Pedro Gutiérrez de Valdivia or Valdiva (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾo ðe βalˈðiβja]; April 17, 1497 – December 25, 1553) was a Spanish conquistador and the first royal governor of Chile. After serving with the Spanish army in Italy and Flanders, he was sent to South America in 1534, where he served as lieutenant under Francisco Pizarro in Peru, acting as his second in command. In 1540 he led an expedition of 150 Spaniards into Chile, where he defeated a large force of indigenous natives and founded Santiago in 1541. He extended Spanish rule south to the Biobío River in 1546, fought again in Peru (1546 – 48), and returned to Chile as governor in 1549. He began to conquer Chile south of the Biobío and founded Concepción in 1550. He was captured and killed in a campaign against the Mapuche. The city of Valdivia in Chile is named after him.
Pedro de Valdivia
Posthumous portrait by Federico de Madrazo
|1st Royal Governor of Chile|
|Monarch||Charles I of Spain|
|Succeeded by||Francisco de Villagra|
|Monarch||Charles I of Spain|
|Prime Minister||Pedro de la Gasca|
|Preceded by||Francisco de Villagra|
|Succeeded by||Francisco de Villagra|
|Born||April 17, 1497|
Villanueva de la Serena, Vegas Altas, Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain
|Died||December 25, 1553 (aged 56)|
Tucapel, Cañete, Chile
|Spouse(s)||Marina Ortíz de Gaete|
|Years of service||1520–1553|
Pedro de Valdivia is believed to have been born in Villanueva de la Serena (some say Castuera) in Extremadura, Spain around 1500 (some sources put his date of birth as early as 1497 or as late as 1505) to an impoverished hidalgo family. In 1520 he joined the Spanish army of Charles I and fought in Flanders in 1521 and Italy between 1522 and 1525, participating in the battle of Pavia as part of the troops of the Marquis of Pescara. He reached America in 1535, spent an uneventful year in Venezuela, and then moved on to Peru in 1537.
There he took part on the side of Hernando Pizarro in his struggle against Diego de Almagro and fought in the battle of Las Salinas in 1538, which saw Almagro defeated and captured.:264 Afterwards he accompanied Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro to conquer both the province of Collao and las Charcas in High Peru (currently Bolivia). As compensation for his help in conquering these lands, he was awarded a silver mine and became a wealthy man.
After the failure of the expedition of Diego de Almagro in 1536, the lands to the south of Peru (then known as Nueva Toledo, extending from the 14° — close to modern day Pisco, Peru — to the 25° latitude — close to Taltal, Chile) had remained unexplored. Valdivia asked governor Francisco Pizarro for permission to complete the conquest of that territory. He got his permission but was appointed only Lieutenant Governor, and not Governor as he had wanted.
The expedition was fraught with problems from the beginning. Valdivia had to sell the lands and the mine that had been assigned to him in order to finance the expedition. A shortage of soldiers and adventurers was also problematic since they were not interested in conquering what they were sure were extremely poor lands. Furthermore, while he was preparing the expedition, Pedro Sánchez de la Hoz arrived from Spain with a royal grant for the same country. To avoid difficulties, Pizarro advised the two competitors to join their interests, and on December 28, 1539, a contract of partnership was signed.
The small expedition finally left Cuzco, Peru in January, 1540, with Pizarro's permission and Pedro Sancho de Hoz as partner. They carried with them a plethora of seeds for planting, a drove of swine and brood mares, and almost a thousand native Indians but were composed of only a few Spaniards. Only one woman was among the travelers, Inés de Suárez, Valdivia's mistress. En route more Spaniards joined the expedition, attracted by Valdivia's fame as a brilliant leader. These conquistadores had formed part of the failed campaigns to the highlands of Bolivia and all in all around 150 Spaniards joined the expedition.
Valdivia resolved to avoid the road over the Andes, which had proved fatal to Almagro's army, and set out resolutely through the Atacama Desert. On the way, Pedro Sancho de Hoz, seeking sole leadership, tried to murder Valdivia but failed. He was pardoned but from then on had to accept subordinate status. The natives of the region were not pleased by the return of the Spaniards due to the maltreatment they had suffered under Almagro. With many promises, Valdivia was able to regain their trust. After a march of five months, and suffering great privations, they arrived at the Copiapo valley, where Valdivia officially took possession of the land in the name of the Spanish king.
