The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) is the aerial service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAAF was officially established on 11 November 1949. As of 2014, the PLAAF has a strength of around 398,000 personnel and is the largest air force in Asia.
|People's Liberation Army Air Force|
People's Liberation Army Air Force emblem
|Founded||November 11, 1949|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Allegiance||Communist Party of China|
|Size||398,000 active personnel|
Approx. 2,755 to 3,010+ aircraft
|Part of||People's Liberation Army|
|March||March of the Chinese Air Force|
|Commander||Lt General Ding Laihang|
|Political Commissar||General Yu Zhongfu|
Low Visibility Roundel
|KJ-200, KJ-500, KJ-2000, TU-154|
|Fighter||Chengdu J-7, Shenyang J-8, Chengdu J-10, Shenyang J-11, Shenyang J-16, Chengdu J-20, Su-27, Su-30MKK, Su-35S|
|Helicopter||Harbin Z-8, Harbin Z-9|
|Trainer||Hongdu L-15, Hongdu JL-8, JL-9|
|Transport||Xian Y-20, Shaanxi Y-9, Shaanxi Y-8, Xian Y-7, Il-76|
|People's Liberation Army Air Force|
The PLA's first organized air unit, was formed in July 1949 at Beijing Nanyuan Airport. It consisted of six P-51s, two Mosquitoes, and two PT-19s. On 25 October 1949, Liu Yalou was appointed as the chief of air force in the People's Liberation Army. By 11 November, the air force command was officially formed from the headquarters of Liu Yalou's 14th bingtuan (which Witson translates as "Army"). Much Soviet assistance was received to help the process along.
The PLAAF fought the Korean War in Soviet-built Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15s, known as the J-2 in Chinese service, with training from Soviet instructors. The war also brought Soviet assistance for the indigenous aircraft industry. The Shenyang Aircraft Corporation built the two-seat MiG-15UTI trainer as the JJ-2, and during the war manufactured various components to maintain the Soviet-built fighters. By 1956 the People's Republic was assembling copies of MiG-15s and eight years later was producing both the Shenyang J-5 (MiG-17) and the Shenyang J-6 (MiG-19) under license.
The 1960s were a difficult time for the PLAAF. The withdrawal of Soviet aid due to the Sino-Soviet split, and the prioritization of the missile and nuclear weapon programs, crippled the industry, which markedly declined through 1963. A recovery began around 1965 as J-2s, J-5s, and some J-6s were provided to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Development of the Shenyang J-8, China's first indigenous fighter, was also initiated during the 1960s.
The PLA Air Force underwent reorganization and streamlining as part of the reduction in force begun in 1985. Before the 1985 reorganization, the Air Force reportedly had four branches: air defense, ground attack, bombing, and independent air regiments. In peacetime the Air Force Directorate, under the supervision of the PLA General Staff Department, controlled the Air Force through headquarters located with, or in communication with, each of the seven military region headquarters. In war, control of the Air Force probably reverted to the regional commanders. In 1987 it was not clear how the reorganization and the incorporation of air support elements into the group armies affected air force organization. The largest Air Force organizational unit was the division, which consisted of 17,000 personnel in three regiments. A typical air defense regiment had three squadrons of three flights; each flight had three or four aircraft. The Air Force also had 220,000 air defense personnel who controlled about 100 surface-to-air missile sites and over 16,000 AA guns. In addition, it had a large number of early-warning, ground-control-intercept, and air-base radars manned by specialized troops organized into at least twenty-two independent regiments.
In the 1980s the Air Force made serious efforts to raise the educational level and improve the training of its pilots. Superannuated pilots were retired or assigned to other duties. All new pilots were at least middle-school graduates. The time it took to train a qualified pilot capable of performing combat missions reportedly was reduced from four or five years to two years. Training emphasized raising technical and tactical skills in individual pilots and participation in combined-arms operations. Flight safety also increased.
In 1987 the Air Force had serious technological deficiencies — especially when compared with its principal threat, the Soviet Armed Forces — and had many needs that it could not satisfy. It needed more advanced aircraft, better avionics, electronic countermeasures equipment, more powerful aircraft weaponry, a low-altitude surface-to-air missile, and better controlled antiaircraft artillery guns. Some progress was made in aircraft design with the incorporation of Western avionics into the Chengdu J-7 and Shenyang J-8, the development of refueling capabilities for the B-6D bomber and the A-5 attack fighter, increased aircraft all-weather capabilities, and the production of the HQ-2J high-altitude surface-to-air missile and the C-601 air-to-ship missile.
