Pensée unique

"Pensée unique" (French for "single thought") is a pejorative expression for mainstream ideological conformism of any kind, almost always opposed to that of the speaker. Originally, it is a French expression and referred to claims that neoliberalism is the only correct way to structure society. The phrase implies that mainstream discussion is limited by ideological assumptions of what is possible. One example of pensée unique given by critics was the motto of Margaret Thatcher (former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom): TINA ("There is no alternative").

The expression was coined by Jean-François Kahn, editor-in-chief of L'Événement du Jeudi,[1] in an editorial in January 1992. The phrase pensée unique is often used by political parties and organisations and in criticism.

The term has been used regarding prohibitionism of marijuana, with some commenters saying that pensée unique is a barrier to legalization.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ Jean-François Kahn, Les Risques de la pensée unique. L'Événement du Jeudi, 30 January 1992, page 6
  2. ^ ONU condena a Uruguay por violar convenios con la marihuana legal quotation:

    "Este es un tema que por primera vez rompe el pensamiento único. Acá se cayó otro muro, el muro del pensamiento único. Las convenciones no son una Biblia, son convenciones y no es el pensamiento único", afirmó Romani.

Further reading

  • La pensée unique, collective work (with Jean Foyer and Jean-Pierre Thiollet), Economica/JM. Chardon & D.Lensel Ed., Paris, 1998. ISBN 2-7178-3745-0
Alain de Benoist

Alain de Benoist (; French: [də bənwa]; born 11 December 1943) is a French academic, philosopher, a founder of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right), and head of the French think tank GRECE.Benoist is opposed to Christianity, the United States, free markets, neoliberalism, democracy, and egalitarianism. His work has been influential with the alt-right movement in the United States, and he presented a lecture on identity at a National Policy Institute conference hosted by Richard B. Spencer; however, he has distanced himself from the movement.

Anti-globalization movement

The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalization movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization. The movement is also commonly referred to as the global justice movement, alter-globalization movement, anti-globalist movement, anti-corporate globalization movement, or movement against neoliberal globalization.

Participants base their criticisms on a number of related ideas. What is shared is that participants oppose large, multinational corporations having unregulated political power, exercised through trade agreements and deregulated financial markets. Specifically, corporations are accused of seeking to maximize profit at the expense of work safety conditions and standards, labour hiring and compensation standards, environmental conservation principles, and the integrity of national legislative authority, independence and sovereignty. As of January 2012, some commentators have characterized changes in the global economy as "turbo-capitalism" (Edward Luttwak), "market fundamentalism" (George Soros), "casino capitalism" (Susan Strange), and as "McWorld" (Benjamin Barber).

Many anti-globalization activists do not oppose globalization in general and call for forms of global integration that better provide democratic representation, advancement of human rights, fair trade and sustainable development and therefore feel the term "anti-globalization" is misleading.

Anton Vassil

Anton Vassil is a screenwriter/film director who worked on various feature films, music videos, commercials and documentaries. With a master's degree from Loyola Marymount University film school, Vassil directed his first feature Marching Out of Time and went on to direct a series of films and documentaries including Guderian, La Dictature de la Pensée Unique and Les Oiseaux. In 2008, he developed ISS Space Agency, a European thriller. In 2015 he directs Laurent et Safi, a French musical feature, released theatrically in France and Africa in 2017. In 2018 he directs 'Le Gendarme de Abobo' scheduled for a 2019 theatrical release.

Claude Hagège

Claude Hagège (French: [aʒɛʒ]; born 1 January 1936) is a French linguist.

He was elected to the Collège de France in 1988 and received several awards for his work, including the Prix de l'Académie Française and the CNRS Gold medal. Famous for being a polyglot, he speaks (or is knowledgeable) about fifty languages, including Italian, English, Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Russian, Greek, Guarani, Hungarian, Navajo, Nocte, Punjabi, Persian, Malay, Hindi, Malagasy, Fula, Quechua, Tamil, Tetela, Turkish and Japanese.

International Center of Parapsychology and Scientific Research of the New Age

The International Center of Parapsychology and Scientific Research of the New Age, generally known under the name of Horus (in reference to falcon-god Horus which was the emblem of the group), was a New Age-oriented new religious movement founded in France in 1989 by Marie-Thérèse Castano, and ended in April 1997. This group had about 300 members, including teachers, doctors and scientists. The community of the group was located in La Coucourde, in the Drôme department. In the 1990s, the group was often the subject of strong criticisms in the media, as former members and a 1995 report established by the Parliamentary Commission on Cults in France presented it as a cult. In 1997, the founder and several followers were sentenced to prison on grounds of duty to rescue, complicity in forgery and unauthorized practice of medicine. However, the group considered to be a victim of defamation and expressed its complaints particularly through its lawyer.

Jacques Chirac

Jacques René Chirac (French: [ʒak ʁəne ʃiʁak]; born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. Chirac previously was Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995.

