation Army.[2][3] It was established in December 2015 as part of the first wave of the People's Republic of China military reform.[4][5]

People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force
Emblem of People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force
Emblem of People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force
ActiveJanuary 2016–present
Country People's Republic of China
Allegiance Communist Party of China[1]
TypeCyber and space force
RoleCyber warfare, space warfare, and electronic warfare
Part of People's Liberation Army
CommanderGeneral Gao Jin
Political CommissarGeneral Zheng Weiping
The emblem of PLASSF


Initial announcements did not provide much detail, but Yang Yujun of the Chinese Ministry of Defense described it as a combination of all support forces. Commentators speculate that it will include high-tech operations including space, cyberspace and electronic warfare operations, independent of other branches of the military.[4] Another expert, Yin Zhuo, said that "the major mission of the PLA Strategic Support Force is to give support to the combat operations so that the PLA can gain regional advantages in the space warfare and cyber warfare domains, and to ensure smooth operations."[6]


Functionally and structurally, the Strategic Support Force operates like the People's Liberation Army Rocket Force.[3] The SSF is formed from the units responsible for space, cyber, and electronic warfare in the former General Staff Department (including the cyber espionage capabilities of the former Third Department, the electronic support measures from the former Fourth Department, and the space-based ISR systems and Aerospace Reconnaissance Bureau and Satellite Main Station), General Political Department, and General Armaments Department (including the launch, telemetry, tracking, and control facilities and research and development organisations).[2]

Space Systems Department

The PLASSF Space Systems Department is the consolidation of all PLA's space-based C4ISR systems.

  • Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center / 20th Testing and Training Base
  • Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center / 25th Testing and Training Base
  • Xichang Satellite Launch Center / 27th Testing and Training Base
  • Wenchang Aerospace Launch Site
  • Space Telemetry, Tracking, and Control
  • Beijing Aerospace Flight Control Center
  • Xi’an Satellite Control Center / 26th Testing and Training Base
  • Telemetry, Tracking, and Control Stations
  • China Satellite Maritime Tracking and Control Department
  • 23rd Testing and Training Base
  • Aerospace Reconnaissance Bureau
  • Satellite Main Station
  • Aerospace Research and Development Center
  • Project Design Research Center
  • Astronaut Corps

Network Systems Department

The PLASSF Network Systems Department is the integration of all PLA's information warfare capabilities.


  1. ^ "The PLA Oath" (PDF). I am a member of the People's Liberation Army. I promise that I will follow the leadership of the Communist Party of China...
  2. ^ a b PLA Strategic Support Force: The 'Information Umbrella' for China's Military The Diplomat 1 April 2017
  3. ^ a b The Strategic Support Force: Update and Overview Jamestown Foundation China Brief Volume: 16 Issue: 19
  4. ^ a b "China Takes Bold Steps Toward Military Reform" (11 January 2016)
  5. ^ Costello, John; McReynolds, Joe (2018). China’s Strategic Support Force: A Force for a New Era. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  6. ^ Expert: PLA Strategic Support Force a key force to win wars
19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

The 19th Central Committee (19th CC) of the Communist Party of China was elected by the 19th National Congress in 2017, and will sit until the next National Congress is convened in 2022. It formally succeeded the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

The Committee is composed of full members and alternate members. A member has voting rights, while an alternate does not. If a full member is removed from the Central Committee the vacancy is then filled by an alternate member at the next committee plenum — the alternate member who received the most confirmation votes in favour is highest on the order of precedence. To be elected to the Central Committee, a candidate must be a party member for at least five years.The first plenary session in 2017 was responsible for electing the bodies in which the authority of the Central Committee is invested when it is not in session: the Politburo and the Politburo Standing Committee. It will be also responsible for approving the members of the Secretariat, 19th Central Commission for Discipline Inspection and its Standing Committee. The third plenary session in 2018 nominated candidates for state positions.


The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) is the largest federation of unions in the United States. It is made up of fifty-five national and international unions, together representing more than 12 million active and retired workers. The AFL–CIO engages in substantial political spending and activism, typically in support of Democrats and liberal or progressive policies.The AFL–CIO was formed in 1955 when the AFL and the CIO merged after a long estrangement. Membership in the union peaked in 1979, when the AFL–CIO had nearly twenty million members. From 1955 until 2005, the AFL–CIO's member unions represented nearly all unionized workers in the United States. Several large unions split away from AFL–CIO and formed the rival Change to Win Federation in 2005, although a number of those unions have since re-affiliated. The largest unions currently in the AFL–CIO are the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) with approximately 1.7 million members and American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), with approximately 1.4 million members.

