Pedro José Domingo de la Calzada Manuel María Lascuráin Paredes (8 May 1856 – 21 July 1952) was a Mexican politician who served as the 34th President of Mexico for less than one hour on February 19, 1913, the shortest presidency in the history of the world. He had earlier served as Mexico's foreign secretary for two terms and was the director of a small law school in Mexico City for sixteen years.
|34th President of Mexico|
19 February 1913
(c. 45 minutes)
|Preceded by||Francisco I. Madero|
|Succeeded by||Victoriano Huerta|
|Born||8 May 1856|
Mexico City, Mexico
|Died||21 July 1952 (aged 96)|
Mexico City, Mexico
Lascuráin received a law degree in 1880 from the Escuela Nacional de Jurisprudencia (National School of Jurisprudence) in Mexico City. He was mayor of Mexico City in 1910 when Francisco I. Madero began a campaign against the re-election of Porfirio Díaz. Lascuráin was a supporter of Madero, and after Madero was elected president to replace Díaz, Lascuráin served twice as foreign secretary in Madero's cabinet (10 April 1912 to 4 December 1912 and 15 January 1913 to 19 February 1913). In between the two terms, he again became mayor of the Mexico City. As foreign secretary, he had to deal with the demands of U.S. Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson.
On 19 February 1913, General Victoriano Huerta overthrew Madero. Lascuráin was one of the people who convinced Madero to resign the presidency while he was being held prisoner in the National Palace and claimed that his life was in danger if he refused.
Under the 1857 Constitution of Mexico, the vice-president, the attorney general, the foreign secretary, and the interior secretary stood in line to the presidency. As well as Madero, Huerta had ousted Vice-President José María Pino Suárez and Attorney General Adolfo Valles Baca. To give the coup d'état some appearance of legality, he had Lascuráin, as foreign secretary, assume the presidency, who would then appoint him as his interior secretary, making Huerta next in line to the presidency, and then resign.
The presidency thus passed to Huerta. As a consequence, Lascuráin was president for less than an hour; sources quote figures ranging from 15 to 56 minutes. To date, Lascuráin's presidency is the shortest in history, even briefer than that of Venezuelan politician Diosdado Cabello in 2002.
Huerta called a late-night special session of Congress, and under the guns of his troops, the legislators endorsed his assumption of power. A few days later, Huerta had Madero and Pino Suárez killed. The coup and the events surrounding it became known as La decena trágica ("the tragic ten [days]").
Huerta offered Lascuráin a post in his cabinet, but Lascuráin declined. He retired from politics and began practicing again as a lawyer. He was the director of the Escuela Libre de Derecho, a conservative law school, for 16 years and published extensively on commercial and civil law. Lascuráin died on July 21, 1952 at the age of 96, the second oldest former Mexican president.
Pedro Lascurain (Interim President for 28 minutes) became president for one day only, February 19, 1913
Francisco I. Madero
| President of Mexico
19 February 1913
Events from the year 1913 in Mexico.1952 in Mexico
Events in the year 1952 in Mexico.Adolfo de la Huerta
Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈðolfo ðelaˈweɾta]; May 26, 1881 – July 9, 1955), known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician and 38th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza.Escuela Libre de Derecho
Escuela Libre de Derecho is a prestigious law school in Mexico. Founded in 1912, it has among its alumni some of the most distinguished Mexican attorneys. It is located on Dr Vertiz 12 in Colonia Doctores in Mexico City.First Lady of Mexico
The First Lady of Mexico (Spanish: Primera Dama de Mexico, Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is the unofficial title of the wife of the President of Mexico. The post is highly ceremonial and in fact once caused severe controversy when it was thought that the First Lady took too much involvement in their husband's post. Beatriz Gutiérrez Müller is the wife of current president Andrés Manuel López Obrador.
María Flores de Lascuráin, spouse of President Pedro Lascuráin, was Mexico's and the world's briefest ever First Lady, since her husband served as president for less than an hour.Francisco I. Madero
Francisco Ignacio Madero González (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko igˈnasjo maˈðeɾo ɣonˈsales]; 30 October 1873 – 22 February 1913) was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.
