Peer-to-peer ridesharing

Peer-to-peer ridesharing can be divided along the spectrum from commercial, for-fee transportation network companies (TNC) to for-profit ridesharing services to informal nonprofit peer-to-peer carpooling arrangements. The term transportation network company comes from a 2013 California Public Utilities Commission ruling that decided to make the TNC revenue model legal.[1][2]

Essentially all modern peer-to-peer ridesharing schemes rely on web application and mobile app technology.

Terminology

In the early 2010s, several transportation network companies were introduced. These were advertised as ridesharing, but dispatch drivers in a fashion similar to a taxi service, where they do not share a destination with passengers. The first such service to appear on the market was the San Francisco–based company Sidecar (launched in 2011).[3] Transportation experts have called these services "ridesourcing" to clarify that drivers do not share a destination with their passengers; the app simply outsources rides to commercial drivers.[4] Despite multiple efforts to re-name the category, it still is commonly referred to as, "ridesharing."

Real-time peer-to-peer ridesharing

Real-time ridesharing (also known as instant ridesharing, dynamic ridesharing, ad-hoc ridesharing, on-demand ridesharing, and dynamic carpooling) is a service that arranges one-time shared rides on very short notice.[5] This type of carpooling generally makes use of three recent technological advances:[6]

  • GPS navigation devices to determine a driver's route and arrange the shared ride
  • Smartphones for a traveler to request a ride from wherever they happen to be
  • Social networks to establish trust and accountability between drivers and passengers

These elements are coordinated through a network service, which can instantaneously handle the driver payments and match rides using an optimization algorithm.

Like carpooling, real-time ridesharing is promoted as a way to better utilize the empty seats in most passenger cars, thus lowering fuel usage and transport costs. It can serve areas not covered by a public transit system and act as a transit feeder service. Ridesharing is also capable of serving one-time trips, not only recurrent commute trips or scheduled trips.[7]

Real-time ridesharing is especially suitable for daily commuting compared to driving alone. Because such trips tend to happen at peak travel times, when traffic jams cause cars to pollute an 80% more,[8] additional benefits for the urban environment and climate change mitigation are expected by a reduction in the number of cars riding daily by the cities with a single occupant, and their related CO2 and NOx emissions.

Potential market

A 2010 survey at the University of California, Berkeley found 20% of respondents willing to use real-time ridesharing at least once a week; and real-time ridesharing was more popular among current drive-alone commuters (30%) than transit or non-motorized commuters.[9] The top obstacles to using real-time ridesharing were short trip lengths and the added time of ride logistics.[9]

Implementation

Early real-time ridesharing projects began in the 1990s, but they faced obstacles such as the need to develop a user network and a convenient means of communication.[10] Gradually the means of arranging the ride shifted from telephone to internet, email, and smartphone; and user networks were developed around major employers and universities.[11] As of 2006, the goal of taxi-like responsiveness still generally eluded the industry; "next day" responsiveness was considered the state of the art.[12] More recently taxi-sharing systems that accept taxi passengers’ real-time ride requests via smartphones have been proposed and studied.[13]

A number of technology companies based in San Francisco premiered apps for real-time ridesharing (as well as ride-hailing where the driver does not share a destination with passengers) around 2012. However, in the fall of 2012, the California Public Utilities Commission issued a cease and desist letter to rideshare companies Lyft, Uber, Wingz, and Sidecar, and fined each $20,000.[14] In 2013 an agreement was reached reversing those actions,[15] creating a new category of service called "Transportation Network Companies" to cover both real-time and scheduled ride-sharing companies.[16] Transportation Network Companies have faced regulatory opposition in many other cities, including Los Angeles,[17][18] Chicago,[19] New York City,[20] and Washington, D.C.[21]

Two dynamic ridesharing pilots in Norway received government funds from Transnova in 2011. One pilot in Bergen had 31 passengers in private cars during one day. Thirty-nine users acted as drivers or passengers between June 30 and September 15 with four ridesharing episodes or more. The phone apps that was used was Avego Driver[22] and HentMEG.no cell client,[23] a prototype developed for the NPRA of Norway. The other pilot is run by the company Sharepool.[24]

Some more advanced real-time ridesharing features have been proposed but not implemented. For example, longer trips might be facilitated using "multihop" matches in which passengers change cars to reach their final destination.