Chinese espionage in the United States

China is alleged to have begun a widespread effort to acquire U.S. military technology and classified information and the trade secrets of U.S. companies. The Chinese government is accused of stealing trade secrets and technology, often from companies in the United States, to help support its long-term military and commercial development. China has been accused of using a number of methods to obtain U.S. technology (using U.S. law to avoid prosecution), including espionage, exploitation of commercial entities and a network of scientific, academic and business contacts. Although it uses a network of contacts to collect information used to benefit Chinese businesses, each bit of information does not invite scrutiny or prosecution by the U.S. government. Espionage cases include Larry Wu-Tai Chin, Katrina Leung, Gwo-Bao Min, Chi Mak and Peter Lee.In addition to traditional espionage, China partners civilian Chinese companies with American businesses to acquire technology and economic data and uses cyber spying to penetrate the computer networks of U.S. businesses and government agencies; an example is the December 2009 Operation Aurora. U.S. law enforcement officials have identified China as the most active foreign power involved in the illegal acquisition of American technology that China wants. On May 19, 2014, the United States Department of Justice announced that a Federal grand jury had indicted five People's Liberation Army officers for stealing confidential business information and intellectual property from U.S. commercial firms and planting malware on their computers.

Chinese intelligence activity abroad

The government of China is engaged in espionage overseas, thought to be directed primarily through the Ministry of State Security (MSS). It is suspected of employing a variety of tactics including cyber spying to gain access to sensitive information remotely and physical agents (HUMINT). China is believed to be engaged in industrial espionage aimed at gathering information to bolster its economy, as well as monitoring dissidents abroad such as supporters of the Tibetan independence movement and Falun Gong.


COREU (French: Correspondance Européenne – Telex network of European correspondents, also EUKOR-Netzwerk in Austria) is a communication network of the European Union for the communication of the Council of the European Union, the European correspondents of the foreign ministries of the EU member states, permanent representatives of member states in Brussels, the European Commission, and the General Secretariat of the Council of the European Union. It is striking that the European Parliament is not among the participants.COREU is the European equivalent of the American Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNet, also known as Intelink-S). COREU's official aim is fast communication in case of crisis. The network enables a closer cooperation in matters regarding foreign affairs. In actuality the system's function exceeds that of mere communication, it also enables decision-making. COREU's first goal is to enable the exchange of information before and after decisions. Relaying upfront negotiations in preparation of meetings is the second goal. In addition, the system also allows the editing of documents and the decision-making, especially if there is little time. While the first two goals are preparatory measures for a shared foreign policy, the third is a methodical variant marked by practise that is defining for the image of the Common Foreign and Security Policy.

Cyber force

A cyber force is a military branch devoted to cyberwarfare, cybersecurity, and counter-cyberwarfare. Its responsibilities could also include operations to combat cyberterrorism and to establish cyber power projection. A cyber force can be part of a military branch or a combined command. Presently, it has no official definition although the United States Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated terms provided relevant concepts that indicate cyber force could be constituted by personnel who conduct cyberspace operations in cyberspace and the activities include computer network operations (and its three subordinate constructs, which is attack, defense, and exploitation), and the routine operation and defense of cyberspace.From an international legal perspective, the use of cyber force or a force of an armed nature in the technical sense during a cyber conflict could be established under the framework of self-defense prescribed in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.

Cyberwarfare by China

China is both the world's second-largest economy and a nuclear weapons state with the world's second-largest defense budget. Chinese Information Operations and Information Warfare includes the concept of “network warfare”, which is roughly analogous to the United States concept of cyber-warfare. Foreign Policy magazine provided an estimated range for China's "hacker army" personnel, anywhere from 50,000 to 100,000 individuals.Western countries have long accused China of aggressive espionage, and while investigations have traced various attacks on corporate and infrastructure computer systems to have originated in China, "it is nearly impossible to know whether or not an attack is government-sponsored because of the difficulty in tracking true identities in cyberspace." China has denied these accusations of cyber-warfare and has, in turn, accused the United States of engaging in cyber-warfare against China - a claim the US government denies.

