Peltops

Peltops is a genus of birds in the family Artamidae. It contains two species that are endemic to the island of New Guinea. The species have also had the common name of shieldbill.

Peltops
PeltopsBlainvilliiGouldcrop.jpeg
Lowland peltops Peltops blainvillii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Artamidae
Genus: Peltops
Wagler, 1829
Species

Lowland peltops
Mountain peltops

Taxonomy

The genus Peltops was introduced by the German zoologist Johann Georg Wagler in 1829.[1] The type species is the lowland peltops.[2] The name is from the Greek pelte meaning small shield and ops meaning face.[3] The genus was once placed with the monarch flycatchers, but molecular and morphometric studies place it closer to the butcherbirds,[4] possibly as a sister taxon to this group.[5] The genus is placed in its own subfamily, Peltopsinae.[6][7]

The genus contains two species:[8]

Description

Peltops are smaller than the butcherbirds, and have a less massive but still large bill. The mountain peltops is the larger species, at 20 cm (7.9 in), whereas the lowland peltops is slightly smaller at 18 to 19 cm (7.1–7.5 in). The hooked bill is the same size in both species, making it proportionally larger in the lowland peltops.[9]

Distribution and habitat

Both species occupy rainforest on New Guinea, but are separated by altitude. The lowland peltops ranges across the island from sea level to 600 m (2,000 ft), whereas the mountain peltops ranges from 600 to 3,000 m (2,000–9,800 ft). Within the forest they are particularly common at forest openings and edges, tree falls, river edges, and other disturbed areas including human modified openings like roads and gardens. In undisturbed virgin forest they may use massive trees emerging from and above the canopy.[9]

References

  1. ^ Wagler, Johann Georg (1829). "Genus Eurylaimus". Isis von Oken (in Latin and German). 22. col. 656.
  2. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1986). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 11. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 529.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (1991). A Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 176. ISBN 0-19-854634-3.
  4. ^ Sibley, CG; JE Ahlquist (1984). "The relationships of the Papuan genus Peltops". Emu. 84 (3): 181–183. doi:10.1071/MU9840181.
  5. ^ Manegold, A (2008). "Composition and phylogenetic affinities of vangas (Vangidae, Oscines, Passeriformes) based on morphological characters". Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. 46 (3): 267–277. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0469.2008.00458.x.
  6. ^ del Hoyo, Joseph (ed.). "Taxonomic structure and notes". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  7. ^ Dickinson, E.C.; Christidis, L., eds. (2014). The Howard & Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, Volume 2: Passerines (4th ed.). Eastbourne, UK: Aves Press. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-9568611-2-2.
  8. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Bristlehead, Butcherbirds, Woodswallows & Cuckooshrikes". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  9. ^ a b Russell, Eleanor; Rowley, Ian (2009). "Family Cracticidae (Butcherbirds)". In del Hoyo, Josep; Elliott, Andrew; Christie, David (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 308–342. ISBN 978-84-96553-50-7.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
Artamidae

Artamidae is a family of passerine birds found in Australia, the Indo-Pacific region, and Southern Asia. It includes 24 extant species in six genera and three subfamilies: Peltopsinae (with one genus, the peltops), Artaminae (with one genus, the woodswallows) and Cracticinae (currawongs, butcherbirds and the Australian magpie). Artamids used to be monotypic, containing only the woodswallows, but it was expanded to include the family Cracticidae in 1994. Some authors, however, still treat the two as separate families. Some species in this family are known for their beautiful song. Their feeding habits vary from nectar sucking (woodswallows) to predation on small birds (pied currawong).

Butcherbird

Butcherbirds are Australian magpie-like birds. Most are found in the genus Cracticus, but the black butcherbird is placed in the monotypic genus Melloria. They are native to Australasia. Together with three species of currawong and two species of peltops, butcherbirds and the Australian magpie form the subfamily Cracticinae in the family Artamidae.

Butcherbirds are large songbirds, being between 30 and 40 cm (12–16 in) in length. Their colour ranges from black-and-white to mostly black with added grey plumage, depending on the species. They have a large, straight bill with a distinctive hook at the end which is used to skewer prey. They have high-pitched complex songs, which are used to defend their essentially year-round group territories: unlike birds of extratropical Eurasia and the Americas, both sexes sing prolifically.Butcherbirds are insect eaters for the most part, but will also feed on small lizards and other vertebrates. They get their name from their habit of impaling captured prey on a thorn, tree fork, or crevice. This "larder" is used to support the victim while it is being eaten, to store prey for later consumption, or to attract mates.

Butcherbirds are the ecological counterparts of the shrikes, mainly found in Eurasia and Africa, which are only distantly related, but share the "larder" habit; shrikes are also sometimes called "butcherbirds". Butcherbirds live in a variety of habitats from tropical rainforest to arid shrubland. Like many similar species, they have adapted well to urbanisation and can be found in leafy suburbs throughout Australia. They are opportunistic, showing little fear and readily taking food offerings to the point of becoming semi-tame.