Although the PLAAF received significant support from Western nations in the 1980s when China was seen as a counterweight to Soviet power, this support ended in 1989 as a result of the Chinese crackdown on the Tiananmen protests of 1989 and the later collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. After the fall of the USSR, the Russian Federation became China's principal arms supplier, to the extent that Chinese economic growth allowed Russia to sustain its aerospace industry.
In the late 1980s, the primary mission of the PLAAF was the defense of the mainland, and most aircraft were assigned to this role. A smaller number of ground attack and bomber units were assigned to Air interdiction and possibly close air support, and some bomber units could be used for nuclear delivery. The force had only limited military airlift and aerial reconnaissance capabilities.
In the early 1990s, the PLAAF began a program of modernization, motivated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, as well as the possibility of military conflict with the Republic of China and perhaps also involving the United States. This process began with the acquisition of Su-27s in the early 1990s and the development of various fourth-generation aircraft, including the domestic J-10, and the FC-1 . The PLAAF also strove to improve its pilot training and continued to retire obsolete aircraft. This resulted in a reduction of the overall number of aircraft in the PLAAF with a concurrent increase in quality of its air fleet.
The 21st century has seen the continuation of the modernization program with China's huge economic growth. It acquired 76 Su-30MKK's from 2000 to 2003, and 24 upgraded Su-30MK2's in 2004. It also produced around 200 J-11s from 2002 onwards and bought 3 batches (at a total of 76) of the Su-27SK/UBK. Production of the J-10 fighter began in 2002 with an estimated 200 aircraft in service currently. The PLAAF also began developing its own tanker aircraft, which it previously lacked, by modifying old H-6 bomber (Tupolev Tu-16). In 2005 it announced plans to buy approximately 30 IL-76 transport planes and 8 Il-78 tanker planes, which would greatly increase its troop airlift capability and offer extended range to many aircraft, though as of 2009 this deal is still on hold.
Predictions of the PLAAF's future aircraft fleet indicate that it will consist of large quantities of Chengdu J-10 and Shenyang J-11 as its main force, with J-16 and JH-7A as the PLAAF backbone precision strike fighters. Future stealth fighter projects such as the Chengdu J-20 will be inducted into the air fleet in small numbers, assigned to elite PLAAF selected pilots. The transport fleet will comprise Y-9 medium range transport aircraft, along with the Soviet Ilyushin Il-76, and domestic Y-20 heavy transport aircraft. Its helicopter fleet will comprise Z-20, Z-15 and Mi-17 troop transporters, and the WZ-10 attack helicopter for its ground forces. AWACS/AEW will be refined variants of existing service fleet of KJ-2000 and KJ-200, with UAV/UCAV in early stages of service in the PLAAF.
According to a 2015 Pentagon report, PLAAF has around 600 modern aircraft.
Lt Gen Xu Anxiang, PLAAF Deputy Commander, revealed the PLAAF has a multiphase roadmap for building a strong, modern air force. He said the building of a strategic force by 2020 would integrate aviation, space power, strike and defense capabilities.
When this goal is achieved, the PLAAF's fourth-generation equipment like J-20 and Y-20 will become the backbone of the Air Force's arsenal and J-16 along with J-10 would be main stay of PLAAF. Gen Xu also said information-based combat capabilities will be enhanced.
The ranks in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force are similar to those of the Chinese Army, formally known as the People's Liberation Army Ground Force, except that those of the PLA Air Force are prefixed by 空军 (Kong Jun) meaning Air Force. See Ranks of the People's Liberation Army or the article on an individual rank for details on the evolution of rank and insignia in the PLAAF. This article primarily covers the existing ranks and insignia.
The markings of the PLAAF are a red star in front of a red band, it is very similar to the insignia of the Russian Air Force. The Red star contains the Chinese characters for eight and one, representing August 1, 1927, the date of the formation of the PLA. PLAAF aircraft carry these markings on the fins as well.
