Peltandra virginica

Peltandra virginica is a plant of the arum family known as green arrow arum[2] and tuckahoe.[3] It is widely distributed in wetlands in the eastern United States, as well as in Quebec, Ontario, and Cuba.[1][4][5] It is common in central Florida including the Everglades[6] and along the Gulf Coast.[7] Its rhizomes are tolerant to low oxygen levels found in wetland soils.[8] It can be found elsewhere in North America as an introduced species and often an invasive plant.

P. virginica is a hydrophytic marshland aquatic plant pollinated by a chloropid fly through providing a brood site and releasing the pollen onto them. The primary dispersal mechanisms are via water and animals.[3] [9]

Peltandra virginica
Peltandra virginica MA
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Alismatales
Family: Araceae
Genus: Peltandra
P. virginica
Binomial name
Peltandra virginica
Peltandra distribution
Distribution of Peltandra virginica
  • Arum virginicum L.
  • Calla virginica (L.) Michx.
  • Caladium virginicum (L.) Hook.
  • Lecontia virginica (L.) Torr.
  • Rensselaeria virginica (L.) L.C.Beck
  • Alocasia virginica (L.) Raf.
  • Peltandra undulata Raf.
  • Arum walteri Elliott
  • Peltandra undulata Schott
  • Peltandra angustifolia Raf.
  • Peltandra canadensis Raf.
  • Peltandra hastata Raf.
  • Peltandra walteri (Elliott) Raf.
  • Caladium undulatum Steud.
  • Peltandra tharpii F.A.Barkley
  • Peltandra luteospadix Fernald


This is an emergent perennial herb growing from a large rhizome and producing many large leaves. An individual leaf may have a petiole nearly a meter long and a blade half a meter in length. The leaves are quite variable in shape and size, but they are often generally arrowhead-shaped.

The inflorescence bears male and female flowers, as well as sterile flowers. The flower varies from whitish to greenish to yellow. The fruit is a brown berry containing a few seeds within a clear gelatinous pulp. Large number of seeds can accumulate in the soil of wetlands.[4][10]

Peltandra virginica is a marshland aquatic plant, growing in North America bogs, ponds, and marshes. The roots and base grow into the submerged substrate, and the leaves and inflorescences project up and out of the water. The roots form a perennial rhizome. Various forms of leaf blades have been observed, both in larger ranges and smaller individual populations. Petioles range from green to green-purple to purple with a medium green blade petiole lengths between 38 and 98 centimeters and blade length being between 9 and 57 centimeters. Lateral veins also have variable thicknesses. Inflorescences are generally pale green to white, being lighter within the spathe. Lengths for the inflorescense range between 7 and 25 centimeters with the spadix being about half the size to the full length of the spathe with greenish to white flowers, producing fruits that rot within the closed spathe. Fruits are pea green to mottled green and purple and range from 6 to 16 millimeters. In most of its range, it blooms from spring to late summer and fall and in warmer regions, it will bloom into the winter. It generally thrives in low salinity environments.[11][3]


Arrow arum, Peltandra virginica, is a member of the arum family, Araceae, and is known by the names tuckahoe, green arrow arum, and peltandre.[3][12] It was originally described as Arum virginicum by Carl Linnaeus in 1753 and has also been placed in the genera Alocasia, Caladium, Calla, Lecontia, and Rensselaeria.[12] Other synonyms include Peltandra luteospadix and P. tharpii.[12]

In the eastern United States and Canada where Peltandra virginica resides, one other Peltandra species exists, P. sagittifolia.[13] P. virginica can be distinguished from the other extant taxon of Peltandra by the variation in leaf form, average greater size in non-reproductive structures, and the difference in color of the fruit. The fruit of P. sagittifolia is red with a white spathe, and the fruit of P. virginica are green to purple with a green to yellow green spathe.[3]

Distribution and habitat

Peltandra virginica is a native to North America; its range spans the entire eastern coast of the United States and goes as far west as Texas. It is also naturalized in areas of California up to Oregon and is present in eastern regions of Canada.[14][2] It mostly inhabits the wetlands and swamps, including marshes and bogs.[14][2]


Based on the Red List of Threatened Species 2016, P. virginica is a taxon of Least Concern, this is because of its broad range in eastern and central North America.[9] In some areas within the range of P. virginica the populations are diminishing.[9] It has also been found in California.[12] While common in most of its range, P. virginica is listed as Endangered in Iowa.[2]

Pollination biology

In the pistillate stage the spadix of P. virginica is entirely covered by the spathe, not allowing insects to pollinate them.[11] Pollination is achieved by the plant utilizing brood-site-based pollination, the chloropid fly Elachiptera formosa forms a symbiotic relationship with the inflorescence.[11][3] The flies are attracted to the odor of the flowers in the staminate stage where they feed on pollen and mate then find oviposition sites, followed by the development of the larvae and maturity of the flies.[11]


The plant contains calcium oxalate crystals, making it unpalatable. Native Americans used most parts of the plant for food, however, cooking it for hours first to make it safe to eat.[3][15]