Female butcherbirds lay between two and five eggs in a clutch, with the larger clutch sizes in more open-country species. Except in the rainforest-dwelling hooded and black butcherbirds, cooperative breeding occurs, with many individuals delaying dispersal to rear young. The nest is made from twigs, high up in a fork of a tree. The young will remain with their mother until almost fully grown. They tend to trail behind their mother and "squeak" incessantly while she catches food for them.

Cracticinae

The Cracticinae, bellmagpies and allies, gathers together 12 species of mostly crow-like birds native to Australasia and nearby areas.

Historically, the cracticines – currawongs, Australian magpie and butcherbirds – were seen as a separate family Cracticidae and, according to the 2018 Cements List, they still are. With their 1985 DNA study, Sibley and Ahlquist recognised the close relationship between the woodswallows and the butcherbirds in 1985, and placed them in a Cracticini clade, now the family Artamidae. The two species of peltops were once placed with the monarch flycatchers but are now placed here.The cracticines have large, straight bills and mostly black, white or grey plumage. All are omnivorous to some degree: the butcherbirds mostly eat meat; Australian magpies usually forage through short grass looking for worms and other small creatures; and currawongs are true omnivores, taking fruit, grain, meat, insects, eggs and nestlings. The female constructs bulky nests from sticks, and both parents help incubate the eggs and raise the young thereafter.The cracticines, despite their fairly plain, utilitarian appearance, are highly intelligent and have extraordinarily beautiful songs of great subtlety. Particularly noteworthy are the pied butcherbird, the pied currawong and the Australian magpie.

Cracticus

Cracticus is a genus of butcherbirds native to Australasia. They are large songbirds, being between 30 and 40 cm (12–16 in) in length. Their colour ranges from black-and-white to mostly black with added grey plumage, depending on the species. They have a large, straight bill with a distinctive hook at the end which is used to skewer prey. They have high-pitched complex songs, which are used to defend their essentially year-round group territories: unlike birds of extratropical Eurasia and the Americas, both sexes sing prolifically.

Currawong

Currawongs are three species of medium-sized passerine birds belonging to the genus Strepera in the family Artamidae native to Australasia. These are the grey currawong (Strepera versicolor), pied currawong (S. graculina), and black currawong (S. fuliginosa). The common name comes from the call of the familiar pied currawong of eastern Australia and is onomatopoeic. They were formerly known as crow-shrikes or bell-magpies. Despite their resemblance to crows and ravens, they are only distantly related to the corvidae, instead belonging to an Afro-Asian radiation of birds of superfamily Malaconotoidea.

The true currawongs are a little larger than the Australian magpie, smaller than the ravens (except possibly the little raven, which is only slightly larger on average), but broadly similar in appearance. They are easily distinguished by their yellow eyes, in contrast to the red eyes of a magpie and white eyes of Australian crows and ravens. Currawongs are also characterised by the hooked tips of their long, sharply pointed beaks.

They are not as terrestrial as the magpie and have shorter legs. They are omnivorous, foraging in foliage, on tree trunks and limbs, and on the ground, taking insects and larvae (often dug out from under the bark of trees), fruit, and the nestlings of other birds. They are distinguishable from magpies and crows by their comical flight style in amongst foliage, appearing to almost fall about from branch to branch as if they were inept flyers.

List of bird genera

List of bird genera concerns the chordata class of aves or birds, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, and a high metabolic rate.

List of birds of Indonesia

Indonesia, with its vast islands, tropical weather and rainforests is one of the world's richest and most important country in term of biodiversity. In addition to the many resident birds, of which the most important are the 380 endemics, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.

The list will be growing, since many new species are discovered every year in many unexplored areas of Indonesia. In December 2005, a honeyeater Melipotes carolae was discovered in Foja Mountains among other new animal and plant species.

In June 2011 there are 123 Indonesian bird species threatened, 18 were categorized as endangered while 31 others endangered and 74 vulnerable.

List of birds of Papua New Guinea

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Papua New Guinea. The avifauna of Papua New Guinea include a total of 781 species, of which 76 are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and eighteen are rare or accidental. Twenty-eight species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Papua New Guinea.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Papua New Guinea

(E) Endemic - a species that is native only to Papua New Guinea

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Papua New Guinea as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of least concern birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 8405 least concern avian species. 76% of all evaluated avian species are listed as least concern.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of least concern avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

List of species described in 1921

There were many species described in 1921.

Lowland peltops

The lowland peltops or clicking shieldbill (Peltops blainvillii) is a species of bird in the family Artamidae.

It is found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest.

Mountain peltops

The mountain peltops (Peltops montanus) is a species of bird in the family Cracticidae.

It is found in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 13

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

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