People's Armed Police

The Chinese People's Armed Police Force (abbreviated: PAP) is a Chinese paramilitary police (Gendarmerie) force primarily responsible for internal security, riot control, antiterrorism, law enforcement, and maritime rights protection in China, as well as providing support to the PLA Ground Force during wartime.[2]

Unlike the regular People's Police of the Ministry of Public Security, the PAP is part of the armed forces and reports to the Central Military Commission. PAP officers wear olive green instead of the blue uniforms of the People's Police.

The PAP is estimated to have a total strength of 1.5 million. It was established in its current form in 1982, but similar security forces have operated since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. During the long Maoist era, the PAP's predecessors were the Chinese People's Public Security Force, initially under the Ministry of Public Security, and later the Public Security Corps which was under the command of the PLA.[3]

Chinese People's Armed Police Force (PAP)
中国人民武装警察部队 (武警)
People's Armed Police Flag
Badge of People's Armed Police
Flag and Badge of the People's Armed Police
Founded19 June 1982
Country China
AllegianceFlag of the Chinese Communist Party.svg Communist Party of China
Branch32 × PAP Internal Guard Corps
2 × PAP Mobile Corps
1 × PAP Coastal Guard Corps
TypeGendarmerie/Paramilitary
RolePreservation of Public Order and Security, Riot Control, Antiterrorism, Civil Defence, Reserves, Coast Guard duties[1]
Size1.5 million
Part ofArmed Forces of the People's Republic of China
(under the Central Military Commission)
Garrison/HQHaidian District, Beijing, China
ColoursRed, Olive green
Commanders
CommanderPAP General Wang Ning
Political CommissarPAP General An Zhaoqing
Insignia
Armband
PAP Armband
Emblem of PAP helicopters
Emblem of PAP Helicopter
Emblem of PAP Forestry Troops (abolished 2018) helicopters
Emblem of PAP Forest Force Helicopter
Chinese People's Armed Police Force
Simplified Chinese中国人民武装警察部队
Traditional Chinese中國人民武裝警察部隊
People's Armed Police
Simplified Chinese人民武装警察
Traditional Chinese人民武裝警察
China Armed Police
Simplified Chinese中国武警
Traditional Chinese中國武警
Short form
Simplified Chinese武警[部队]
Traditional Chinese武警[部隊]
Literal meaningArmed Police [Force]

History

The history of the People's Armed Police is as long as that of the People's Republic, and its origin can be traced back to the People's Liberation Army, which was responsible for both defending the nation from foreign invasions and internal security. Although the force was officially established in 1982, its constituent units stretch back to 1949.[4]

In July 1949, the Central Military Commission decided to establish the Ministry of Public Security with Luo Ruiqing as its minister to organize the public security forces in the nation. [3] In August 1949, several security and public order units of the Fourth Field Army were consolidated into the Central Column of the Chinese People's Public Security Force (PSF) to guard the Party and State leaders and to keep the public order in the capital. [3] The Central Column provided security for the inauguration ceremony of the People's Republic.[3] From December 1949 to May 1950, regional security forces, along with the now dissolved Central Column, had been consolidated into divisions under the PSF. [3]

The PSF was assigned to the PLA and became the PLA Public Security Force in September 1950, and the PLA Public Security Corps in July 1955, reporting under the Central Military Commission of the CPC and the National Defense Council of the People's Republic. [3][5] Luo Ruiqing was appointed as the commander and political commissar of the PSF in September 1950 and remained on the posts until 1959, retaining the command of the PSF. [3][6] After numerous reorganizations and transfers of control between the PLA and the Ministry of Public Security, the People's Armed Police was created on 19 June 1982.[3] The establishment of the PAP highlighted the efforts to increase the professionalization of the security apparatus, as well as the absorption of numerous PLA demobilized personnel,[7]:228-229 in the wake of growing unrest.[7]:229

In the mid and late 1990s, President Jiang Zemin significantly expanded and strengthened the PAP, with more than 100,000 new troops.[8] Jiang praised the PAP, describing it as "a major force for maintaining state security and social stability, the People's Armed Police shoulders a massive and formidable burden" and deployed it extensively in Xinjiang and Tibet.[8]

Up until 2013, the China Coast Guard was a part of the PAP, but it was separated, since then it reported directly to the Ministry of Public Security and the State Oceanic Administration. However, in March 2018, it has been announced that the Coast Guard shall be placed under the People's Armed Police Force once again as the State Oceanic Administration has been disbanded, but this time as an independent branch reporting directly to PAP headquarters.[9]

Chronology

From the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the paramilitary public security force has been reorganized numerous times. The current designation since 1982, the People's Armed Police, was first used between 1959 and 1963.[5][10]