Soon thereafter they continued south and in December 1540, eleven months after they left Cuzco, Valdivia and his expedition reached the valley of the Mapocho river, where they were able to establish the capital of the territory. The valley was extensive and well populated with natives. Its soil was fertile and there was abundant fresh water. Two high hills provided defensive positions. Soon after their arrival, Valdivia tried to convince the native inhabitants of his good intentions, sending out delegations bearing gifts for the caciques.
Finally on February 12, 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago de la Nueva Extremadura (named after Saint James, Santiago in Spanish, and Valdivia's home region of Extremadura, Spain). The ceremony was held at the foot of the Huelén hill (now known as Santa Lucia hill).
After arriving in Chile, Valdivia and his men went out of their way to restore the relationship between conquistador and Indian which had been greatly harmed by Almagro and his merciless ways. At first, Valdivia was successful in his efforts to deal benevolently with the native population, but this peaceful coexistence did not last long. One of the first orders that Valdivia gave was to have a ship constructed at the mouth of the Aconcagua River to send to Peru for further supplies and to serve as a courier service, but soon was obliged to return in haste to Santiago to subdue a mutiny. The Spaniards' greed quickly surfaced and overshadowed previous intentions when rumors of gold at the Marga Marga mines, in the vicinity of Valparaiso arose, and the settlers began forcing the natives to work there.
On learning of Francisco Pizarro's murder in 1541, Valdivia had himself appointed governor of the territory by the council of the new city, and removed Chile from Peruvian control, acknowledging only the royal authority, an arrangement the Crown found acceptable. Secure now in his own domain, he pushed exploration southward and aided the development of the country by dividing the land among his ablest followers and parceling out the Indians in encomiendas. Chile possessed minerals, but Valdivia definitely subordinated mining to agriculture and stock raising. Still, the colony was not prosperous; gold was scarce and the Araucanians warlike.
After an apparent peaceful period the Indians began to resist the invaders. Valdivia marched against the tribes and defeated them at Cachapoal. While away, on September 11, 1541, local Indians led by Michimalonco attacked Santiago. The defense of the city was led by his mistress Inés de Suárez. The Spaniards, desperate and willing to fight until death, were able to eventually push the Indians back; Valdivia and his troops made it back just in time to relieve the capital.
By the time the battle ended the entire town had been destroyed and burned to the ground, animals were killed and the fields and stores were decimated. Only a small amount of property was not destroyed, including a handful of seeds, two sows, one pig and a pair of chickens. Valdivia organized his men into groups to keep watch over the crops and protect the city against attack. For the next two years, there were men always saddled and armed, ready to fight in case the Indians posed a threat to Spanish authority.
This event meant a real setback for the conquest of the Chilean territory. The resistance of the Indians became daily stronger, and as the ship that he had constructed in Aconcagua was also destroyed by the natives, Valdivia sent in 1542 overland to Peru his lieutenant Alonso de Monroy with five followers to seek reinforcements, but, on account of the disturbance in that country in consequence of the defeat of El Mozo Almagro by Cristóbal Vaca de Castro, Monroy could not obtain much aid, and returned in September 1543, with only seventy horsemen, also sending by sea a vessel with provisions and ammunition to the port of Aconcagua.
In September 1543 new arms, clothes and other equipment arrived from Peru on the ship Santiaguillo; thanks to these new supplies, Valdivia was in the position to start the rebuilding of Santiago and to send an expedition, led by Juan Bohon, to explore and populate the northern region of Chile. This expedition founded La Serena halfway between Santiago and the northern Atacama Desert, in the valley of Coquimbo. Valparaíso, though used as a port by the Spaniards from the start, had no considerable population until much later.
In 1544 Valdivia sent a naval expedition consisting of the barks San Pedro and Santiaguillo, under the command of Juan Bautista Pastene, to reconnoiter the southwestern coast of South America, ordering him to reach the Strait of Magellan. The expedition set sail from Valparaíso and although Pastene did not reach this goal, he explored much of the coast. He entered the bay of San Pedro, and made landings at what are now known as Concepción and at Valdivia, which was later named in honor of the commander. Encountering severe storms further south, he then returned to Valparaiso.
