The Pennine Way is a National Trail in England, with a small section in Scotland. The trail runs 268 miles (431 km) from Edale, in the northern Derbyshire Peak District, north through the Yorkshire Dales and the Northumberland National Park and ends at Kirk Yetholm, just inside the Scottish border. The path runs along the Pennine hills, sometimes described as the "backbone of England". Although not the United Kingdom's longest National Trail (this distinction belongs to the 630-mile (1,014 km) South West Coast Path), it is according to the Ramblers' Association "one of Britain's best known and toughest".
View from the Pennine Way, near Marsden
|Length||268 miles (431 km)|
|Location||Northern England and southern Scotland, United Kingdom|
|Designation||UK National Trail|
Kirk Yetholm, Scottish Borders
|Highest point||Cross Fell, 893 m (2,930 ft)|
The path was the idea of the journalist and rambler Tom Stephenson, inspired by similar trails in the United States of America, particularly the Appalachian Trail. Stephenson proposed the concept in an article for the Daily Herald in 1935, and later lobbied Parliament for the creation of an official trail. The walk was originally planned to end at Wooler but eventually it was decided that Kirk Yetholm would be the finishing point. The final section of the path was declared open in a ceremony held on Malham Moor on 24 April 1965. Before the official opening of the Pennine Way the British Army was invited to test the whole route, a task which they accomplished in one day. Junior soldiers from the Junior Tradesman's Regiment of the Army Catering Corps, based in Aldershot, were split into patrols of four or five and each was allocated an approximately 15-mile (25 km) section of the walk. A report was then provided on the signage and route feasibility.
The Pennine Way has long been popular with walkers, and in 1990 the Countryside Commission reported that 12,000 long-distance walkers and 250,000 day-walkers were using all or part of the trail per year and that walkers contributed £2 million (1990) to the local economy along the route, directly maintaining 156 jobs. The popularity of the walk has resulted in substantial erosion to the terrain in places, and steps have been taken to recover its condition, including diverting sections of the route onto firmer ground, and laying flagstones or duckboards in softer areas. These actions have been generally effective in reducing the extent of broken ground, though the intrusion into the natural landscape has at times been controversial.
Accommodation is available at Youth Hostels, camp sites, B&Bs and pubs. However, these are limited on upland stretches, so when planning the walk one must sometimes choose between a long day (between two places offering on-route accommodation) or two shorter days involving an evening descent off-route (to a nearby village or farm) with a morning re-ascent.
There are 535 access points where the Pennine Way intersects with other public rights of way. The route is also crossed by many roads and passes through many villages and towns with good public transport. This makes it easy to sample a short section of the trail, or to split the Pennine Way across several holidays or long weekends.
Most of the Pennine Way is on public footpaths, rather than bridleways, and so is not accessible to travellers on horseback or bicycle. However, a roughly parallel Pennine Bridleway is also open from Derbyshire to Cumbria. This route, open to anyone not using motorised vehicles, starts slightly farther south than the Pennine Way.
The route of the Pennine Way forms the basis of the Spine Race which was inaugurated in 2012. However, the record time for completion of the Way is 2 days, 17 hours and 20 minutes, set by Mike Hartley in 1989.
A survey by the National Trails agency reported that a walker covering the entire length of the trail is obliged to navigate 287 gates, 249 timber stiles, 183 stone stiles and 204 bridges. 198 miles (319 km) of the route is on public footpaths, 70 miles (112 km) on public bridleways and 20 miles (32 km) on other public highways. The walker is aided by the provision of 458 waymarks.
The Pennine Way originally climbed north from Edale across the middle of the Kinder Scout plateau. It was rerouted to reduce erosion, and now heads west to climb onto the plateau by steps known as Jacob's Ladder. It then turns north to follow the western edge of the plateau past Kinder Downfall, crosses the Snake Pass road (A57) and climbs Bleaklow. From the summit the trail descends to Longdendale. In the dale it crosses the dam of Torside Reservoir to Crowden, the first village since the start of the trail 16 miles (26 km) away.