  • 1949–1950: Chinese People's Public Security Force, under the Ministry of Public Security
  • 1950–1955: Public Security Force, under the People's Liberation Army
  • 1955–1959: Public Security Corps, under the PLA
  • 1959–1963: People's Armed Police, under the joint leadership of the MPS and the PLA
  • 1963–1966: Chinese People's Public Security Force, under the joint leadership of the MPS and the PLA
  • 1966–1982: PLA Internal Guard, absorbed into the PLA in an integrated structure. In 1971 and 1973, some units were transferred to the MPS
  • 1982–present: People's Armed Police

Mission

Tiananmen Square, August 2012 10
People's Armed Police Guards in front of Tiananmen

The People's Armed Police's primary mission is internal security. The first law on the People's Armed Police, the Law on the People's Armed Police Force (PAPF), was passed in August 2009, giving it statutory authority to respond to riots, terrorist attacks or other emergencies.[11][12] Such units guard government buildings at all levels (including party and state organisations, foreign embassies and consulates), provide security to public corporations and major public events, as well as counter-terrorism and handling of public emergencies.[13] Some units perform guard duty in civilian prisons and provide executioners for the state. The PAP also maintains tactical counter-terrorism (CT) units in the Immediate Action Unit (IAU), Snow Wolf Commando Unit (SWCU) and various Special Police Units (SPUs).

The PAP maintains both a division-sized mechanized infantry unit and a rapid deployment light motorized infantry unit, these units are tasked with responding to any possible armed mutinies by PLA soldiers. In wartime deployments the PAP can act as light infantry supporting the PLAGF in local defense missions and in support of the PLAN in naval operations.[14]:87

Organization (Before 2018 Reform)

Chinese wheeled APC (2008)
Wheeled APC (WZ-551) of the People's Armed Police

Until 31 December 2017, the People's Armed Police had a dual command structure including the Central Military Commission (CMC) and the State Council through the Ministry of Public Security.[14]:18

By law however, the PAP operates separately from the PLA.[14]:18 and, in terms of conducting public security operations and relevant capability building, the PAP Headquarters is under the leadership and command of the Ministry of Public Security.

From 1 January 2018, command of the People's Armed Police is jointly held by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Military Commission, with the PAP no longer subordinate to the State Council.[15][16]

The reform was reportedly carried out in order to deprive the local Party authorities of the power to use the PAP units to commit abuses or even against the leadership in Beijing. With the new organization, local authorities need central approval in order to deploy the PAP.[17]

Prior to the 2018 reform, the People's Armed Police was further divided into eight corps: Internal Guard, Gold, Forestry, Hydropower, Transportation, Border Defense, Firefighting, and Safeguard Corps.[7]:232 The Internal Guard Corps, which makes up for the bulk of PAP, is under the PAP Headquarters and reports thus to the Party CC and the CMCs. The Gold, Forestry, Hydropower, and Transportation Corps, collectively known as the Specialist Corps, were by then under the joint leadership of PAP Headquarters and their respective ministries in the State Council.[7]:232 The Border Defense, Firefighting, and Civil Guard Corps, collectively known as the Public Security Corps, are under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Public Security.[7]:232

On 21 March 2018, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China unveiled a reform plan for the People's Armed Police Force. [18] Under this plan, the non-combatant elements of the PAP, the Gold, Forestry, Hydropower, Border Defense, Firefighting, and Civil Guard Corps, are to be removed and the China Coast Guard is to be consolidated with PAP. [19] As of March 2018, the PAP is working with the Central Committee and the relevant organs for the transfer of non-combatant elements into civil service. [19] The Transportation Corps is the only remaining component of the Specialist Corps.

Top-level organization

The Headquarters of People's Armed Police is the leading and commanding organ that directs and administers all the units and provides guidance to it. The PAP has a commander, a political commissar and several deputy commanders and deputy political commissars.[20] The PAP also has departments responsible for logistical and political matters and several speciality departments.

Territorial organization

The People's Armed Police is composed of contingents at the level of the province (autonomous region or municipality directly under the central government) and armed divisions.

As of 2016, an Internal Guard Zongdui (总队), equivalent to a PLA Division, is stationed at the provincial level, with the exception of Macau and Hong Kong; Internal Guard Zhidui (支队), equivalent to a PLA Regiment, is stationed at the prefectural level; Internal Guard Dadui (大队, equivalent to a PLA battalion) and Internal Guard Zhongdui (中队, equivalent to a PLA company) are stationed at the county level.[18]

The divisions are further downsized to regiments, battalions and companies in battle order, which are stationed in a number of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the headquarters. The PAP Headquarters has an educational institution directly under it. All the contingents have elementary command colleges under them.[20]

Using the national information infrastructure, the PAP has established a preliminary system of three-level integrated information networks, linking general headquarters with the grass-roots squadrons.[20]

The Specialist Corps are responsible in constructing and maintaining highways and roads, until 2018 these were responsible for surveying mineral deposits, fighting forest fires, and constructing large scale waterworks like dams and levees as well as for water works maintenance. [20] The PAP is also called upon in emergency rescue and disaster relief operations within the PRC via the specialist and public security forces which can be forward deployed during such operations.[20]