Historical accounts suggest that Native Americans may have used Peltandra virginica as a food source. They may have eaten the seeds and fruits as well as the leaves and roots. The section of P. virginica's range where its populations are highest, from Pennsylvania to coastal Virginia, are where it was most likely used for food.[3] In other times and places, it has been used as an ornamental plant and to stabilize sediments in small bodies of water.[16]


Peltandra virginica is considered a low percentage of various animals' food sources. Peltandra virginica makes up 5-10% of the diet of small mammals that reside within its range and makes up 10-25% of the diet of water birds that share its range. Peltandra virginica makes up 5-10% of the diet of water birds that share its range.[2]


The non-reproductive structures of Peltandra virginica are known to contain calcium oxalate crystals, that can irritate the gastrointestinal system of animals and people and has been linked to the development of kidney stones.[16][17]


  1. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  2. ^ a b c d e "Plants Profile for Peltandra virginica (green arrow arum)". Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Peltandra virginica in Flora of North America @". Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  4. ^ a b Whigham, Dennis F., Robert L. Simpson and Mary A. Leck. 1979. The Distribution of Seeds, Seedlings, and Established Plants of Arrow Arum (Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth) in a Freshwater Tidal Wetland Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 106: 193-199
  5. ^ Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  6. ^ Loveless, C. M. 1959. A study of the vegetation in the Florida everglades. Ecology 40: 1–9.
  7. ^ Keddy, P. A., Campbell, D., McFalls T., Shaffer, G., Moreau, R., Dranguet, C., and Heleniak, R. (2007). The wetlands of lakes Pontchartrain and Maurepas: past, present and future. Environmental Reviews 15: 1–35.
  8. ^ Laing, H. E. (1940). Respiration of the rhizomes of Nuphar advenum and other water plants. American Journal of Botany 27: 574–81.
  9. ^ a b c "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  10. ^ Leck, M. A. and Graveline, K. J. (1979). The seed bank of a freshwater tidal marsh. American Journal of Botany 66: 1006–15.
  11. ^ a b c d Patt, Joseph M.; French, James C.; Schal, Coby; Lech, Joseph; Hartman, Thomas G. (October 1995). "The pollination biology of tuckahoe, Peltandra virginica (Araceae)". American Journal of Botany. 82 (10): 1230–1240. doi:10.1002/j.1537-2197.1995.tb12656.x. ISSN 0002-9122.
  12. ^ a b c d "!Peltandra virginica (L.) Raf. ex Schott & Endl". Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  13. ^ "Search results — The Plant List". Retrieved 2018-11-28.
  14. ^ a b "Peltandra virginica - Plant Finder". Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  15. ^ Plant of the Week
  16. ^ a b Moore, Kimberly. "Native Aquatic and Wetland Plants: Arrow Arum, Peltandra virginica" (PDF). University of Florida: IFAS Extension.
  17. ^ "Calcium Oxalate Stones". National Kidney Foundation. 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2018-11-28.

External links

Burlington, Ontario

Burlington is a city in the Regional Municipality of Halton at the northwestern end of Lake Ontario in Ontario, Canada. Along with Milton to the north, Burlington forms the west end of the Greater Toronto Area, and is also part of the Hamilton metropolitan census area. Burlington lies between Lake Ontario's north shore and the Niagara Escarpment.

Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands (ecoregion)

The Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands region extends along the south shores of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River to Lake Champlain, and south down the Hudson River. It is primarily within the state of New York, with smaller portions in Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the north it meets the Mixedwood Plains Ecozone of Canada. It is mostly temperate deciduous forest and agricultural land.

It is one of the 104 Level III ecoregions that occur within the United States, and one of the 35 that comprise the Eastern Temperate Forest Level 1 Ecoregion. This classification system was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

Keddy Nature Sanctuary

The Keddy Nature Sanctuary consists of approximately one square mile of forest and wetland on the very edge of the Canadian shield, just an hour west of Ottawa on the east side of Lanark County, in Ontario, Canada. It is mostly second growth temperate deciduous forest, interspersed with wetlands and beaver ponds, as well as sedge-dominated rock-ridges. A central ridge has more than twenty hectares of hemlock forest. There are also old fields that remain from pastures created in the previous century. Parts of this property, as well as adjoining lands, are designated as the Scotch Corners Provincially Significant Wetland. The property is one of several protected by the Mississippi Madawaska Land Trust.

Lanark County

Lanark County is a county located in the Canadian province of Ontario. Its county seat is Perth, which was first settled in 1816. Most European settlements of the county began in 1816, when Drummond, Beckwith and Bathurst townships were named and initially surveyed. The first farm north of the Rideau was cleared and settled somewhat earlier, in 1790. The county took its name from the town of Lanark in Scotland. Nearly all the townships were named after British public and military figures from the era of early settlement.

List of Araceae genera

This is a list of genera in the plant family Araceae. As currently circumscribed, the family contains over 3700 species into approximately a hundred genera. The family's taxonomy remains in flux, and a full taxonomic treatment integrating the mass of phylogenetic data that has become available in the last 10 years remain to be produced. The classification presented here is informed by the review of Mayo et al. (2013).