From Crowden the Pennine Way climbs a side valley past Laddow Rocks to the summit of Black Hill on the border of Yorkshire. It descends across Wessenden Head Moor (the eastern part of Saddleworth Moor) and the A635 road to the Wessenden Valley. It climbs out of the valley to leave the National Park at Standedge on the A62 road.
From Standedge the Pennine Way follows the Yorkshire–Greater Manchester border north along a series of gritstone edges. It crosses the A640 road, then the A672, before crossing the M62 motorway by a long footbridge near Windy Hill. Past the motorway the trail follows Blackstone Edge to the A58 road, then passes a series of reservoirs. It crosses the Calderdale Way high above the village of Mankinholes, then climbs to the prominent monument on Stoodley Pike. From the monument it descends steeply to the valley of the River Calder, which it crosses about 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the town of Hebden Bridge, the largest settlement near the route.
The trail climbs out of the Calder valley through the scattered hamlet of Colden, crossing Colden Water by an ancient clapper bridge. It then passes the Walshaw Dean Reservoirs and climbs to the ruins of Top Withens, said to have been the inspiration for Wuthering Heights. The trail then descends to Ponden Hall, and crosses more moorland to the villages of Cowling and Lothersdale.
From Lothersdale the trail crosses Pinhaw Beacon to Thornton-in-Craven. There then follows gentler country, including a short section of the towpath of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal at East Marton, to reach the village of Gargrave in Airedale, on the busy A65.
North of Gargrave the Pennine Way ascends Airedale and enters the Yorkshire Dales National Park. It follows field paths, through the small villages of Airton and Hanlith to the larger village of Malham. It then climbs steps on the west side of Malham Cove, traverses the limestone pavement at the top of the cove, and continues north to Malham Tarn. The trail then crosses a shoulder of Fountains Fell, crosses the head of Silverdale and ascends the nose of Pen-y-Ghent in a very steep section. From the summit of Pen-y-Ghent the Pennine Way descends to the village of Horton in Ribblesdale (on the Settle–Carlisle Railway).
The Pennine Way then heads up Ribblesdale along the old Settle–Langstrothdale packhorse road. It passes the eastern end of Ling Gill and climbs Cam Fell, where it follows the line of a Roman road, shared with the Dales Way. The trail then passes Dodd Fell Hill and follows a ridge between Widdale and Sleddale, before descending into Wensleydale at Gayle and the adjoining town of Hawes.
The path crosses the dale to Hardraw, then begins the 5-mile (8 km) ascent of Great Shunner Fell. From the summit of the fell the trail descends to upper Swaledale and the village of Thwaite. It then crosses the side of Kisdon, with good views down Swaledale, passes Kisdon Force, a waterfall on the River Swale, and reaches the village of Keld.
From Keld the path crosses the route of the Coast to Coast Walk, then ascends a side valley known as Stones Dale to reach Tan Hill and its isolated inn at the northern boundary of the National Park.
At Tan Hill the Pennine Way enters the North Pennines AONB and follows moorland tracks to the isolated settlement of Sleightholme, where the route divides. The main route heads directly north across the moors, crossing God's Bridge and passing beneath the A66 road in a tunnel. The alternative route enters the town of Bowes and rejoins the main route at Baldersdale. From Baldersdale the trail crosses Lunedale and descends to the small town of Middleton-in-Teesdale.
From Middleton the path ascends Teesdale on the right bank of the River Tees, below the village of Holwick. It passes the waterfalls of Low Force and High Force, and reaches the scattered settlement of Forest-in-Teesdale. Further up the Tees, the path climbs beside the waterfall of Cauldron Snout below the dam of Cow Green Reservoir. The trail then ascends the gently rising side valley of Maize Beck to reach High Cup Nick, one of the most photographed areas on the Pennine Way. From High Cup the trail descends to the village of Dufton.