Border Defense Corps

Prior to the 2018 reform, the People's Armed Police Border Defense Corps (Chinese: 边防部队; pinyin: Biānfáng Bùdùi) guard China's land and sea borders, as well as its ports and airports. Its main responsibilities were the administration of border and coastal public security, ports and border inspection and surveillance, performing patrols and surveillance activities in areas adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao, as well as patrols and surveillance activities along the demarcation line of the Beibu Gulf and the prevention of and crack-down on illegal and criminal acts in border and coastal areas, such as illegal border crossing, smuggling and drug trafficking.[13]

In the 2018 reform, the Border Defense Corps is to be transferred into the civil service and demilitarized. [19]

Organization (Current)

Headquarters

The PAP Headquarters consists the following departments:

  • Staff Department of Chinese People's Armed Police Force
  • Political Work Department of Chinese People's Armed Police Force
  • Logistical Department of Chinese People's Armed Police Force
  • Equipment Department of Chinese People's Armed Police Force
  • Commission of Discipline Inspection of Chinese People's Armed Police Force

Branches

The PAP consists the following branches.

Internal Guard Crops

The Internal Guard Corps is the most important part of the PAP, which is under the direct leadership and management of the PAP Headquarters, inluding the PAP contingents of each province, autonomous region and municipality. Its main tasks are: 1) to undertake fixed-target guarding duty and urban armed patrol tasks to ensure the security of important national objectives; 2) to deal with all kinds of emergencies and maintain national security and social stability; 3) to support national economic construction and carry out emergency and disaster relief tasks. Before the reform in 2018, the Internal Security Forces of the PAP consisted of provincial contingent headquarters and Xinjiang Bingtuan contingent headquarters.

The Internal Guard Crops consist of:

  • PAP Beijing Metropolitan Contingent
  • PAP Shanghai Metropolitan Contingent
  • PAP Tianjing Metropolitan Contingent
  • PAP Chongqing Metropolitan Contingent
  • PAP Hebei Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Shanxi Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Jilin Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Liaoning Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Heilongjiang Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Shaanxi Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Gansu Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Qinghai Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Shandong Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Fujian Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Zhejiang Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Henan Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Hubei Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Hunan Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Jiangxi Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Jiangsu Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Anhui Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Guangdong Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Hainan Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Sichuan Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Guizhou Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Yunnan Provincial Contingent
  • PAP Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regional Contingent
  • PAP Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Regional Contingent
  • PAP Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regional Contingent
  • PAP Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regional Contingent
  • PAP Tibet Autonomous Regional Contingent
  • PAP Contingent of Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps

Mobile Crops

Before the reform in 2018, the mobile forces of the internal security forces of the PAP were adapted from 14 PLA army B-class infantry divisions by the Central Military Commission in 1996, namely 8610 (117th Division), 8620 (120th Division), 8630 (81st Division), 8640 (114 Division), 8650 (187th Division), 8660 (7th Division) and 8670 (63rd Division), 8680 (128th Division), 8690 (2nd Division), 8710 (93rd Division), 8720 (181th Division), 8730 (126th Division), 8740 (38th Division) and 8750 (41st Division). Thay are under the direct command of the PAP Headquarters and are subjected to repression armed riots and mass riots when the country or parts of the country enter a state of emergency.

After the reform in 2018, the PAP Mobile Crops includes:

  • PAP 1st Mobile Division
  • PAP 2nd Mobile Division

Coast Guard Corps

Chinese Coast Guard ship during DiREx-15
CCG 3306

The PAP Coast Guard Corps is the marine border guard force of the People's Republic of China. Established in 2013, it uesd to belong to the State Oceanic Administration (SOA) and is under the command of the Ministry of Public Security (MPS). It carries out maritime armed law enforcement in the name of "China Coast Guard". Before the reform in 2018, the China Coast Guard Bureau (CCGB) was composed of various sea divisions (Beihai, Donghai and Nanhai) and provincial headquarters (Liaoning, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan).

From 0:00 on July 1, 2018, the whole coast guard was assigned to the PAP Headquarters, and the Chinese People's Armed Police Force Coast Guard Crops was reorganized, which also called the China Coast Guard Bureau, to perform the duties of law enforcement and to protect maritime rights at sea in a unified manner.

After the reform in 2018, the PAP Coast Guard Crops (PAPCGC) includes:

  • PAPCGC East China Sea Command (CCGB East China Sea Subbureau)
    • PAPCGC Jiangsu Division (Jiangsu Coast Guard Bureau)
    • PAPCGC Shanghai Division (Shanghai CGB)
    • PAPCGC Zhejiang Division (Zhejiang CGB)
    • PAPCGC Fujian Division (Fujian CGB)
    • PAPCGC 1st Division (1st Direct CGB)
    • PAPCGC 2nd Division (2nd Direct CGB)
  • PAPCGC South China Sea Command (CCGB South China Sea Subbureau)
    • PAPCGC Guangdong Division (Guangdong CGB)
    • PAPCGC Guangxi Division (Guangxi CGB)
    • PAPCGC Hainan Division (Hainan CGB)
    • PAPCGC 3rd Division (3rd Direct CGB)
    • PAPCGC 4th Division (4th Direct CGB)
    • PAPCGC 5th Division (5th Direct CGB)
  • PAPCGC North China Sea Command (CCGB North China Sea Subbureau)
    • PAPCGC Liaoning Division (Liaoning CGB)
    • PAPCGC Tianjing Division (Tianjing CGB)
    • PAPCGC Hebei Division (Hebei CGB)
    • PAPCGC Shandong Division (Shandong CGB)
    • PAPCGC 6th Division (6th Direct CGB)