In February 1546 Valdivia himself set out, with sixty horsemen plus native guides and porters, and crossed the Itata River. He got to the Bío-Bío River where he planned to found another town. However, the party was attacked by Mapuche warriors at the Battle of Quilacura. Realizing that it would be impossible to proceed in such hostile territory with so limited a force, Valdivia wisely elected to return to Santiago shortly thereafter, after finding a site for a new city at what is now Penco and would become the first site of Concepción. Still, Valdivia managed to subdue the country between Santiago and the Maule River.
To secure additional aid and confirm his claims to the conquered territory, Valdivia returned in 1547 to Peru, leaving Francisco de Villagra as governor in his stead. There he tried to gather more resources and men to continue the conquest. When the Gonzalo Pizarro rebellion began in Peru, the insurgents attempted unsuccessfully to win Valdivia to their side. Nonetheless, early in 1548 Valdivia joined the royal army of Viceroy Pedro de la Gasca, and his military experience counted heavily in the victory of Xaquixahuana on April 9 of that year.
Nonetheless, a discontented faction from Chile managed to have him tried in Lima, accused of tyranny, malfeasance of public funds and public immorality. One of the charges levelled against him was that he, being married, openly lived with Inés de Suárez "...in the manner of man and wife and they sleep in one bed and they eat in one dish...". In exchange for being freed, and for his confirmation as Royal Governor, he agreed to relinquish her and to bring to Chile his wife, Marina Ortíz de Gaete, who only arrived after Valdivia's death in 1554. He was also ordered to marry Ines off, which he did, upon his return to Chile in 1549, to one of his captains, Rodrigo de Quiroga. As recognition for his services Valdivia was finally appointed as adelantado and won the royal assent to his coveted title of Governor of Chile, returning to the settlement with his position and prestige considerably strengthened.
Between 1549 and 1553, after his arrival back in Santiago, Valdivia again undertook the conquest of southern Chile, but faced heavy resistance from the indigenous population. Valdivia had a clash with the warlike Araucanians beyond the Bio-Bio River in 1550 in which he defeated them but by no means broke their will to resist, a will that grew stronger when the conquistador established settlements in their territory. In spite of the fierce resistance at the Battle of Penco, he founded Concepción in 1550. Later he founded the more southern villages of La Imperial, Valdivia, Angol and Villarrica, in 1551 and 1552.
After a brief stay in Santiago, Valdivia returned to the south again in December 1552. To keep the connection open between Concepción and the southern settlements, Valdivia had a number of forts built in Cordillera de Nahuelbuta. He moved against the Araucanians again in 1553 and built a fort at Tucapel. By the advice of the cacique Colocolo, the Araucanians united their efforts choosing as toqui (general-in-chief) the famous warrior Caupolicán.
Valdivia had earlier captured and presumably made friends with Lautaro, an Araucanian youth who became his groom. Lautaro secretly remained true to his own people and rejoined them to show Caupolicán a means by which Valdivia could be defeated. Toward the end of 1553, the Araucanians under Lautaro revolted and they fell on the over-extended Spanish forces in the south. One of the first signs that a big rebellion was building was the attack on the fort at Tucapel, where they managed to destroy the fortress on December 2, 1553. Valdivia was at Concepcion when he received notice of this event, and, believing that he could easily subdue the uprising, he hurried southward, sallying forth with only 40 men to stamp out the rebellion.
Near the ruins of the fortress Valdivia gathered the remnant of the garrison. He was ambushed before arriving to his destination and the Battle of Tucapel would be Valdivia's last. As each successive wave of attackers was wiped out or beaten off by the Spaniards, Lautaro sent another, until the entire Spanish company was massacred. The dreaded conquistador was captured still alive along with a priest by the Mapuche.
There are many versions of how Valdivia's killing took place. According to Jerónimo de Vivar, an author contemporary with the events, the execution of Valdivia was personally ordered by Caupolicán, who had him killed with a lance and later his head, along with those of two of his bravest companions, were put on display. Another contemporary chronicler, Alonso de Góngora Marmolejo writes that Valdivia offered as a ransom for his life the evacuation of all the Spanish settlements in the Mapuche lands and to give them large herds of animals, but this offer was rejected and the Mapuche first cut off his forearms, roasted and ate them in front of him before killing him and his accompanying priest.