The August 1st (aerobatic team) is the first PLAAF aerobatics team. It was formed in 1962. Aircraft inventory of PLAAF August 1st Aerobatic Team includes the J-10 and it has previously flown the JJ-5 and J-7. The Sky Wing and Red Falcon air demonstration teams, which operate Nanchang CJ-6 and Hongdu JL-8 respectively, were established in 2011.
The Air Force headquarters consists of four departments: Command, Political Work, Logistics, and Materiel, which mirrors the former four general departments of the PLA. Below the headquarters, Theater command air forces (TCAF) direct divisions (Fighter, Attack, Bomber), which in turn direct regiments and squadrons. The PLAAF typically used the system of threes in its organization at Division level and below, i.e. 3 Regiments per Division, 3 Squadrons per Regiment, and so on. The situation is now more fluid, with several divisions (the 5th, 15th, 24th for example) only having two regiments. There are also Independent Regiments within the TCAFs. The PLA Airborne Corps is under direct control of PLAAF Headquarters.
Fifty operational air divisions were created from 1950 to 1971. This situation did not change until 1986, when the PLAAF began converting one air division in each of the seven military regions to a division-level transition training base (改装训练基地). Data from other sources seems to indicate that the 16th Air Division became the Shenyang MR Training Base (MRTB), the 17th the Nanjing MRTB (actually Beijing?), the 46th the Lanzhou MRTB, and the 32nd the Nanjing MRTB (at Rugao). Since then, the PLAAF has gradually reduced the remaining 43 operational air divisions to 29.
Scramble.nl, accessed mid 2015, indicates there are at least six regiments of H-6 bombers. All three regiments of the 8th Bomber Division fly the aircraft - the 22nd, 23rd (former 143rd Regt/48th Div), and 24th. Also flying is the 28th Regiment of the 10th Bomber Division (People's Republic of China) and the 107th and 108th Regiments of the 36th Bomber Division.
26th Ftr Div with one regiment previously at Shanghai-Chongming Island; 31st Fighter Division previously with Jinan MR; 35th Ftr Div.
There is presently over 150 air bases utilized by the People's Liberation Army Air Force, these are divided into the former seven military regions and the current 5 theater commands, as follows:
The People's Liberation Army Air Force operates a large and varied fleet of some 3,010+ aircraft, of which around 2,100 are combat aircraft (fighter, attack and bombers). According to the International Institute for Strategic Studies, PLAAF combat pilots acquire an average of 100-150 flying hours per year. For a list of aircraft no-longer flown by the People's Liberation Army Air Force see; List of historic aircraft of the People's Liberation Army Air Force.
|Xian H-6||China||strategic bomber||120||licensed variant of the Tupolev Tu-16|
|Xian JH-7||China||fighter bomber||216|
|Chengdu J-7||China||fighter||388||licensed variant of the MiG-21|
|Sukhoi Su-30||Russia||air superiority||Su-30MKK||76|
|Sukhoi Su-35||Russia||air superiority||24|
|Shenyang J-11||China||air superiority||346||licensed variant of the Su-27 – 10 on order|
|Shenyang J-16||China||strike fighter||50|
|Chengdu J-20||China||stealth multirole||28|
|Ilyushin Il-76||China||AEW||KJ-2000||4||Chinese radar installed on a Ilyushin Il-76 airframe|
|Shaanxi Y-8||China||electronic jamming||Y-8EW||16|
|Antonov An-30||Ukraine||electronic warfare||3|
|Tupolev Tu-154||Russia||electronic warfare||8|
|Boeing 737||United States||patrol / transport||2|
|Ilyushin Il-78||Russia||aerial refueling||Il-78MP||3|
|Xian H-6||China||aerial refueling||HY-6U||10|
|Xian Y-20||China||strategic airlifter||7|
|Ilyushin Il-76||Russia||strategic airlifter||22|
|Harbin Z-9||China||utility / CSAR||20||licensed built variant of the AS365 Dauphin|
|Changhe Z-8||China||transport / utility||34||licensed built Aérospatiale SA 321|
|Xian Y-7||China||multi-engine trainer||13|
|Guimbal Cabri G2||France||rotorcraft trainer||2|
|Chengdu J-7||China||conversion trainer||JJ-7||35|
|Hongdu JL-8||China / Pakistan||jet trainer||K-8||170|
|Hongdu L-15||China||jet trainer||2|
I am a member of the People's Liberation Army. I promise that I will follow the leadership of the Communist Party of China...