Ranks and insignia

Due to its history with the PLA, the PAP has a similar rank structure to the PLA and also obeys its regulations. PAP guards are also recruited at the same time and through the same procedures as PLA soldiers. However, the PAP has its own education and training system separate from the PLA. Like the PLA, the PAP also celebrates Army Day on August 1 of every year, and enjoys the same services as the PLA. The CCG, as the naval arm of the PAPF, wears naval-style insignia and uniforms.

Ranks of the PAP Internal Guard

Title 武警学员
Wu jing xue yuan
武警少尉
Wu jing shao wei
武警中尉
Wu jing zhong wei
武警上尉
Wu jing shang wei
武警少校
Wu jing shao xiao
武警中校
Wu jing zhong xiao
武警上校
Wu jing shang xiao
武警大校
Wu jing da xiao
武警少将
Wu jing Shao jiang
武警中将
Wu jing zhong jiang
武警上将
Wu jing shang jiang
Usual Translation PAP officer cadet
(OF-D)
PAP 2nd lieutenant
(OF-1)
PAP 1st lieutenant
(OF-1)
PAP captain
(OF-2)
PAP major
(OF-3)
PAP lieutenant colonel
(OF-4)
PAP colonel
(OF-5)
PAP Senior colonel
(OF-6)
PAP major general
(OF-7)
PAP lieutenant general
(OF-8)
PAP general
(OF-9)
Shoulder Insignia CAPF-0710-CDT CAPF-0711-2LT CAPF-0712-1LT CAPF-0713-CPT CAPF-0714-MAJ CAPF-0715-LTC CAPF-0716-COL CAPF-0717-SNC CAPF-0718-MG CAPF-0719-LTG CAPF-0720-GEN
Collar Insignia CAPF-Collar-0710-CDT CAPF-Collar-0711-2LT CAPF-Collar-0712-1LT CAPF-Collar-0713-CPT CAPF-Collar-0714-MAJ CAPF-Collar-0715-LTC CAPF-Collar-0716-COL CAPF-Collar-0717-SNC CAPF-Collar-0718-MG CAPF-Collar-0719-LTG CAPF-Collar-0720-GEN
Title 武警列兵
Wu jing lie bing
武警上等兵
Wu jing shang deng bing
武警下士
Wu jing xia shi
武警中士
Wu jing zhong shi
武警上士
Wu jing shang shi
武警四级警士长
Wu jing si ji jing shi zhang
武警三级警士长
Wu jing san ji jing shi zhang
武警二级警士长
Wu jing er ji jing shi zhang
武警一级警士长
Wu jing yi ji jing shi zhang
Usual Translation PAP private
(OR-1)
PAP private 1st class
(OR-2)
PAP lance corporal
(OR-3)
PAP corporal
(OR-4)
PAP sergeant
(OR-5)
PAP chief sergeant 4th class
(OR-6)
PAP chief sergeant 3rd class
(OR-7)
PAP chief sergeant 2nd class
(OR-8)
PAP chief sergeant 1st class
(OR-9)
Shoulder Insignia CAPF-0701-PVT CAPF-0702-PFC CAPF-0703-CPL CAPF-0704-SGT CAPF-0705-SSG CAPF-0706-4CSGT CAPF-0707-3CSGT CAPF-0708-2CSGT CAPF-0709-1CSGT
Collar Insignia CAPF-Collar-0701-PVT CAPF-Collar-0702-PFC CAPF-Collar-0703-CPL CAPF-Collar-0704-SGT CAPF-Collar-0705-SSG CAPF-Collar-0706-4CSGT CAPF-Collar-0707-3CSGT CAPF-Collar-0708-2CSGT CAPF-Collar-0709-1CSGT

For ranks used by the China Coast Guard, see Ranks of the People's Liberation Army Navy, the CCG uses the ranks, insignia and uniforms used by the PLA Navy