Alonso de Ercilla refers that Valdivia was killed with the blow of a club, then with a knife a warrior cut open his breast and ripped his still quivering heart which was then handed to the toqui, who sucked its blood. The heart was passed round from one to another, and a drinking cup was made from his skull. The warriors keep running round the corpse brandishing their lances and uttering cries, while the rest of the assembly stamped with their feet until the earth shook.
Yet another contemporary chronicler, Pedro Mariño de Lobera, also wrote that Valdivia offered to evacuate the lands of the Mapuche but says he was shortly thereafter killed with a large club by a vengeful warrior named Pilmaiquen, who said that Valdivia could not be trusted to keep his word once freed. Lobera also says that a common story in Chile at the time was that Valdivia had been killed by forcing him to drink molten gold. According to an even later legend, Lautaro took Valdivia to the Mapuche camp and put him to death after three days of torture, extracting his beating heart and eating it with the Mapuche leaders. The fact remains that probably all the stories about his death are apocryphal, since none of Valdivia's party survived the battle, and the only witnesses that could be found were Indians that were captured in subsequent battles.
Valdivia was an educated man and wielded the pen as well as the sword. In 1552 Valdivia despatched Captain Jerónimo de Alderete with a narrative of his exploits directly to the king Charles I. His twelve letters, addressed to the king and mostly preserved in the archives of the Indies, are models of a vigorous and fluent style, and of great historical interest.
His career and death are part of the epic poem La Araucana by Alonso de Ercilla. He is also a major character in several historical novels, such as Inés y las raíces de la tierra, by María Correa Morande (1964), Ay Mamá Inés - Crónica Testimonial (1993) by Jorge Guzmán, Arauco: A Novel (2013), by John Caviglia, and Inés of My Soul (Spanish: Inés del alma mía) by Isabel Allende (2006).
Era Valdivia, cuando murió, de edad de cincuenta y seis años, natural de un lugar de Extremadura pequeño, llamado Castuera.
...por ser de su tierra de Extremadura como por tener práctica de guerra de cristianos, la cual había adquirido y seguido en tiempo del marqués de Pescara en la compañía del capitán Herrera, natural de Valladolid, sobre la diferencia y competencia que se tuvo con el rey Francisco de Francia sobre el Estado de Milán.
...Dar relación de cómo pasé a estas partes de Indias, año de quinientos e treinta e cinco, y me hallé en el descubrimiento e conquista de Venezuela un año. Dar relación cómo el año adelante de quinientos e treinta y seis pasé a las provincias del Perú...
...fué casado con una señora llamada doña Marina Ortiz de Gaete, en Salamanca
...y llegado al valle de Copiapó, lo que trabajé en hacer la guerra a los naturales e fuertes que les rompí y la guerra que hice por todos los valles adelante, hasta que llegué al valle de Mapocho, que es cien leguas de Copiapó, e fundé la cibdad de Sanctiago del Nuevo Extremo, a los veinte e cuatro de hebrero del año de mill quinientos e cuarenta e uno, formando Cabildo, Justicia e Regimiento.
...que no quedamos sino con los andrajos que teníamos para la guerra y con las armas que a cuestas traíamos, y dos porquezuelas y un cochinillo y una polla y un pollo y, hasta dos almuerzas de trigo
Procuré este verano pasado, en tanto que yo entendía en dar manera para enviar al Perú, poblar la cibdad de la Serena en el valle de Coquimbo, que es a la mitad del camino, y hase dado tan buena maña el teniente que allí envié con la gente que llevó, que dentro de dos meses trujo de paz todos aquellos valles, y llámase el capitán Juan Bohón
Pusieron al pueblo por nombre la ciudad de la Serena un lunes que se contaron quince días del mes de noviembre del año de 1543 y diéronle este nombre por respeto del capitán Valdivia, que era natural de la Serena en España...
...vista la voluntad del piloto e capitán Juan Batista de Pastene, y con el celo que había venido al socorro desta tierra con su navío llamado San Pedro, que fue por servir a S.M. y se me ofresció de le servir, y a mi en su cesáreo nombre, y le conoscí por hombre de valor y de prudencia y espiriencia de guerra de indios e nuevos descubrimientos, le crié e di la abtoridad de mi lugarteniente de capitán general en la mar, y le envié con su navío y con otro en conserva e gente la que era menester, a que me descubriese por la costa arriba hacia el Estrecho de Magallanes hasta doscientas leguas, y me trajese lenguas...