List of Canadian plants by family A

Main page: List of Canadian plants by family


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I J K | L | M | N | O | P Q | R | S | T | U V W | X Y Z

List of Michigan flowers

This is a list of plants that are native to the U.S. state of Michigan.

List of flora of Ohio

This list includes plants native and introduced to the state of Ohio, designated (N) and (I), respectively. Varieties and subspecies link to their parent species.

List of least concern plants

As of September 2016, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 6645 least concern plant species. 30% of all evaluated plant species are listed as least concern.

The IUCN also lists 131 subspecies and 118 varieties as least concern. No subpopulations of plants have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of least concern plant species, subspecies and varieties evaluated by the IUCN.


This is about the plant in the family Araceae. The homonym Peltranda Wight is a synonym of the genus Meineckia in the Phyllanthaceae

Peltandra, the arrow arums, is a genus of plants in the Araceae family. It is native to the eastern United States, eastern Canada, and Cuba.

SpeciesPeltandra sagittifolia - (Michx.) Morong - Spoon flower or the white arrow arum - southeastern US from eastern Louisiana to Virginia

Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott - Arum arrow - Cuba, Quebec, Ontario, Oregon, California, Washington; eastern US from Maine to Florida, west to Texas, Kansas, and Minnesota

†Peltandra primaeva – Eocene, Golden Valley Formation, North Dakota, USA

Riparian zone

A riparian zone or riparian area is the interface between land and a river or stream. Riparian is also the proper nomenclature for one of the terrestrial biomes of the Earth. Plant habitats and communities along the river margins and banks are called riparian vegetation, characterized by hydrophilic plants. Riparian zones are important in ecology, environmental resource management, and civil engineering because of their role in soil conservation, their habitat biodiversity, and the influence they have on fauna and aquatic ecosystems, including grasslands, woodlands, wetlands, or even non-vegetative areas. In some regions the terms riparian woodland, riparian forest, riparian buffer zone, riparian corridor and riparian strip are used to characterize a riparian zone. The word riparian is derived from Latin ripa, meaning river bank.

Scotch Corners Wetland

Scotch Corners Wetland is a provincially significant wetland complex located in Lanark County, Ontario, Canada. The 202 hectares (500 acres) area has a wide array of wetland types including swamps, marshes, vernal pools, beaver ponds and seepage areas. It forms the headwaters of several creeks that drain into Mississippi Lake.

Turkey in the Straw

"Turkey in the Straw" is a well-known American folk song dating from the early 19th century. The first part of the song's tune may be derived from the ballad "My Grandmother Lived on Yonder Little Green" which was a derivative of the Irish ballad "The Old Rose Tree." Originally a tune for fiddle players, it was first popularised in minstrel shows during the late 1820s and early 1830s by blackface performers, notably George Washington Dixon and Bob Farrell.


A wetland is a distinct ecosystem that is inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail. The primary factor that distinguishes wetlands from other land forms or water bodies is the characteristic vegetation of aquatic plants, adapted to the unique hydric soil. Wetlands play a number of functions, including water purification, water storage, processing of carbon and other nutrients, stabilization of shorelines, and support of plants and animals. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of plant and animal life. Whether any individual wetland performs these functions, and the degree to which it performs them, depends on characteristics of that wetland and the lands and waters near it. Methods for rapidly assessing these functions, wetland ecological health, and general wetland condition have been developed in many regions and have contributed to wetland conservation partly by raising public awareness of the functions and the ecosystem services some wetlands provide.Wetlands occur naturally on every continent. The main wetland types are swamp, marsh, bog, and fen; sub-types include mangrove forest, carr, pocosin, floodplains, mire, vernal pool, sink, and many others. Many peatlands are wetlands. The water in wetlands is either freshwater, brackish, or saltwater.

Wetlands can be tidal (inundated by tides) or non-tidal. The largest wetlands include the Amazon River basin, the West Siberian Plain, the Pantanal in South America, and the Sundarbans in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta.The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment determined that environmental degradation is more prominent within wetland systems than any other ecosystem on Earth.Constructed wetlands are used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater as well as stormwater runoff. They may also play a role in water-sensitive urban design.

Wolfiporia extensa

Wolfiporia extensa (Peck) Ginns (syn. Poria cocos F.A.Wolf) is a fungus in the family Polyporaceae. It is a wood-decay fungus but has a subterranean growth habit. It is notable in the development of a large, long-lasting underground sclerotium that resembles a small coconut. This sclerotium called "(Chinese) Tuckahoe" or fu-ling(茯苓, pīnyīn: fúlíng), is not the same as the true tuckahoe used as Indian bread by Native Americans, which is the arrow arum, Peltandra virginica, a flowering tuberous plant in the arum family. W. extensa is also used extensively as a medicinal mushroom in Chinese medicine. Indications for use in the traditional Chinese medicine include promoting urination, to invigorate the spleen function (i.e., digestive function), and to calm the mind.Common names include hoelen, poria, tuckahoe, China root, fu ling (茯苓, pīnyīn: fúlíng), and matsuhodo.

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