Huang Minqiang

Huang Minqiang (Chinese: 黄民强; born October 1960) is a Chinese mathematician and computer scientist, with a specialization in information processing. He is a research professor of the 58th Research Institute of the People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force. He is an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and an alternate member of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

Joint Cyber-Defence Command

The Joint Cyber-Defence Command (MCCD) is a Spanish cyber defence service of the Defence Staff responsible for planning and execution of the actions related to cyber defence in networks and information and telecommunications systems of the Ministry of Defense or others that might be entrusted, as well as contributing to the adequate response in cyberspace to threats or aggressions that may affect to the National Defense.In this sense, the MCCD directs and coordinates, in the matter of cyber defense, the activity of the centers of response to incidents of security of the information of the different branches Armed Forces; it exercises the timely, legitimate and proportionate response in cyberspace to threats or aggressions that may affect the National Defense and defines, directs and coordinates awareness, training and specialized training in this area. In addition, he is responsible for the development and detail of the Information Security policies in the Information and Telecommunications Systems (SEGINFOSIT) and the direction of execution and control of compliance with these policies, within the scope of the Ministry of Defense.The MCCD was created on February 19, 2013 by a Defence Ministry Order 10/2013, by which the Joint Cyber-Defence Command is created. The current Chief Commander of the MCCD is Divisional general Rafael García Hernández.

List of Serving Generals of People's Republic of China

This is a list of serving Generals of the People's Republic of China.

List of intelligence agencies

This is a list of intelligence agencies. It includes only currently operational institutions.

List of militaries by country

This is a list of militaries by country, including the main branches and sub-branches.

Liu Fulian

Liu Fulian (Chinese: 刘福连; pinyin: Liú Fúlián; born August 1952) is a retired general (shang jiang) of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). He served as Political Commissar of People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force.

PLA Information Engineering University

The PLA Information Engineering University is a Chinese university-level military academy located in Zhengzhou, Henan province, run by the People's Liberation Army. It was established in 1999.. Before that it was run under the name of PLA Information Engineering Institute.

It is reputed to be a centre for information warfare research.

PLA Unit 61398

PLA Unit 61398 (also known as APT 1, Comment Crew, Comment Panda, GIF89a, and Byzantine Candor )(Chinese: 61398部队, Pinyin: 61398 bùduì) is the Military Unit Cover Designator (MUCD) of a People's Liberation Army advanced persistent threat unit that has been alleged to be a source of Chinese computer hacking attacks. The unit is stationed in Pudong, Shanghai.

People's Liberation Army

The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and of its founding and ruling political party, the Communist Party of China (CPC). The PLA consists of five professional service branches: the Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Rocket Force, and the Strategic Support Force. Units around the country are assigned to one of five theater commands by geographical location. The PLA is the world's largest military force and constitutes the second largest defence budget in the world. It is one of the fastest modernising military powers in the world and has been termed as a potential military superpower, with significant regional defense and rising global power projection capabilities. The PLA is the world's third-most powerful military on all parameters.The PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission (CMC) of the CPC. It is legally obliged to follow the principle of civilian control of the military, although in practical terms this principle has been implemented in such a way as to ensure the PLA is under the absolute control of the Communist Party. Its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission (usually the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China). Since 1949, China has used nine different military strategies, which the PLA calls "strategic guidelines". The most important came in 1956, 1980, and 1993. In times of national emergency, the People's Armed Police and the People's Liberation Army militia act as a reserve and support element for the PLAGF.

People's Liberation Army Astronaut Corps

The People's Liberation Army Astronaut Corps (Chinese: 中国人民解放军航天员大队) is a unit of the People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force that is responsible for the selection and training of astronauts for the Chinese manned space program (Project 921).

Space force

A space force is a military branch that conducts space warfare.

The Russian Space Forces was an independent organization that existed from 1992 to 1997 and again from 2001 to 2011. It was reestablished in 2015 as a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces.In the United States, the U.S. Space Command was one of the unified combatant commands (UCC) from 1985 until it was merged into the U.S. Strategic Command (STRATCOM) in 2002, with its responsibilities primarily taken over by the U.S. Air Force's Space Command, a subordinate command of STRATCOM. It was announced in August 2018 that U.S. Space Command would be re-established as a unified combatant command.

On June 18, 2018, the United States announced a proposal to create the United States Space Force as a new branch of the United States Armed Forces, and on August 9, 2018, further announced a plan to have the new service established by 2020.

United States Space Force

The United States Space Force (USSF) is the proposed space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces, which is intended to have control over military space operations. It would be the sixth branch of the United States Armed Forces and the eighth U.S. uniformed service.

If established, it would be organized as a military service branch within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense. The Space Force, through the Department of the Air Force, would be headed by the civilian Undersecretary of the Air Force for Space and the Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, and is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation. The highest-ranking military officer in the Space Force would be the Chief of Staff of the Space Force, who would exercise supervision over Space Force units and serve as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Space Force components would be assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, and neither the Secretary of the Air Force, Undersecretary of the Air Force for Space, or the Chief of Staff of the Space Force would have operational command authority over them.

Along with performing independent space operations, the Space Force would be responsible for providing space support to land, air, naval, and cyber forces.

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