Special units

See also

References

  1. ^ Top legislature passes armed police law. China Daily. August 27, 2009.
  2. ^ Kuo, Lily; Kuo, Lily. "China is spending more on policing its own people than on its defense budget". Quartz.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Xia, Mingxing; Zhang, Ning; Zhu, Xiongnan (16 August 2017). "毛泽东关心武警部队早期建设纪事" [Mao Zedong cares about the early construction of the armed police force]. People's Daily Online. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
  4. ^ Shambaugh, David L. (2002). Modernizing China's military : progress, problems, and prospects. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 170. ISBN 0520225074. OCLC 49225216.
  5. ^ a b Sun, Ivan Y.; Wu, Yuning (December 2009). "The Role of the People's Armed Police in Chinese Policing". Asian Journal of Criminology. 4 (2): 107–128. doi:10.1007/s11417-008-9059-y. ISSN 1871-0131.
  6. ^ Chu, Fang. (1998). Gun barrel politics : party--army relations in Mao's China. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN 081333456X. OCLC 38286530.
  7. ^ a b c d e Guo, Xuezhi (2012). China's security state : philosophy, evolution, and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Aug. ISBN 9781107688841. OCLC 874118926.
  8. ^ a b Eckholm, Erik (28 March 1999). "A Secretive Army Grows to Maintain Order in China". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
  9. ^ China's Coast Guard is Now a Military Police Unit The Maritime Executive, March 21st 2018
  10. ^ Lu Gengsong, China's Armed Police and Nationalization of the Police Force, Beijing Spring, September 2006
  11. ^ Top legislature passes armed police law. China Daily. August 27, 2009.
  12. ^ Wines, Michael (August 27, 2009). China Approves Law Governing Armed Police Force . The New York Times.
  13. ^ a b "Armed Police Force". Ministry of National Defense. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
  14. ^ a b c Blasko, Dennis J. (2006). The Chinese Army today : tradition and transformation for the 21st century (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 0415770025. OCLC 68694731.
  15. ^ Times, Global. "Armed police to be commanded by CPC Central Committee, CMC - Global Times". www.GlobalTimes.cn. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  16. ^ Zhao, Lei (28 December 2017). "Command of Armed Police Force to be unified - Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  17. ^ Zhou, Viola (28 December 2017). "Why China's armed police will only take orders from Xi's army elite". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  18. ^ a b Zi, Yang (22 March 2018). "Party plan for reform unveiled - China Daily". ECNS.cn. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  19. ^ a b c Ni, Wei (2018-04-06). "武警改革的出与进:八大警种瘦身健体" [The Coming and Going of the PAP Reform: Eight Corps Slimming Down]. The Beijing News. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  20. ^ a b c d e Information Office of the State Council (2006). "V. People's Armed Police Force". China's National Defense In 2006. Beijing. Retrieved 22 September 2015.

External links

114th Armed Police Mobile Division

The People's Republic of China's 114th Division is a division of the People's Armed Police. Originally a division of the People's Liberation Army, it is currently designated the People's Armed Police Unit 8640 and is under the direct command of the People's Armed Police Headquarters, forming the People's Armed Police's mechanized response force. Other roles include provision of security for major public events.

117th Armed Police Mobile Division

The 117th Division was a military formation of the People's Volunteer Army (Chinese People's Volunteers (CPV) or Chinese Communist Forces (CCF)) during the Korean War with a standard strength of approximately 10,000 men. It was a component of the 39th Army, consisting of the 349th, 350th, and 351st Regiments.The division participated in the Battle of Unsan during the Korean War in the 1950s.

120th Armed Police Mobile Division (People's Republic of China)

The 120th Division was a division deployed by the People's Republic of China.

126th Armed Police Mobile Division (People's Republic of China)

The 126th Division was a division deployed by the People's Republic of China.

181st Armed Police Mobile Division

The 181st Armed Police Mobile Division is a military formation of the People's Armed Police of the People's Republic of China.

The 181st Division (Chinese: 第2师) was created on January 1949 under the Regulation of the Redesignations of All Organizations and Units of the Army, issued by Central Military Commission on November 1, 1948. The division's predecessor of the was the Yuxi Anti-Japanese Independence Detachment of the Eighth Route Army, which was formed by the 3rd and 35th Regiments of the Taihang Military Region on September 6, 1944.

In March 1951, the 181st Division transferred to the 60th Corps and served in the Korean War. It returned to China in September 1953. In 1954 it served as an exercise and demonstration formation.

From December 1969 to January 1985, it was numbered the 180th Division. It was transferred to the 1st Army in September 1985, and became part of the People's Armed Police in 1996.

2nd Armed Police Mobile Division

The 2nd Armed Police Mobile Division is a military formation of the People's Armed Police of the People's Republic of China.

The 2nd Division (Chinese: 第2师) was created on February 1949 under the Regulation of the Redesignations of All Organizations and Units of the Army, issued by Central Military Commission on November 1, 1948, basing on the 5th Route, Jizhong Guerrilla Army formed in late 1937.

The division was part of 1st Corps (now 1st Army) until 1996. Under the flag of 2nd division it took part in the Chinese Civil War. In June 1952 it absorbed the 8th Division from the 3rd Corps.

In early 1953 the division was composed of:

4th Regiment;

5th Regiment (former 23rd Regiment, 8th Division);

6th Regiment;

207th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment (former 24th Regiment, 8th Division);

302nd Artillery Regiment (former 5th Regiment, 2nd Division);In February 1953 the division entered Korea to took part in Korean War under the command of the Corps. Since then it became a part of the People's Volunteer Army until 1958.