Viendo la voluntad del capitán Juan Baptista, por principios de mes de septiembre adelante le di un poder y le entregué un estandarte con las armas de S. M., y debajo del escudo imperial uno con las mías, para que me fuese a descobrir doscientas leguas de costa y tomase posesión, en nombre de V. M., por mí, y me trujese lenguas; y dile treinta hombres, muy buenos soldados, que fueron en su navío.
...proveí por mi Teniente General al Capitán Francisco de Villagra y le dejé a la guardia de esta tierra para que la defendiese e sustentase en servicio de S. M. e paz e justicia, por cuanto yo iba a servir a S. M. a las provincias del Perú a ser contra Gonzalo Pizarro...
...que ha mas de ocho años esta amancebado con esta mujer, y duermen en una cama y comen en un plato...
...ayer mataron al apo y todos los cristianos que con él venían, que no escapó ninguno, y todos los yanaconas de servicio, si no eran los que se habían escondido
Viéndose con lengua les comenzó a hablar, diciéndoles que les sacaría los cristianos de el reino y despoblaría las ciudades y daría dos mill ovejas si le daban la vida.
...hicieron los indios un fuego delante de él, y con una cáscara de almejas de la mar, que ellos llaman pello en su lengua, le cortaron los lagartos de los brazos desde el codo a la muñeca; teniendo espadas, dagas y cuchillos con que podello hacer, no quisieron por dalle mayor martirio, y los comieron asados en su presencia. Hechos otros muchos vituperios lo mataron a él y al capellán, y la cabeza pusieron en una lanza juntamente con las demás de los cristianos, que no les escapó ninguno.
...un cacique llamado Pilmaiquen, a quien él había hecho vasallo... sin aguardar más embites levantó una gran porra que tenía en las manos y la descargó con gran furia sobre el infelice Valdivia haciéndole pedazos la cabeza
...hicieron con él muchas fiestas por burla y escarnio, y por remate trajeron una olla de oro ardiendo y se la presentaron, diciéndole: pues tan amigo eres de oro, hártate agora dél, y para que lo tengas más guardado, abre la boca y bebe aqueste que viene fundido, y diciendo esto lo hicieron como lo dijeron, dándoselo a beber por fuerza, teniendo por fin de su muerte lo que tuvo por fin de su entrada en Chile
...a warrior tore out Valdivia's heart while it was still beating, and gave it to an Indian to bite into. Valdivia's skull was used as a drinking cup
| Royal Governor of Chile
Francisco de Villagra
Francisco de Villagra
| Royal Governor of Chile
Francisco de Villagra
The sixteenth edition of the South American Championship was held in Santiago, Chile from February 2 to March 4.
With the purpose of celebrating the fourth centenary of Santiago's foundation by Pedro de Valdivia, Chile requested to host this tournament's edition. Because of that, this edition is considered extra (no trophy was handed to the winners).
The participating countries were Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Uruguay.
Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Paraguay withdrew from the tournament.Ainavillo
Ainavillo, Aynabillo, Aillavilu or Aillavilú, (in Mapudungun, ailla, nine and filu, snake) was the toqui of the Mapuche army from the provinces of "Ñuble, Itata, Renoguelen, Guachimavida, Marcande, Gualqui, Penco and Talcaguano." They tried to stop Pedro de Valdivia from invading their lands in 1550. He led about twenty thousand warriors in the surprise night attack on Valdivia's camp in the Battle of Andalien. After his defeat in that battle he gathered more warriors from the allied regions of Arauco and Tucapel, south of the Bio-Bio River, for an attack on Valdivia's newly constructed fort of Concepcion at what is now Penco. Leading an army of sixty thousand warriors in three divisions against the fort in the Battle of Penco. Ainavillo's command that had been previously defeated at Andalien, was recognized by the Spaniards and Valdivia picked it out for a vigorous charge by all their cavalry following a softening up by volleys of their firearms. It was broken at the first onslaught and fled with the Spanish in pursuit, followed by the retreat of the other two divisions of the Mapuche upon seeing the spectacle.Battle of Penco
The Battle of Penco, on March 12, 1550 was a battle between 60,000 Mapuche under the command of their toqui Ainavillo with his Araucan and Tucapel allies and Pedro de Valdivia's 200 Spaniards on horse and afoot with a large number of yanakuna including 300 Mapochoes auxiliaries under their leader Michimalonco defending their newly raised fort at Penco. It was part of the Arauco War.Battle of Quilacura
Battle of Quilacura was a battle in the Arauco War, fought at night, four leagues from the Bio-Bio River, between the Spanish expedition of Pedro de Valdivia and a force of Mapuche warriors led by Malloquete on February 11, 1546.Battle of Tucapel
The Battle of Tucapel (also known as the Disaster of Tucapel) is the name given to a battle fought between Spanish conquistador forces led by Pedro de Valdivia and Mapuche (Araucanian) Indians under Lautaro that took place at Tucapel, Chile on December 25, 1553. This battle happened in the context of the first stage of the Arauco War, named the "offensive war" within a larger uprising by Araucanians against the Spanish conquest of Chile. It was a defeat for the Spaniards, resulting in the capture and eventual death of Valdivia.Carahue
Carahue (Spanish pronunciation: [kaˈɾawe]) is a city and commune in southern Chile. It is located 56 km west of Temuco, on the northern bank of the Imperial River.