Born into an extremely wealthy landowning family in northern Mexico, Madero was an unusual politician, who until he ran for president in the 1910 elections, had never held office. In his 1908 book entitled The Presidential Succession in 1910, Madero called on voters to prevent the sixth reelection of Porfirio Díaz, which Madero considered anti-democratic. His vision would lay the foundation for a democratic, 20th-century Mexico, but without polarizing the social classes. To that effect, he bankrolled the Anti-Reelectionist Party (later the Progressive Constitutional Party) and urged Mexicans to rise up against Díaz, which ignited the Mexican Revolution in 1910.
Madero's candidacy against Díaz garnered widespread support in Mexico, since he was possessed of independent financial means, ideological determination, and the bravery to oppose Díaz when it was dangerous to do so. Arrested by the dictatorship shortly after being declared presidential candidate by his party, the opposition leader escaped from prison and launched the Plan of San Luis Potosí from the United States, in this manner beginning the Mexican Revolution.
Following the resignation of Díaz from the presidency on 25 May 1911 after the signing of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Madero became the highest political leader of the country. Known as "Maderistas", Madero's followers referred to him as the "caudillo de la Revolución" (leader of the Revolution). He was elected president on 15 October 1911 by almost 90% of the vote. Sworn into office on 6 November 1911, he became one of Mexico's youngest elected presidents, having just turned 38. Despite his considerable popularity amongst the people, Madero's administration soon encountered opposition both from more radical revolutionaries and from remnants of the former regime.
In February 1913, a military coup took place in the Mexican capital led by General Victoriano Huerta, the military commander of the city, and supported by the United States ambassador. Madero was arrested and a short time later assassinated along with his Vice-President, José María Pino Suárez, on 22 February 1913, following the series of events known as the Ten Tragic Days (la Decena Trágica). The death of Madero and Pino Suárez led to a national and international outcry which eventually paved the way for the fall of the Huerta Dictatorship, the triumph of the Mexican Revolution and the establishment of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico under Maderista President Venustiano Carranza.Francisco Lagos Cházaro
Francisco Jerónimo de Jesús Lagos Cházaro Mortero (Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, September 20, 1878 – November 13, 1932 in Mexico City) was the acting President of Mexico designated by the Convention of Aguascalientes from June 10, 1915 to October 10, 1915.Francisco S. Carvajal
Francisco Sebastián Carvajal y Gual (December 9, 1870 – September 20, 1932) was a Mexican lawyer and politician who served briefly as president in 1914. In his role as foreign minister, he succeeded Victoriano Huerta as president upon the latter's resignation.Juan Bautista Ceballos
Juan Bautista Ceballos (13 May 1811 — 20 August 1859) was interim president of Mexico from 6 January to 8 February 1853. He was a moderate Liberal.List of Presidents of Mexico by longevity
This is a list of Presidents of Mexico, in order of longevity. See the article on List of heads of state of Mexico for more information about Presidents. There are currently sixty-four Presidents on the list and seven living Presidents since Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador was inaugurated as the 58th President of Mexico on December 1, 2018. The list is in descending order and is correct as of May 15, 2019. The oldest living former president is Luis Echeverría, born January 17, 1922 (aged 97 years, 118 days). He is also the longest-lived president since April 1, 2018 when he tied Pedro Lascuráin, who died at the age of 96 years, 74 days.
To account for the different number of leap days within the life of each president, two measures of longevity are given. The first is the number of whole years the president lived, and the number of days past their last birthday. The second list the total number of days lived by the president, accounting for differing numbers of leap years within the lifespan of each president.Manuel Robles Pezuela
Manuel Robles Pezuela (23 May 1817 – 23 March 1862). He was unconstitutional provisional President of Mexico from 1858 to 1859 on the conservative side in the Mexican War of the Reform, serving by appointment of a military junta in opposition to the constitutional President Benito Juárez, who was the head of the liberal party.