From Dufton the Pennine Way climbs back up the fells, passing in turn the summits of Knock Fell, Great Dun Fell, Little Dun Fell and finally Cross Fell, at 893 metres (2,930 ft) the highest point on the entire path. Here, walkers can face tricky conditions in bad weather as a result of the Helm Wind which sweeps down the south-west slope of the escarpment. A long descent follows to the valley of the South Tyne at Garrigill. The trail then keeps close to the river to enter the town of Alston.
The trail continues down the valley of the South Tyne to Slaggyford and Knarsdale. Above the village of Lambley the trail leaves the valley to cross more moorland to the A69 near the village of Greenhead.
Outside Greenhead the Pennine Way passes Thirlwall Castle on Hadrian's Wall. For the next 11 miles (18 km) the route coincides with the Hadrian's Wall Path, following the wall closely past Once Brewed to Rapishaw Gap, 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the Housesteads Roman Fort.
From the wall the trail heads north through Wark Forest. Past the forest it follows field paths to Shitlington Crags and descends to the large village of Bellingham. More remote country follows, across Padon Hill and the edge of Redesdale Forest. The trail eventually reaches Redesdale at Blakehopeburnhaugh and Cottonshopeburnfoot, two neighbouring hamlets which compete for the longest name in England. The route then follows the River Rede upstream to the village of Byrness.
The last stage of the Pennine Way, across the Cheviot Hills from Byrness to Kirk Yetholm, is 27 miles (43 km) long, with no habitation en route. It is usually tackled in one long day, although there are two refuge huts (or bothies). The trail climbs steeply from the village, then heads north to cross the Scottish border near Ogre Hill. For the rest of the stage the path switches between England and Scotland, along a fence which marks the border itself. Back in England the trail passes the Roman fort at Chew Green, and briefly follows the Roman road of Dere Street. The path then follows the border ridge, passing the high point of Windy Gyle. At the west top of Cairn Hill (743 metres (2,438 ft)), from where the path leads to the summit of The Cheviot and back down, the path turns sharply northwest with the border fence, descending to a refuge hut before climbing The Schil at 601 metres (1,972 ft), above the College Valley. The path then descends into Scotland and enters the village of Kirk Yetholm. The path ends at the Border Hotel.
The Pennine Way has attracted a number of writers over the years, including Stephenson himself, who wrote the first official guidebook. A popular guide was written and illustrated by the writer Alfred Wainwright, whose offer to buy a half-pint of beer for anyone who finished the Pennine Way is estimated to have cost him up to £15,000 by his death in 1991. The National Trail Guide contains a description of the route, GPS waypoints and 1:25000 maps of the entire walk. Barry Pilton's book One Man and His Bog gives a more lighthearted and personal account of completing the Pennine Way, with a foreword by Mike Harding. Mark Wallington's book Pennine Walkies (in which the author is accompanied by his dog) is another humorous personal story of the walk, as is Walking Home by Yorkshire poet Simon Armitage, who walked north-to-south along the Pennine Way without money, relying on his 'earnings' from nightly poetry readings along the way. Movement artists Tamara Ashley and Simone Kenyon performed the entire length of the trail in August 2006; their book documents the performance and invites readers to create their own interpretations of the landscapes along the way.
This is a list of the 2014 Championship 1 season results. Championship 1 is the third-tier rugby league competition in the United Kingdom. The 2014 season starts on 2 March with the Grand Final at Leigh Sports Village in Leigh, Greater Manchester.
The 2014 season consists of two stages. The regular season was played over 18 round-robin fixtures, in which each of the nine teams involved in the competition played each other once at home and once away. This means that teams will play 16 games and will have two bye-rounds, where they will not play a game. In the Championship 1, a win was worth three points in the table, a draw worth two points apiece, and a loss by less than 12 points during the game earned one bonus point. Defeats by more than 12 points yielded no points.