The 12th Fighter Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLA-AF). Initially established in 1950. PLA-AF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.15th Fighter Aviation Division (People's Liberation Army Air Force)
The 15th Fighter Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force. It is headquartered at Huairen Air Base in the Beijing Military Region. The unit is equipped with J-7 fighters and Q-5 ground attack aircraft. PLA-AF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.
15th Fighter Division sub units:
45th Regiment1st Fighter Aviation Division
The 1st Fighter Aviation Division is a military formation of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force. It is headquartered at Anshan Air Base in the Shenyang Military Region. The unit is equipped with Chengdu J-10, Shenyang J-8 and Shenyang J-11 fighters. PLA-AF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.
GlobalSecurity.org notes that the 1st Fighter Division traces its heritage to the 10th Regiment, 4th Pursuit Brigade which in late October 1950 became the 10th Regiment, 4th Division. By March 1956 the 10th Regiment was relocated to Anshan Airbase, Liaoning Province and was reorganised as the 1st Division.
1st Fighter Division sub units:
1st Regiment (J-11)
2nd Regiment (Chifeng)(J-10 aircraft replaced Chengdu J-7s in 2007)
3rd Regiment (J-8)The unit was visited in March 2007 by Peter Pace, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff.2006 People's Liberation Army Air Force KJ-200 crash
On June 3, 2006, a People's Liberation Army Air Force KJ-200 crashed in Guangde County, Anhui Province, China. All 40 people on board were killed.2014 Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force An-74 crash
On 17 May 2014, an Antonov An-74 transport aircraft of the Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force crashed while en route to Xiangkhouang Province, northern Laos, killing all but one of the 17 people on board. Among the victims were several Laotian politicians travelling to attend a ceremony celebrating the 55th anniversary of the second division of the Lao People's Army.24th Fighter Aviation Division (People's Liberation Army Air Force)
The 24th Fighter Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force. It is headquartered at Yangcun Air Base in the Beijing Military Region. The unit is equipped with J-8 fighters. PLA-AF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.
Since 1952 the 24th has shot down three enemy aircraft and many balloons.24th Fighter Division sub units:
72nd Regiment34th Transport Aviation Division (People's Liberation Army Air Force)
The 34th Transport Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force. It is headquartered at Beijing Nanyuan Airport in the Beijing Military Region. The unit is equipped with Y-7, Y-8, and Il-18 transport aircraft.
34th Transport Division sub units:
102nd Regiment3rd Fighter Aviation Division (People's Liberation Army Air Force)
The 3rd Fighter Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). Initially established in 1950. PLAAF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.
The 3rd Division is considered the most elite division in the PLAAF.4th Fighter Aviation Division
The 4th Fighter Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). Initially established in 1950, it served in Korea under Commander Fang Ziyi and Commissar Ye Songsheng, flying Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15s. It ended its third combat tour in July 1953.It was soon redesignated the 1st Fighter Division. It was reestablished in 1956. It is headquartered at Liaoyang, Liaoning Province, in the Shenyang Military Region. The 4th Fighter Division is believed to be equipped with the Chengdu J-7E fighter aircraft. PLA-AF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.
The 4th Fighter Division is composed of:
11th Regiment (unconfirmed)
12th Regiment7th Fighter Aviation Division (People's Liberation Army Air Force)
The 7th Fighter Aviation Division is a unit of the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force. It is headquartered at Zhangjiakou Air Base in the Beijing Military Region. The unit is equipped with the Chengdu J-7 and Shenyang J-11 fighters. PLA-AF fighter divisions generally consist of about 17,000 personnel and 70-120 aircraft.