During the War of the French Intervention, Robles Pezuela was captured and shot under direct orders of Benito Juárez for siding with his enemy faction.Pedro María de Anaya
Pedro Bernardino María de Anaya y de Álvarez (20 May 1795 – 21 March 1854) was a military officer who served twice as interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. He also played an important role during the Mexican–American War.Pedro Vélez
José Pedro Antonio Vélez de Zúñiga (28 July 1787 – 5 August 1848) was a Mexican politician and lawyer. He was also head of the Governing Board of Mexico (also known as Executive Triumvirate) in 1829.President for One Day (disambiguation)
President for One Day may refer to:
David Rice Atchison, a 19th-century U.S. Senator best known for the claim that he served as Acting President of the United States on March 4, 1849
Clímaco Calderón, who served as President of Colombia on December 21, 1882
Pedro Lascuráin, who served as President of Mexico for less than one hour on February 19, 1913Roque González Garza
Roque González Garza (Saltillo, Coahuila, March 23, 1885 – November 12, 1962 in Mexico City) was a Mexican general and acting president of the Republic from January to June 1915.Secretariat of Foreign Affairs (Mexico)
The Mexican Secretariat of Foreign Affairs (Spanish: Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, SRE, lit: Secretariat of Foreign Relations) is the government department responsible for Mexico's foreign affairs.
Mexico currently has 80 embassies, 33 consulates-general, 35 consulates, 1 representative office in Ramallah, 1 trade office in Taiwan and 144 honorary consulates around the world. Mexico also has 2 permanent representations to the United Nations in New York City and Geneva, there are also permanent missions to the OAS in Washington, D.C., to UNESCO in Paris, to European Union in Brussels, to OECD in Paris, to ICAO in Montreal and to OPANAL in Mexico City. Mexico also has permanent observer mission status to the AU, CAN, CE, Mercosur, NAM and Unasur.
The person in charge of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, also known domestically as the canciller (Spanish, lit. chancellor).
The Secretary's offices are divided Undersecretary for Foreign Relations, Undersecretary Latin America and the Caribbean, Undersecretary for North America, Undersecretary for Multilateral Affairs and Human Rights, the Mexican Agency for International Development Cooperation (AMEXCID) and the Legal Counselor.Secretary of Foreign Affairs (Mexico)
The Secretary of Foreign Affairs (Spanish: Secretario de Relaciones Exteriores) is the foreign minister of Mexico, responsible for implementing the country's foreign policy. The secretary is appointed by the President of Mexico to head the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs (Spanish: Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores) and is a member of the federal executive cabinet.
The current Secretary of Foreign Affairs is Marcelo Ebrard.Ten Tragic Days
The Ten Tragic Days (Spanish: La Decena Trágica) was a series of events that took place in Mexico City between February 9 and February 19, 1913, during the Mexican Revolution. This led up to a coup d'état and the assassination of President Francisco I. Madero, and his Vice President, José María Pino Suárez. Much of what happened these days followed from the crumbling of the Porfiriato system of repressive order giving way to chaos, and as such, these days' events have been among the most influential of the Revolution's history. Madero's martyrdom shocked a critical portion of the population, and the unwelcome foreign intervention prepared the way for the growing nationalism and anti-imperialism of the Revolution. In many ways, then, it set the tone for the Revolution's most violent period, but it also prepared the way for an agenda of profound political and social change.While the bulk of fighting occurred between opposing factions of the regular Federal army, the random nature of artillery and rifle fire inflicted substantial losses amongst uninvolved civilians.Victoriano Huerta
José Victoriano Huerta Márquez (Spanish pronunciation: [biktoˈɾjano ˈweɾta]; 22 December 1850 – 13 January 1916) was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.
After a military career under President Porfirio Díaz, Huerta became a high-ranking officer under pro-democracy President Francisco I. Madero during the first phase of the Mexican Revolution. In 1913 Huerta led a conspiracy against Madero, who entrusted him to control a minor revolt in Mexico City, deposing and assassinating Madero, his brother and Vice President Pino Suarez. This maneuver is called La Decena Tragica, the Ten Tragic Days. The Huerta regime was immediately opposed by revolutionary forces, plunging the nation into a civil war. He was forced to resign and flee the country in 1914, only 17 months into his presidency, after the federal army collapsed. While attempting to intrigue with German spies in the US during World War I, Huerta was arrested in 1915 and died in U.S. custody.
His supporters were known as Huertistas during the Mexican Revolution. He is still vilified by modern-day Mexicans, who generally refer to him as El Chacal ("The Jackal") or El Usurpador ("The Usurper").