After completing his degree at Sciences Po, a term at Harvard University, and the École nationale d'administration, Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, and entered politics shortly after. Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture and Minister of the Interior. Chirac's internal policies initially included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, and business privatisation. After pursuing these policies in his second term as Prime Minister, he changed his views. He argued for more socially responsible economic policies, and was elected President in the 1995 presidential election with 52.6% of the vote in the second round, beating Socialist Lionel Jospin, after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift" (fracture sociale). Then, Chirac's economic policies, based on dirigisme, allowing for state-directed investment, stood in opposition to the laissez-faire policies of the United Kingdom under the ministries of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, which Chirac famously described as "Anglo-Saxon ultraliberalism".He is also known for his stand against the American-led assault on Iraq, his recognition of the collaborationist French Government's role in deporting Jews, and his reduction of the presidential term from 7 years to 5 through a referendum in 2000. At the 2002 French presidential election, he won 82.2% of the vote in the second round against the far-right candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen. During his second term, however, he had a very low approval rating, and was considered one of the least popular presidents in modern French history.

On 15 December 2011, the Paris court declared Chirac guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, and gave him a two-year suspended prison sentence.

Jacques Julliard

Jacques Julliard (born 4 March 1933) is a French historian, columnist and essayist, and a former union leader. He is the author of numerous books.

Jean-François Kahn

Jean-François Kahn (born 12 June 1938) is a French journalist and essayist.

Jean-Pierre Thiollet

Jean-Pierre Thiollet (born 1956) is a French writer and journalist.

Usually living in Paris, he is the author of numerous books and one of the national leaders of Confédération européenne des indépendants (CEDI), a European employers' organization.

He attended school in Châtellerault, before his studies in Poitiers classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles and his degrees in Parisian universities (Pantheon-Sorbonne University, University of Paris III:Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris-Sorbonne University).In 1978, he was admitted to Saint-Cyr (Coëtquidan).During the 1980s and until the mid-1990s, he was a member of a French Press organization for Music-hall, Circus, Dance and Arts presided by a well known journalist in France, Jacqueline Cartier, with authors or notable personalities as Pierre Cardin, Guy des Cars, and Francis Fehr. In the mid-1980s, he was too a contributing editor to Theatre Magazine, published by the Monégasque Michel Pastor.From 1982 to 1986, he was victim of illegal wiretaps (organized by the French President François Mitterrand), for his telephone conversations with the French writer and polemist Jean-Edern Hallier.At the end of the 1980s, he was a vice-president of Amiic (World Real Estate Investment Organization, Geneva).From 1988 to 1994, he was editor-in-chief for Le Quotidien de Paris (Daily Press Group).In 1994, he was the author allowed to interview Gérard Mulliez, one of the wealthiest and powerful people in France, for the book The Customer Driven Company — Moving from Talk to Action (translated in French as La Dynamique du client) by Richard C. Whiteley.

In 1997, he played a discreet and influential role in the parliamentary election in Toulon as communications director and member of the Mayor's Cabinet. He was arbitrarily dismissed the morning after the successful poll and then published Le Chevallier à découvert (Laurens, Paris), a strongly suggestive and humorous book some months later. In 1997 too, he was, with Émile Gardaz, among the personalities when the township of Delphi appointed the renowned environmentalist Franz Weber a Citoyen d'honneur.

In 1999, he co-produced Studies (Chopin) recorded by Radoslav Kvapil. From 1999 to 2001, he was the Company Secretary of Mea Publications Limited (United Kingdom) producing both a print product, Ici Londres magazine, and an Internet product, www.ici-londres.com.He was, with Alain Decaux, Frédéric Beigbeder and Richard Millet, one of the guest writers at the 2005 Beirut Book Fair (BIEL) for Je m'appelle Byblos (My Name Is Byblos).

In April 2006, he was directly concerned with the business resumption of France Soir but the entrepreneur Jean-Pierre Brunois was finally chosen by the Commercial Court of Lille.Since 2007, he has been a member of the World Grand Family of Lebanon (RJ Lebanon Club).From 2009 to 2012, he worked as one of the France-Soir editors.In 2010, he was among the petition's signatures for Roman Polanski when the film director was temporarily arrested by Swiss police at the request of U.S authorities.In October 2016, after dedicating a book about Jean-Edern Hallier to "the youth native from Euroland, zone F, victim of an old criminal political ruling class", he denounces in an interview "the French crime, committed by a political class, from the left as from the right".In 2017, he creates the Cercle InterHallier, in tribute to Jean-Edern Hallier.

Jean Ferré

Jean Ferré (29 May 1929, Saint-Pierre-les-Églises, now part of Chauvigny, Vienne, – 10 October 2006, Saint-Germain-en-Laye) was a French art historian and a right-political journalist. He was also the founder of the Paris-based Radio Courtoisie in 1987.