Ride-sharing caps

Some jurisdictions have considered and/or implemented caps on the number of drivers who can work for ride-sharing companies.[25][26] A 2018 survey of leading economists showed that most of the economists believed that such caps would have adverse effects, with a near-consensus noting that congestion pricing would be a better way to reduce congestion than ride-sharing caps.[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ Geron, Tomio (9 Sep 2013). "California Becomes First State To Regulate Ridesharing Services Lyft, Sidecar, UberX". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  2. ^ Yeung, Ken (19 Sep 2013). "California Becomes First State To Regulate Ridesharing Services Uber, Lyft, Sidecar, Wingz and InstantCab". TheNextWeb. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  3. ^ Said, Carolyn. "Ride-sharing pioneer Sidecar to shut down ride, delivery service". SF Gate.
  4. ^ Rayle, L., S. Shaheen, N. Chan, D. Dai, and R. Cervero. "App-Based, On-Demand Ride Services: Comparing Taxi and Ridesourcing Trips and User Characteristics in San Francisco". University of California Transportation Center, 2014.
  5. ^ Amey, A., J. Attanucci, and R. Mishalani. "'Real-Time' Ridesharing – The Opportunities and Challenges of Utilizing Mobile Phone Technology to Improve Rideshare Services." TRB Annual Meeting, 2011.
  6. ^ Ecosummit TV – ECO11 – Young Future Mobility Leaders – Panel - ECOSUMMIT - Smart Green Economy Network and Conference
  7. ^ Levofsky, Amber and Allen Greenberg. "ORGANIZED DYNAMIC RIDE SHARING: THE POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS AND THE OPPORTUNITY FOR ADVANCING THE CONCEPT." Transportation Research Board, 2001.
  8. ^ M. Treiber. How Much does Traffic Congestion Increase Fuel Consumption and Emissions? Applying a Fuel Consumption Model to the NGSIM Trajectory Data". Dresden University.
  9. ^ a b Elizabeth Deakin, Karen Trapenberg Frick, and Kevin Shively. 2012. "Dynamic Ridesharing Archived 2014-03-23 at the Wayback Machine." Access, 40: 23-28.
  10. ^ Dynamicridesharing.org
  11. ^ Chan, Nelson and Susan Shaheen. "Ridesharing in North America: Past, Present, and Future." Transportation Research Board, 2010. Archived 2011-06-26 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ United States Department of Transportation. "ADVANCED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS: THE STATE OF THE ART UPDATE 2006".
  13. ^ Ma, S., Zheng, Y., Wolfson, O., "Real-Time City-Scale Taxi Ridesharing", IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 1782–1795, 2015
  14. ^ Tomio Geron, Forbes Staff (28 January 2013). "Tickengo's Willie Brown Wants Revenue Cap For Ride-Sharing Drivers". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  15. ^ Lawler, Ryan (31 Jan 2013). "A Day After Cutting a Deal with Lyft, California Regulator Reaches an Agreement with Uber as Well". TechCrunch. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  16. ^ Geron, Tomio (9 Sep 2013). "California Becomes First State To Regulate Ridesharing Services [Lyft], Sidecar, UberX". Forbes. Retrieved 23 Oct 2013.
  17. ^ Tuttle, Brad (27 Jun 2013). "Rideshare Battle Shifts to L.A.: City Tells Uber, Lyft, SideCar to Stop Picking Up Riders". Time. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  18. ^ Rodriguez, Salvador (2 Jul 2013). "Lyft expands to San Diego amid cease-and-desist order in Los Angeles". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  19. ^ "Uber Sued By Taxi And Livery Companies In Chicago For Consumer Fraud And More". TechCrunch. October 5, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2012.
  20. ^ Uber shuts down New York City taxi beta, may see light at the end of the (Lincoln) tunnel in February (update: TLC responds) - Engadget
  21. ^ Greene, David (January 31, 2012). "Upstart Car Service Butts Heads with D.C.'s Taxis". NPR.
  22. ^ Avego Ltd
  23. ^ HentMEG.no website
  24. ^ Sharepool website (Norwegian)
  25. ^ "B.C. transportation minister won't rule out capping the number of ridesharing cars allowed on roads | Globalnews.ca". globalnews.ca. 2018-11-20. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  26. ^ Wodinsky, Shoshana (2018-08-08). "In major defeat for Uber and Lyft, New York City votes to limit ride-hailing cars". The Verge. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
  27. ^ "Ride-sharing caps". www.igmchicago.org. Retrieved 2019-01-11.
99 (app)

99, formerly known as 99Taxis, is a transport company offering an app. The company focuses on transport via mobile app.

Beat (app)

Beat is responsible for developing a taxi cab and peer-to-peer-ridesharing mobile application, the Beat app, for smartphones and other mobile devices. Beat's headquarters are located in Athens, Greece, where it is popular among locals. However, about 90 percent of the company’s ride-booking activity is abroad, in Latin America, where more than 250,000 drivers have registered with the app.Beat is currently available in Athens and the capital cities of Chile, Peru, Colombia and Mexico

Clothing swap

A clothing swap is a type of swapmeet wherein participants exchange their valued but no longer used clothing for clothing they will use. Clothing swaps are considered not only a good way to refill one's wardrobe, but also are considered an act of environmentalism. It is also used to get rid of and obtain specialist clothing. Cloth swap can be specialized - they can cater for example for clothes swaps only for high end brands.

ElsiePic

ElsiePic is a mobile application which is effectively the Uber by which people can help you take a photograph of you and your friends. It is co-founded by Tatiana Cooke.By using the application, one can search photographers in the nearby-area whom they can hire much like Uber.

Flight sharing

Flight sharing is the sharing of the costs of non-commercial general aviation aircraft flights between a licensed pilot and their passengers.

Freecycling

Freecycling, or free recycling, is the act of giving away usable unwanted items to others instead of disposing of them in landfills. This term is most often associated with online groups who run mailing lists which offer items to members at no cost.