At the end of the regular season, due to restructuring the teams who finish the regular season between first and fifth will enter the play-offs with the winner claiming promotion.2018 RFL League 1 results
The fixture list for the 2018 season was issued on 15 November 2018. The regular season comprised 26 rounds where each team played each other home and away.All times are UK local time (UTC or UTC+1) on the relevant dates.Alfred Wainwright
Alfred Wainwright ("A.W.") MBE (17 January 1907 – 20 January 1991) was a British fellwalker, guidebook author and illustrator. His seven-volume Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells, published between 1955 and 1966 and consisting entirely of reproductions of his manuscript, has become the standard reference work to 214 of the fells of the English Lake District. Among his 40-odd other books is the first guide to the Coast to Coast Walk, a 192-mile long-distance footpath devised by Wainwright which remains popular today.Black Hill (Peak District)
Black Hill is a hill in the Peak District, England.
It is the highest point in the historic county of Cheshire, but now lies on the border between the boroughs of Kirklees in West Yorkshire and High Peak in Derbyshire, reaching 582 metres (1,909 ft) above sea level.
The top is peaty and thus very boggy after rain. The area surrounding the summit itself had virtually no vegetation and was very dark, giving the hill an appropriate name. However, recent restoration work has eliminated much of the exposed peat. Black Hill is crossed by the Pennine Way whose now-paved surface allows walkers to reach the top dry-shod even in the wettest of weather.Bowes Moor
Bowes Moor is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Teesdale district in south-west County Durham, England. It is an extensive area of moorland, most of it covered by blanket bog, which supports significant breeding populations of a number of wading birds.The Pennine Way National Trail passes through the area, as does the A66 road which crosses Bowes Moor using the Stainmore Gap between Bowes and Stainmore.Cotherstone Moor
Cotherstone Moor is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Teesdale district in south-west County Durham, England. It is an extensive area of moorland which extends almost the entire length of Baldersdale, from the confluence of the River Balder with the Tees at Cotherstone. It runs parallel to Bowes Moor SSSI, which lies a short distance to the south.
The area includes a variety of upland vegetation types, much of it blanket bog, including one area that is found nowhere else in County Durham and which is unusual for being transitional between northern upland and lowland bogs. Other habitats include dry heath, acid grassland, flushes, and rock and block scree.
The area supports breeding populations of a number of species of birds that are listed in the United Kingdom's Red Data Book (Birds), including four that are listed in Annex 1 of the European Commission's Birds Directive as requiring special protection.The Pennine Way National Trail passes through the area.Crowden, Derbyshire
Crowden (also known as Crowden-in-Longdendale) is a hamlet in the High Peak borough of Derbyshire, England. Historically a part of Cheshire, Crowden was incorporated into Derbyshire for administrative and ceremonial purposes in 1974, and is now Derbyshire's most northerly settlement. It lies in the Longdendale valley, 5.8 miles (9.3 km) northeast of Glossop and 5.7 miles (9.2 km) southwest of Holme in West Yorkshire.
It lies on the trans-Pennine A628 road connecting Greater Manchester and South Yorkshire. It also lies very close to the Pennine Way long distance footpath (on which it is traditionally the first-night stop after Edale) and includes a youth hostel. The Torside Reservoir is to the south of Crowden. An army rifle range was situated at Crowden in the 1950s and 1960s.
The hamlet was previously served by Crowden railway station on the Woodhead Line between the cities of Manchester and Sheffield, but the station closed on 4 February 1957.Edale railway station
Edale railway station serves the rural village of Edale in the Derbyshire Peak District, in England. It was opened in 1894 on the Midland Railway's Dore and Chinley line (now the Hope Valley Line), 20 miles (32 km) west of Sheffield and 22 miles (35 km) east of Manchester Piccadilly.
It became an unstaffed halt in 1969. It formerly had wooden buildings and canopies on each side, but these have been demolished and replaced by basic shelters.
Lying below Kinder Scout, the station is the closest station for the start of the Pennine Way.
The station has two platforms with no level crossing or footbridge. To change platforms, there is an underpass located next to the road in the village. The station is managed and served primarily by Northern using rolling stock such as the Class 142 Pacer and Class 150 Sprinter, with the occasional Class 156 Super Sprinter. East Midlands Trains services are usually run with Class 158 Express Sprinter units.