In 1955 it renamed as the 2nd Infantry Division (Chinese: 步兵第2师).

In 1958 it moved to Kaifeng, Henan province with the Corps HQ.

In 1960 it renamed as the 2nd Army Division (Chinese: 陆军第2师).

In January 1961 it became one of the "middle" division under PLA glossaries, as a fully equipped but not fully manned division.

In 1962 the division was designated as a "Northern" unit, Catalogue A.

In 1968 the 207th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment was detached from the division and formed the later 42nd Tank Regiment of the 11th Tank Division.

The division was basically not affected during the army re-designation in December 1969. Its 302nd Artillery Regiment was renamed as Artillery Regiment, 2nd Army Division.

In the 1970s the division catelogue was unknown.

In 1975 the division moved to Zhejiang Province with the Corps HQ to replace 20th Corps. Since then the division is stationed in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province.

In 1985 the division was converted to an infantry division, renamed the 2nd Infantry Division (Chinese: 步兵第2师). The division then maintained as a Northern Infantry Division, Catalogue B unit.

By then the division was composed of:

4th Infantry Regiment;

5th Infantry Regiment;

6th Infantry Regiment;

Artillery Regiment;In 1996 the division was transferred to the People's Armed Police and converted to the 2nd Armed Police Mobile Division (Chinese: 武警机动第2师) as follows:

The Infantry Battalions are converted to Mobile Battalions;

The Machine gun-Artillery Battalion in each infantry regiment converted to a forth Mobile Battalion of the Regiment;

The artillery regiment of the division was converted to a fourth (mobile) Regiment.By then the division was composed of:

4th Armed Police Regiment;

5th Armed Police Regiment;

6th Armed Police Regiment;

709th Armed Police Regiment;After the 2017 reform, the division was divided into three independent detachments (regiment-sized): the 1st Mobile Detachment (Chinese: 机动第1支队), the 2nd Mobile Detachment (Chinese: 机动第2支队) and the 3rd Mobile Detachment (Chinese: 机动第3支队) under the PAP 2nd Mobile Corps (Chinese: 武警第2机动总队).

7th Armed Police Mobile Division

The 3rd Army Division (Chinese: 陆军第3师) (2nd Formation) was created in May 1969 from Beijing and Shenyang Military Region and soon sent to Ili, Xinjiang under the direct control of Xinjiang Military Region. The division was then composed of:

7th Infantry Regiment;

8th Infantry Regiment;

9th Infantry Regiment;

313th Artillery Regiment.In December 1969 the division was renamed as 7th Army Division, while former 7th Army Division renamed as new 3rd Army Division.

The re-formation and re-designation of several army divisions in Xinjiang showed apparent evidence that there might be plans to re-activate 2nd Army Corps and 3rd Army Corps, even 4th Army Corps of the PLA. For unknown reasons these corps were not formed at last.

By then the division was composed of:

19th Infantry Regiment (former 7th);

20th Infantry Regiment (former 8th);

21st Infantry Regiment (former 9th);

Artillery Regiment (former 313th).In 1985 the division was renamed as 7th Infantry Division (Chinese: 步兵第7师), becoming a Northern Infantry Division, Catalogue B unit.

In 1996 the division was transferred to the People's Armed Police and renamed as 7th Armed Police Division (Chinese: 武警第7师).

The Artillery Regiment, 7th Infantry Division was re-organized and renamed as 706th Regiment, 7th Armed Police Division. All artillery battalions in infantry regiments were also re-organized as the 4th mobile battalion of the regiments. Now the division is composed of:

19th Armed Police Regiment (Chinese: 武警第19团);

20th Armed Police Regiment (Chinese: 武警第20团);

21st Armed Police Regiment (Chinese: 武警第21团);

706th Armed Police Regiment (Chinese: 武警第706团).The division is stationed in Ili, Xinjiang for anti-terrorist and anti-separatist missions.

After the 2017 reform, the division was the only remained Armed Police Mobile Division.

81st Armed Police Mobile Division

The 81st Division was a military formation of the People's Liberation Army during and after the Chinese civil war and a part of People's Volunteer Army (Chinese People's Volunteers (CPV) or Chinese Communist Forces (CCF)) during the Korean War. They were a component of the 27th Army.

The 81st Division (Chinese: 第81师) was created in February 1949 under the Regulation of the Redesignations of All Organizations and Units of the Army, issued by Central Military Commission on November 1, 1948, basing on the 27th Division, 9th Column of Huadong Field Army. Its history could be traced to 3rd Security Brigade of Shandong Military Region, formed on September 3, 1946.On November 28, 1950, the 80th Division hit the dispersed U.S. units of Task Force Faith with waves of infantry. Despite the presence of tracked antiaircraft weapons, the sub-zero cold and the constant Chinese attacks began to take their toll. The fighting was often hand to hand and convinced the (initial) U.S. Task Force commander, Colonel MacLean, to order a pullback to form a more consolidated defense. However, during the withdrawal operations his troops came under renewed enemy attack, and in the confusion MacLean was captured by the Chinese.