It was originally formed in September 1950 at Dongfeng, Jilin Province, as a fighter unit with the 19th and 21st Regiments.It was assigned soon after formation to the air force component of the Chinese People's Volunteers as a mixed MiG-9/MiG-15 fighter unit. It did not enter combat in Korea and returned to Northern China in November 1951.August 1st (aerobatic team)
The August 1st or Ba Yi Aerobatics Team (Chinese: 八一飞行表演队) is the aerobatic demonstration team of the People's Liberation Army Air Force. It is named after the date of the founding of the PLA (August 1, 1927), and is a part of the PLAAF Beijing Military Region. The unit was founded in 1962 and has over the years performed more than 500 times for delegations from 166 countries and regions. Its first show abroad happened in August 2013 during the Russian airshow MAKS.Commander of the People's Liberation Army Air Force
The Commander of the People's Liberation Army Navy (Chinese: 中国人民解放军空军司令员; pinyin: Zhōngguó rénmín jiěfàngjūn kōngjūn sīlìng yuán), is the title of the People's Liberation Army officer who serves as the commanding officer of the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF). The 12th and current, commander of the People's Liberation Army Air Force is Ding Laihang.Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force
The Lao People's Liberation Army Air Force (LPLAAF) is the air force of Laos.List of active People's Liberation Army aircraft
The following list of active People's Liberation Army aircraft is a list of military aircraft currently in service with all four branches of the People's Liberation Army. For retired aircraft, see list of historic aircraft of the People's Liberation Army Air Force.Liu Yalou
Liu Yalou (simplified Chinese: 刘亚楼; traditional Chinese: 劉亞樓; pinyin: Liú Yàlóu; April 1910 – 7 May 1965) was a general in the People's Liberation Army of the People's Republic of China, first commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army Air Force, as well as chief of staff of Lin Biao's army group during the Chinese Civil War, occupied the whole of Manchuria in 1948 and captured 472,000 Nationalist troops in the Liaoshen Campaign.People's Liberation Army Air Force Airborne Corps
The People's Liberation Army Air Force Airborne Corps (simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军空降兵军; traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍空降兵軍; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Kōngjiàngbīng Jūn; literally: 'Chinese People's Liberation Army Airborne Corps') is a corps directly under the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) headquarters. It was reorganized and renamed from the 15th Airborne Corps in May 2017 and now comprises six airborne brigades and a special operations brigade. The PLAAF Airborne Corps is China's primary strategic airborne unit and part of the newly formed rapid reaction units (RRUs) of the Chinese military which is primarily designated for airborne and special operation missions. Its role is similar to that of the U.S. Army's XVIII Airborne Corps/82nd Airborne Division.
Only one of the PLAAF Airborne Corps' former three divisions (or just 2 to 3 of the current 7 brigades) can deploy to any part of China within 48 hours due to limited airlift capabilities. In the late 1990s the airlift capability of the PLAAF consisted of 10 IL-76 heavy lift, Yu-8, and Yu-7 transports, as well as Mi-17, Mi-8, Z-8, and Z-9 helicopters. As such, the PLAAF could only lift one division of 11,000 men complemented with light tanks and self-propelled artillery. In 1988, there were reports claiming that a 10,000 man airborne division was transported to Tibet in less than 48 hours.Ranks of the People's Liberation Army Air Force
The ranks in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force are similar to those of the Chinese Army, formally known as the People's Liberation Army Ground Force, except that those of the PLA Air Force are prefixed by 空军 (Kong Jun) meaning Air Force. See Ranks of the People's Liberation Army or the article on an individual rank for details on the evolution of rank and insignia in the PLAAF. This article primarily covers the existing ranks and insignia.Tian Xiusi
Tian Xiusi (Chinese: 田修思; born February 1950) is a retired Chinese general who served as Political Commissar of the People's Liberation Army Air Force. Previously, he was a standing committee member of the Communist Party of China Xinjiang committee and the political commissar of the Xinjiang Military District, as well as political commissar of the Chengdu Military Region. In July 2016, Tian was placed under investigation for "serious violations of discipline".Xu Qiliang
Xu Qiliang (Chinese: 许其亮; pinyin: Xǔ Qíliàng; born March 1950) is an air force general in the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) of the People's Republic of China. He currently serves as Vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, and was Commander of the PLAAF from 2007 to 2012.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Zhōngguó Rénmín Jiěfàngjūn Kōngjūn|
Chinese military aircraft
|AEW and AEW&C|
|UAVs and UCAVs|
Missiles of the People's Republic of China