The station is about 5 minutes walk from the centre of the village, where the Pennine Way begins, with the Nags Head public house being 'the official start of the Pennine Way'.Fountains Fell
Fountains Fell is a mountain in the Yorkshire Dales, England. The main summit (SD864716) has a height of 668 metres (2,192 ft) and a relative height or topographic prominence of 243 metres (797 ft) and thus qualifies as a Marilyn. Its subsidiary, Fountains Fell South Top (SD868708) reaches 662 metres (2,172 ft) and qualifies as a Nuttall. A third summit, further south at SD868697, reaches 610 metres (2,001 ft) and is the most southerly 2,000 ft summit in the Pennines.The eastern slopes of the fell form part of the National Trust's Malham Tarn and Moor estate.Gargrave railway station
Gargrave railway station serves the village of Gargrave in North Yorkshire, England. It is 30 miles (48 km) north-west of Leeds on the Leeds to Morecambe Line operated by Northern who also manage the station.
The station was opened on 30 July 1849 by the "little" North Western Railway, later taken over by the Midland Railway. The original stone shelters survive on each platform, but the main wooden station building is now in private use.God's Bridge
God's Bridge is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Teesdale district of south-west County Durham, England. It is a natural limestone bridge over the River Greta, just over 3 km upstream from the village of Bowes.
The bridge was formed by a process of cave development in the limestone beneath the river bed and is the best example in Britain of a natural bridge formed in this way. The SSSI covers a portion of the river above and below the bridge where shallow cave development by solutional activity is still taking place.The Pennine Way crosses the River Greta at God's Bridge.Great Shunner Fell
Great Shunner Fell is the third highest mountain in the Yorkshire Dales, North Yorkshire, England, and the highest point in Wensleydale; at 716 metres above sea level. In clear weather the summit affords views of Wensleydale to the south, Ribblesdale to the south west and Swaledale to the north, as well as views into Cumbria and County Durham beyond the A66.
The Pennine Way passes over its summit, on the way from Hawes to Keld. The popularity of this route had eroded vegetation from a strip 70 m wide across the moor, which has been alleviated since 1996 by the construction of a path made of flagstones.The summit holds a cross-shaped windbreak of which the triangulation pillar has been built into the northern 'arm'.
Great Sleddale Beck, which becomes the River Swale after its confluence with Birkdale Beck has its sources on the northern slopes of Great Shunner Fell, while the southern slopes drain into the River Ure and Wensleydale.
The dominating rock type in the area is limestone, but millstone grit forms outcrops extensively on Great Shunner Fell, and coal seams have also been worked on its slopes.Great Shunner Fell is the most southerly remaining outpost in Great Britain for the yellow marsh saxifrage, Saxifraga hirculus.Kirk Yetholm
Kirk Yetholm is a village in the Scottish Borders region of Scotland, 8 miles (13 km) south east of Kelso and less than 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the border. The first mention is of its church in the 13th century. Its sister town is Town Yetholm which lies half a mile across the Bowmont Water. The population of the two villages was recorded as 591 in the 2001 census.The village is notable for being the northern terminus of the Pennine Way, and to a lesser extent the southern terminus of the Scottish National Trail. The Border Hotel public house is the official end of the Pennine Way.
Kirk Yetholm was for centuries the headquarters of the Romani people (Gypsies) in Scotland. The last king of the Gypsies was crowned in 1898 and the Gypsies have been integrated and are no longer a separate ethnic minority. A memorial stone can be found on the village green.A song referring to Kirk Yetholm called ‘Yetholm Day’ was written and composed by Gary Cleghorn.Lunedale
Lunedale is the dale, or valley, of the River Lune, on the east side of the Pennines in England, west of Middleton-in-Teesdale. Its principal settlements are Grassholme, Thringarth and Bowbank.
Lunedale is also the name of a civil parish which covers most of the north side of the dale. The population of the parish was not counted separately at the 2011 census, but the combined population of Lunedale and Holwick parishes was 187. Most of the south side of the dale is in the civil parish of Mickleton.