Jean Foyer

Jean Foyer (21 April 1921, Contigné, Maine-et-Loire – 3 October 2008, Paris) was a French politician and minister. He studied law and became a law professor at the university. He wrote several books about French Civil law.

Le Monde diplomatique

Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly newspaper offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. Le Monde diplomatique is a left-wing newspaper.

The publication is owned by Le Monde diplomatique SA, a subsidiary company of Le Monde which grants it complete editorial autonomy. Worldwide there were 71 editions in 26 other languages (including 38 in print for a total of about 2.2 million copies and 33 electronic editions).

Nouvelles Mythologies

Nouvelles Mythologies is a collection of 57 texts written by authors, journalists and editorialists under the direction of Jérôme Garcin and published in 2007 at Éditions du Seuil to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the essay Mythologies by Roland Barthes.

Political correctness

The term political correctness (adjectivally: politically correct; commonly abbreviated PC) is used to describe language, policies, or measures that are intended to avoid offense or disadvantage to members of particular groups in society. Since the late 1980s, the term has come to refer to avoiding language or behavior that can be seen as excluding, marginalizing, or insulting groups of people considered disadvantaged or discriminated against, especially groups defined by sex or race. In public discourse and the media, it is generally used as a pejorative, implying that these policies are excessive or unwarranted.While earlier usage of the term referred to the strict adherence to political orthodoxy, the contemporary pejorative usage of the term emerged from conservative criticism of the New Left in the late 20th century. This usage was popularized by a number of articles in The New York Times and other media throughout the 1990s, and was widely used in the debate about Allan Bloom's 1987 book The Closing of the American Mind, and gained further currency in response to Roger Kimball's Tenured Radicals (1990), and conservative author Dinesh D'Souza's 1991 book Illiberal Education in which he condemned what he saw as liberal efforts to advance self-victimization and multiculturalism through language, affirmative action, and changes to the content of school and university curricula.Commentators on the political left in the United States contend that conservatives use the concept of political correctness to downplay and divert attention from substantively discriminatory behavior against disadvantaged groups. They also argue that the political right enforces its own forms of political correctness to suppress criticism of its favored constituencies and ideologies. In the United States, the term has played a major role in the "culture war" between liberals and conservatives.

Polymnia Athanassiadi

Polymnia Athanassiadi was a Professor in Late Antique History at the University of Athens.

Propaganda techniques

Common media for transmitting propaganda messages include news reports, government reports, historical revision, junk science, books, leaflets, movies, social media, radio, television, and posters. Less common nowadays are the cow post envelopes, examples of which have survived from the time of the American Civil War. (Connecticut Historical Society; Civil War Collections; Covers.) In the case of radio and television, propaganda can exist on news, current-affairs or talk-show segments, as advertising or public-service announcement "spots" or as long-running advertorials. Propaganda campaigns often follow a strategic transmission pattern to indoctrinate the target group. This may begin with a simple transmission such as a leaflet dropped from a plane or an advertisement. Generally these messages will contain directions on how to obtain more information, via a web site, hot line, radio program, etc. The strategy intends to initiate the individual from information recipient to information seeker through reinforcement, and then from information seeker to opinion leader through indoctrination.A number of techniques based on social psychological research are used to generate propaganda. Many of these same techniques can be found under logical fallacies, since propagandists use arguments that, while sometimes convincing, are not necessarily valid.

Information dissemination strategies only become propaganda strategies when coupled with propagandistic messages. Identifying these messages is a necessary prerequisite to study the methods by which those messages are spread.

Saint-Simon Foundation

The Saint-Simon Foundation (French: Fondation Saint-Simon) was a French think tank created in 1982 by the historian François Furet. Its membership included intellectuals, journalists, high-ranking civil servants, industry leaders including businesspeople and trade unionists, and academics. It was a member of The Hague Club international network of think tanks. It dissolved in 1999, and many of its former members have now joined Le Siècle circle.

There is no alternative

"There is no alternative" (shortened as TINA) was a slogan often used by the Conservative British prime minister Margaret Thatcher.The phrase was used to signify Thatcher's claim that the market economy is the only system that works, and that debate about this is over. One critic characterised the meaning of the slogan as "Globalised capitalism, so called free-markets and free trade were the best ways to build wealth, distribute services and grow a society's economy. Deregulation's good, if not God." By contrast, Thatcher described her support of markets as flowing from a more basic moral argument. Specifically she argued that the market-principle of choice flows from the moral principle that for human behavior to be moral requires free-choice by people.Historically, the phrase may be traced to its emphatic use by the nineteenth-century classical liberal thinker Herbert Spencer. Opponents of the principle used it in a derisory manner. For instance cabinet minister Norman St John-Stevas, one of the leading "wets", nicknamed Thatcher "Tina". In economics, politics, and political economy, others have used it to mean that "there is no alternative" to neoliberalism—that free markets, free trade, and capitalist globalisation are the best or the only way for modern societies to develop.

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