The Task Force Faith page also states that the 81st Division participated in the attack and that though they were possibly reinforced, comprised 15,000+ troops.

In November 1950, Artillery Regiment, 81st Division was activated in Antung, Liaoning.

In October 1952, the division returned to China. Artillery Regiment, 81st Infantry Division detached and transferred to 24th Corps.

In February 1953, Tank Regiment, 81st Infantry Division was activated. On August 17 the regiment was renamed as 286th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment.

In April 1953, Artillery Regiment, 81st Infantry Division was reactivated in Shanghai. On August 17, the regiment was renamed as 361st Artillery Regiment.

From April 1954, the division was stationed in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu.

In April 1960, the division was renamed as the 81st Army Division (Chinese: 陆军第81师).

From June 1962, the maintained as southern army division, category B. By then the division was composed of:

241st Infantry Regiment;

242nd Infantry Regiment;

243rd Infantry Regiment;

361st Artillery Regiment;

286th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment.In August 1967, 286th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment detached from the division to form 10th Tank Division.

In August 1969, the division moved to Handan, Hebei. From then the division maintained as northern army division, category A.

In August 1971, the division was reorganized as a motorized army division. Tank Regiment, 81st Army Division and AAA Regiment, 81st Army Division were activated. By then the division was composed of:

241st Infantry Regiment;

242nd Infantry Regiment;

243rd Infantry Regiment;

Tank Regiment;

Artillery Regiment;

Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment.In August 1985, the division was renamed as the 81st Motorized Infantry Division (Chinese: 摩托化步兵第81师) and reorganized as a motorized division, category B. 250th Infantry Regiment of the disbanding 84th Army Division was attached to the division. Tank Regiment, 81st Division detached to form Tank Brigade, 27th Army. Tank Regiment, 66th Army Corps was transferred to the division as the new Tank Regiment, 81st Division.

By then the division was composed of:

241st Infantry Regiment;

242nd Infantry Regiment;

243rd Infantry Regiment;

250th Infantry Regiment;

Tank Regiment;

Artillery Regiment;

Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment.In September 1989, the division was converted to a northern motorized division, category B. 250th Infantry Regiment was disbanded.

In September 1996, the division was transferred to the People's Armed Police and renamed as the 81st Armed Police Mobile Division (Chinese: 武警机动第81师):

241st, 242nd, and 243rd Infantry Regiments were converted to 241st, 242nd, and 243rd Armed Police Regiments, respectively;

Tank Regiment, 81st Infantry Division was transferred to 27th Army's direct control as Former Tank Regiment, 81st Division. In September 1998 the regiment was disbanded.

Artillery Regiment and Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment were merged into 702nd Armed Police Regiment.The division was then composed of:

241st Armed Police Regiment - Jinnan District, Tianjin;

242nd Armed Police Regiment - Cangzhou, Hebei;

243rd Armed Police Regiment - Jinnan District, Tianjin;

702nd Armed Police Regiment - Xiqing District, Tianjin.After the 2017 reform, the division was reduced to a detachment (regiment-sized): the 4th Mobile Detachment (Chinese: 机动第4支队) under the PAP 1st Mobile Corps (Chinese: 武警第1机动总队).

Audit Office of the Central Military Commission

The Audit Office of the Central Military Commission or simply Audit Office is the chief organ under the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China. It was founded on January 11, 2016 under Xi Jinping's military reforms. It is responsible for auditing People's Liberation Army and People's Armed Police Its current director is General Guo Chunfeng.

China Coast Guard

The Chinese People's Armed Police Force Coast Guard Crops (Chinese: 中国人民武装警察部队海警总队; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá Bùduì Hǎijǐng Zǒngduì), also called China Coast Guard Bureau (Chinese: 中国海警; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hǎijĭng Jú; literally: 'China Maritime Police Bureau') abbreviated as China Coast Guard (Chinese: 中国海警; pinyin: Zhōngguó Hǎijĭng; literally: 'China Maritime Police') or Haijing (Chinese: 海警; pinyin: Hǎijĭng; literally: 'Maritime Police') serves as a coordinating agency for maritime search and rescue and law enforcement in the territorial waters of the People's Republic of China which administers Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. It is currently the world's largest coast guard.The China Coast Guard was formerly the maritime branch of the People's Armed Police (PAP) Border Security Force under the Ministry of Public Security until 2013. In March 2013, China announced it would form a unified Coast Guard commanded by the State Oceanic Administration. The new Coast Guard has been in operation since July 2013. As of July 1, 2018, the China Coast Guard was transferred from civilian control of the State Council and the State Oceanic Administration, to the People's Armed Police, ultimately placing it under the command of the Central Military Commission.The formal name of the orgnazition is "Chinese People's Armed Police Force Coast Guard Crops" (PAPCGC), but "China Coast Guard Bureau/China Coast Guard" (CCGB/CCG) is retained for general use.