The city was founded as La Imperial April 16, 1552 by Pedro de Valdivia.
La Imperial or Antigua [Old] Imperial, was abandoned and destroyed as a result of the Mapuche Uprising of 1598 during the War of Arauco in 1600, and refounded in 1882, in course of Occupation of the Araucania, under the name Carahue.Conquest of Chile
The Conquest of Chile is a period in Chilean historiography that starts with the arrival of Pedro de Valdivia to Chile in 1541 and ends with the death of Martín García Óñez de Loyola in the Battle of Curalaba in 1598, and the destruction of the Seven Cities in 1600 in the Araucanía region.
This was the period of Spanish conquest of territories, founding of cities, establishment of the Captaincy General of Chile, and defeats ending its further colonial expansion southwards. The Arauco War continued, and the Spanish were never able to recover their short control in Araucanía south of the Bío Bío River.Inés de Suárez metro station
Inés de Suárez is an underground metro station on the Line 6 of the Santiago Metro, in Santiago, Chile. This station is named for Inés de Suárez, a woman from Extremadura who was a companion and a one-time lover of the conqueror Pedro de Valdivia, who took an important part of the control in the defense of the city of Santiago against the indigenous resistance. A short distance from the station is the Inés de Suarez Park and the Plaza Pedro de Valdivia.Lautaro
Lautaro (Mapudungun: Lef-Traru "swift hawk") (Spanish pronunciation: [lau̯ˈtaɾo]; 1534? – April 29, 1557) was a young Araucanian toqui known for leading the indigenous resistance against Spanish conquest in Chile and developing the tactics that would continue to be employed by the Mapuche during the long-running War of Arauco. Lautaro was captured by Spanish forces in his early youth, and he spent his teenage years as a personal servant of chief conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, but escaped in 1551. Back among his people he was declared toqui and led Mapuche warriors into a series of victories against the Spanish culminating in the Battle of Tucapel in December 1553 where Pedro de Valdivia was killed. The outbreak of a typhus plague, a drought and a famine prevented the Mapuche from taking further actions to expel the Spanish in 1554 and 1555. Between 1556 and 1557 a small group of Mapuche commanded by Lautaro attempted to reach Santiago to liberate the whole of Central Chile from Spanish rule. Lautaro's attempts ended in 1557 when he was killed in an ambush by the Spanish.
Today Lautaro is revered among Mapuche and non-Mapuche Chileans for his resistance against foreign conquest, servitude and cruelty.Nueva Extremadura
Nueva Extremadura means "New Extremadura" in Spanish and comes from Extremadura, Spain.
Nueva Extremadura could refer to
a region in the north of New Spain, roughly placed on the border between present-day Coahuila and Texas.
the name originally given to Chile by Pedro de Valdivia. Its capital was then known as Santiago de Nueva Extremadura.Pedro de Valdivia Airport
Pedro de Valdivia Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Pedro de Valdivia), (ICAO: SCPD) is an airport serving María Elena, a saltpeter mining facility in the Antofagasta Region of Chile.Pedro de Valdivia Avenue
Pedro de Valdivia Avenue is a major north-south avenue on the east side of Santiago, Chile. It is named after Pedro de Valdivia and passes through the districts of Providencia, Ñuñoa and Macul.Pedro de Valdivia Bridge
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge is an arch bridge spanning Valdivia River, that separates downtown Valdivia from Isla Teja island a residential area.