For a period The Freecycle Network claimed they held a trademark on the word "Freecycle" and claimed the term freecycling to be a violation of their trademark rights. However they lost this claim – and rights to the "Freecycle" trademark – in United States federal court in November 2010. In her ruling Judge Callahan stated unequivocally that "Beal did not coin the word “freecycle” and TFN is not the first organization to promote freecycling" and that "even ... viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to TFN ... [they] engaged in naked licensing and consequently abandoned the trademarks."

Haxi

Haxi (stylized as HAXI) is a transportation network company that enables users to share transport on short and mid range distances. The name is a portmanteau of "hack" and "taxi". Registered users can be drivers, passengers, or both. Drivers active more than three days per month need an access pass or a subscription plan. Unregistered users cannot get contact details on other users. No registration is needed to logon. The firm's mobile applications facilitates peer-to-peer ridesharing by enabling passengers who need a ride to request one from available "community drivers".

Hospitality Club

Hospitality Club operates a hospitality service and social networking service. Its website is a platform for members to arrange homestays, offer hospitality, join events, and meet other members. The platform is a gift economy; hosts are not allowed to charge for lodging.

Mennonite Your Way

Mennonite Your Way (MYW) is a hospitality service that caters to Mennonites. Like all hospitality services, it is an example of collaborative consumption and sharing.

Open admissions

Open admissions, or open enrollment, is a type of unselective and noncompetitive college admissions process in the United States in which the only criterion for entrance is a high school diploma or a certificate of attendance or General Educational Development (GED) certificate.

Open university

An open university is a university with an open-door academic policy, with minimal or no entry requirements. Open universities may employ specific teaching methods, such as open supported learning or distance education. However, not all open universities focus on distance education, nor do distance-education universities necessarily have open admission policies.

Pasporta Servo

The Pasporta Servo (English: Passport Service) is a hospitality service for Esperanto speakers. It is maintained by the World Esperanto Youth Organization (TEJO), which publishes an annual online and print directory of people within the Esperanto culture who are willing to host other Esperanto speakers in their residences for free for up to 3 nights. The platform is a gift economy; hosts are not allowed to charge for lodging.

Free lodging via Pasporta Servo is one of the benefits of learning Esperanto. Guests using the service are encouraged to speak only Esperanto with their hosts.

Peer-to-peer property rental

Peer-to-peer property rental (also known as person-to-person home rental) is the process whereby an existing house owner makes their house or an empty room available for others to rent for short periods of time as an alternative form of accommodation.

Peer-to-peer property rental is a form of peer-to-peer renting, an aspect of the sharing economy. The business model is very similar to traditional vacation rental. With peer-to-peer property rental, participating house owners are able to make money by renting out the house where they live while they are away or an empty room they might have available.Businesses within this sector typically apply some form of screening of participants (both owners and renters) and a technical solution, usually in the form of a website, that brings these parties together, manages rental bookings and collects payment. Increasingly, an automated form of insurance and breakdown coverage will be applied to rentals that take place through the service in order to protect the property owner.

Ridesharing

Ridesharing may refer to

Carpool

Vanpool

Transportation network company - a ride-hailing service where drivers operate in a taxi-like fashion, generally booked in real time over the internet

Peer-to-peer ridesharing

Taxi medallion

A taxi medallion, also known as a CPNC (Certificate of Public Necessity and Convenience), is a transferable permit in the United States allowing a taxi driver to operate. A number of major cities in the US use these in their taxi licensing systems, including New York, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Medallions may be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. The New York medallions are the most valuable, once peaking at over one million dollars. With the introduction of peer-to-peer ridesharing services, the taxi industry has faced competition, and the price of medallions has dropped substantially.

According to The Washington Post, medallions were "the best investment in America", but—due to increased competition from app-based car services and transportation network company growth from companies like Uber and Lyft—taxi medallions are now decreasing in price.

Vinted

Vinted is an online marketplace and community that allows its users to sell, buy, and swap secondhand clothing items and accessories.

Wingly (company)

Wingly is a company which runs a flightsharing platform. Using the platform, recreational pilots may offer passengers seats on their flights from aerodromes by charging each passenger a share of the operational expenses of the flight. Often, the price of a shared flight may be less than on a comparable commercial flight service.The service has been compared to Uber and Airbnb. Flights are insured by Allianz.

Yourdrive

Yourdrive is a New Zealand peer-to-peer carsharing company. It facilitates a system in which individuals may rent their privately owned vehicles on an hourly, daily or weekly basis to other registered users of the service. Owners set their rental prices and earn a 60 percent commission from the rental revenue. It currently operates in throughout New Zealand with vehicles in Auckland, Hamilton, Palmerston North, Wellington, Christchurch, Dunedin.

New Zealand rental car firm JUCY purchased 50% of the company in 2016Peer-to-peer carsharing is an example of collaborative consumption, where assets and skills are shared or traded between neighbours for sustainability and economic benefit. Although car sharing is relatively new in New Zealand it is an area that is being encouraged due to the environmental and economic benefits. Auckland Transport is promoting a scheme that would drastically increase the number of car sharing vehicles.

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