Chinese People's Police University

The Chinese People's Police University (中国人民警察大学 Zhōngguórén mín jǐngchá dàxué) is an academy in Langfang, Hebei, China which trains People's Armed Police Force officers. The old name is Chinese People's Armed Police Force Academy (中国人民武装警察部队学院).

Immediate Action Unit

The Immediate Action Unit (IAU) is the premier counter-terrorism unit of the People's Republic of China.

Little is known about the Immediate Action Unit except that it is an elite People's Armed Police tactical unit rather than being drawn from the People's Liberation Army. In comparison to the Special Police Units which are the police tactical units at the provincial level, the Immediate Action Unit is the police tactical unit at the national level. Given the challenges faced by the Government of China in the 21st century, it is suspected that the Immediate Action Unit is primarily tasked with responding to internal emergencies of great concern to the national government.

Its name changes frequently and may no longer be used at this time of writing. A similar unit fulfilling its counter-terrorism role is the Snow Leopard Commando Unit.

Jiang (rank)

Jiang (simplified Chinese: 将; traditional Chinese: 將; pinyin: jiàng; Wade–Giles: chiang) is the rank held by general officers in the militaries of both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China on Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police use three levels at present while the Republic of China Armed Forces use four.

The same rank names are used for all services, prefixed by haijun (simplified Chinese: 海军; traditional Chinese: 海軍; literally: 'naval force') or kongjun (simplified Chinese: 空军; traditional Chinese: 空軍; literally: 'air force').

Liu Zhanqi

Liu Zhanqi (simplified Chinese: 刘占琪; traditional Chinese: 劉佔琪; pinyin: Lií Zhànqí; born December 1956) is a former officer of the Chinese People's Armed Police. He was investigated by the Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Central Military Commission (CMCCDI) in November 2014 and his case was handed over to military prosecutors in May 2015. Previously he served as chief of the People's Armed Police traffic command.

Liu worked for a long time on logistics and infrastructure projects for the Chinese Armed Police, and he is the first provincial-level Armed Police official to be placed under investigation. On June 17, 2015, the Central Military Commission (CMC) announced in a brief notice that Kou Tie and Liu Zhanqi were placed under investigation in November and their cases forwarded to prosecutors last month. So far, 37 PLA officials of deputy corps level and above have been put under corruption probes since CMC Chairman Xi Jinping's continues an anti-graft dragnet at all levels of government, military and ruling Communist Party.

Niu Zhizhong

Niu Zhizhong (Chinese: 牛志忠; pinyin: Niǘ Zhìzhōng; born March 1955) a former officer in the People's Armed Police of China. At the height of his career, he served as deputy commander of the People's Armed Police. He was an alternate member of the 18th CPC Central Committee. He was expelled from the Communist Party in 2016.

Paramilitary forces of China

The Paramilitary forces of China are composed of three main forces, the People's Liberation Army reserve force, the People's Armed Police (PAP), and the Militia, and they act as auxiliaries to the active forces of the People's Liberation Army. They generally perform a wide range of roles. Altogether, the paramilitary has 17,835,000 troops, as of 2018.

Snow Leopard Commando Unit

The Snow Leopard Commando Unit (Simplified Chinese: 雪豹突击队), formerly known as the Snow Wolf Commando Unit (Abbreviation: SWCU; Simplified Chinese: 雪狼突击队), is a police tactical unit of the People's Republic of China under the People's Armed Police, tasked with counter-terrorism, riot control, and other special tasks such as anti-hijacking and bomb disposal. The SLCU, along with Beijing Municipal Public Security Bureau's SWAT unit, was tasked with many of the security responsibilities of the 2008 Summer Olympics. Officially, the SLCU is known as the 3rd Group, 13th Detachment, People's Armed Police Beijing General Corps.The former Snow Wolf name was bestowed on the unit because of the known tenacity of Arctic wolves and their ability to both survive and thrive in extremely harsh conditions.

Special Police Unit of the Chinese People's Armed Police Force

Special Police Units (Abbreviation: SPU; Simplified Chinese: 特警队) are police tactical units of the Chinese People's Armed Police at the provincial and municipal level. There is at least one of such unit in each Chinese province to offer their services when requested by the local police, or other law enforcement agencies such as the customs service and the regular police.

Wang Jianping

Wang Jianping (Chinese: 王建平; born December 1953) is a former general of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China. He served as Commander of the People's Armed Police and Deputy Chief of General Staff of the People's Liberation Army. He was dismissed in 2016 and placed under investigation for corruption. He was a member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

Transcriptions
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Hanyu PinyinZhōngguó Rénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá Bùduì
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinRénmín Wǔzhuāng Jǐngchá
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōngguó Wǔjǐng
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Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinWǔjǐng [Bùduì]
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