Lunedale was historically in the North Riding of Yorkshire, but since 1974 has been in County Durham.
The River Lune flows through Lunedale before reaching Teesdale where it joins the River Tees. The river flows through two reservoirs on the way: Selset Reservoir and Grassholme Reservoir. Running roughly parallel to Lunedale to the south is Baldersdale.
The Pennine Way passes through Lunedale on its way to Middleton-in-Teesdale, and crosses Grassholme Bridge over Grassholme Reservoir.
A former railway viaduct from the now-closed Barnard Castle to Middleton-in-Teesdale line crosses the River Lune just north of Mickleton.Pennine Way Stadium
The Pennine Way Stadium is a multi-use sports facility in Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. It is the home of Hemel Stags rugby league club.Pennines
The Pennines (), also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
Often described as the "backbone of England", the Pennine Hills form a more-or-less continuous range in most of Northern England. The range stretches northwards from the Peak District in the northern Midlands, through the South Pennines, Yorkshire Dales and North Pennines up to the Tyne Gap, which separates the range from the Cheviot Hills. Some definitions of the Pennines also include the Cheviot Hills across the Anglo-Scottish border while excluding the southern Peak District. South of the Aire Gap is a western spur into east Lancashire, comprising the Rossendale Fells, West Pennine Moors and the Bowland Fells in North Lancashire. The Howgill Fells and Orton Fells in Cumbria are sometimes considered to be Pennine spurs to the west of the range. The Pennines are an important water catchment area with numerous reservoirs in the head streams of the river valleys.
The region is widely considered to be one of the most scenic areas of the United Kingdom. The North Pennines and Nidderdale are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) within the range, as are Bowland and Pendle Hill. Parts of the Pennines are incorporated into the Peak District National Park and the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Britain's oldest long-distance footpath, the Pennine Way, runs along most of the Pennine Chain and is 268 miles (429 km) long.Saddleworth Moor
Saddleworth Moor is a moorland in North West England. Reaching more than 1,312 feet (400 m) above sea level, it is in the Dark Peak area of the Peak District National Park. It is crossed by the A635 road and the Pennine Way passes to its eastern side.Stonydelph
Stonydelph is a neighbourhood about 2 miles (3 km) south east of the centre of Tamworth, Staffordshire.
A spelling of "Stoneydelph" is sometimes used but the OS map of 1888 shows "Stonydelph Farm" as the only building in this area. Much of the area is based around a road named "Pennine Way".
One of the education providers in the area are Three Peaks Primary Academy which was rated as 'Good' by Ofsted in September 2017. Three Peaks Primary Academy is part of Creative Education Trust which is a charity and multi-academy trust.The Cheviot
The Cheviot () is the highest summit in the Cheviot Hills in the far north of England, only 1¼ miles (2 km) from the Scottish border. It is the last major peak on the Pennine Way, if travelling from south to north, before the descent into Kirk Yetholm.
Other than the route via the Pennine Way, most routes up The Cheviot start from the Harthope Burn side to the northeast, which provides the nearest access by road. The summit is around 3 miles (5 km) from the road-end at Langleeford; across the valley to the east is the rounded peak of Hedgehope. There are routes following the ridges above either side of the valley, and a route that sticks to the valley floor until it climbs to the summit of The Cheviot from the head of the valley.
Although the Pennine Way itself does a two-mile out-and-back detour to the Cheviot, many walkers who come this way omit it, since the stage (the last) is 29 miles long.
The summit of the Cheviot is very flat. It is an ancient, extinct volcano. It is covered with an extensive peat bog up to 6 feet (2 metres) deep; the Northumberland National Park authority have laid down stone slabs on the main access footpath to prevent erosion damage to the peat and to make the approach to the summit safer for walkers.
North of the summit, in the peat bogs, are the remains of a crashed B-17 bomber, which hit the mountain due to a navigational error in World War II. The more recognisable pieces of wreckage have been removed, but pieces of the aircraft can still be found.
(England and Wales)
|Scotland's Great Trails|