Together with Río Cruces Bridge (built in 1987) it allows connection from Valdivia to the coastal town Niebla.
Pedro de Valdivia Bridge is named in honour of the founder of Valdivia the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia. It was opened in 1954 and survived the Great Chilean earthquake, the greatest earthquake ever recorded, while nearby buildings collapsed. After the earthquake it survived the effects of the Riñihuazo, a flooding caused by the earthquake.Pedro de Valdivia metro station
Pedro de Valdivia is an underground metro station on the Line 1 of the Santiago Metro, in Santiago, Chile. The station is named for the nearby Pedro de Valdivia Avenue, which in turn
was named for Pedro de Valdivia.
The platform level features a vaulted drop ceiling of stained glass. A second work of art is entitled La Ciudad (The City), which consists of four enameled steel murals placed on the walls of the four platform stairways. Both artworks were unveiled on January 13, 1999.Pelantaro
Pelantaro or Pelantarú (Spanish: [pelanˈtaɾo]; from the Mapuche pelontraru or "Shining Caracara") was one of the vice toquis of Paillamachu, the toqui or military leader of the Mapuche people during the Mapuche uprising in 1598. Pelantaro and his lieutenants Anganamon and Guaiquimilla were credited with the death of the second Spanish Governor of Chile, Martín García Óñez de Loyola, during the Battle of Curalaba on December 21, 1598.
This provoked a general rising of the Mapuche and the other indigenous people associated with them. They succeeded in destroying all of the Spanish settlements south of the Bio-bio River and some to the north of it (Santa Cruz de Oñez and San Bartolomé de Chillán in 1599). After this actions, the following Governor, Alonso de Ribera, fixed a border and took the suggestions of the Jesuit Luis de Valdivia to fight a defensive war.
At one point, Pelantaro had both the heads of Pedro de Valdivia and Martín Óñez de Loyola and used them as trophies and containers for chicha, a kind of alcohol. As a demonstration of peaceful intentions, he gave them up in 1608.
Pelantaro was captured in 1616 and held for a year and a half until after the death of the governor Alonso de Ribera. He was released by his successor Fernando Talaverano Gallegos in a vain attempt to establish a peace with the Mapuche.Penco
Penco (Mapudungun: "Peumo water") is a Chilean city and commune in Concepción Province, Bío Bío Region on the Bay of Concepción. Founded as the city of Concepción del Nuevo Extremo ('beginning of the new extreme') on February 12, 1550 by Pedro de Valdivia, it is the third oldest city in Chile, after capital Santiago founded first in 1541 and La Serena second in 1544.
As there may be confusion between the demonyms of the inhabitants of Concepción and Penco. Due to the previous location of Concepción, inhabitants of that city are called penquistas while inhabitants of Penco are known as pencones.Río Cruces Bridge
Río Cruces Bridge is a triangular bridge spanning Cruces River that unites Isla Teja from Torobayo, a sub-urban area of Valdivia. Together with Pedro de Valdivia Bridge (built in 1954) it allows connection from Valdivia to the coastal town Niebla. Before the opening of Río Cruces Bridge the main access to Niebla was via a ferry from La Mulatas to Torobayo. Other areas that benefited from the bridge were Punucapa and Curiñanco.Valdivia River
The Valdivia River or Río Valdivia, as it is known locally, is a major river in southern Chile. It is the continuation of the Calle-Calle River, from the point where it meets the Cau-Cau River in the city of Valdivia. The Valdivia river ends in Corral Bay, on the Pacific coast. Other tributaries are the Cruces River, the Tornagaleones River and the Futa River. Pedro de Valdivia Bridge crosses the river in downtown Valdivia.Villanueva de la Serena
Villanueva de la Serena is a city in the Province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. It has a population of 26,111 (2010) and forms part of a larger urban area with the neighbouring town of Don Benito.
Founded in the thirteenth century as Aldeanueva de Medellín, the city was an important centre for the Mesta in the Middle Ages. It was the birthplace of Pedro de Valdivia who conquered Chile for the Spanish crown. (This is not much accurate, Pedro de Valdivia Did not Conquer Chile, he die trying to - 1553, Batalla de Tucapel )