Pedro Calungsod

Saint Pedro Calungsod (Latin: Petrus Calungsod, Spanish: Pedro Calúñgsod or archaically Pedro Calonsor, Italian: Pietro Calungsod; July 21, 1654[3] – April 2, 1672), also known as Peter Calungsod and Pedro Calonsor, was a Roman Catholic Filipino migrant, sacristan and missionary catechist who, along with the Spanish Jesuit missionary Diego Luis de San Vitores, suffered religious persecution and martyrdom in Guam for their missionary work in 1672.[4]

While in Guam, Calungsod preached Christianity to the Chamorro people through catechism, while baptizing infants, children and adults at the risk and expense of being persecuted and eventually murdered. Through Calungsod and San Vitores' missionary efforts, many native Chamorros converted to Roman Catholicism.

Calungsod was formally beatified on March 5, 2000, by Pope John Paul II. Calungsod was officially canonized by Pope Benedict XVI at Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City on October 21, 2012.[5]

Saint
Pedro Calungsod
ST+Pedro+Calungsod
Official portrait of Calungsod painted by a Jesuit priest
Lay Catechist and Martyr[1]
BornJuly 21, 1654
Ginatilan, Visayas, Captaincy General of the Philippines[2]
DiedApril 2, 1672 (aged 17)[2]
Tumon, Guam, Captaincy General of the Philippines
Venerated inCatholic Church
BeatifiedVatican City March 5, 2000, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City by Pope John Paul II
CanonizedVatican City October 21, 2012, St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City by Pope Benedict XVI
Major shrineCebu Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Pedro Calungsod, Archbishop's Residence Compound, 234 D. Jakosalem St., Cebu City 6000 PH
FeastApril 2
AttributesMartyr's palm, spear, bolo, Catechism book, Rosary, Christogram, Crucifix
PatronageFilipino youth, Catechumens, altar boys, the Philippines, Overseas Filipino Workers, Guam, Cebuanos, Visayans, Archdiocese of Cebu

Early years and missionary work

Coello - Mariana of Austria as a Widow
Queen Mariana of Austria, Regent of Spain, the benefactress of the mission to the Ladrones Islands.

Disputed origin

Few details of the early life of Calungsod (spelled Calonsor in Spanish records) are known. Historical records do not mention his exact birthplace or birth date and merely identified him as "Pedro Calonsor, el Visayo". Historical research identifies Ginatilan in Cebu, Hinunangan and Hinundayan in Southern Leyte, and the Molo district of Iloilo City[4] as possible places of origin; Loboc, Bohol also makes a claim.[6] Of these claims, the ones from Molo, Iloilo and Ginatilan, Cebu are considered the strongest.

Proponents of an Ilonggo origin argue that in the early Spanish period, the term "Visayan" exclusively referred to people from the islands of Negros or Panay, whereas people from Cebu, Bohol and Leyte were called "Pintados".[7] Thus, had he been born in Cebu he would have been referred to as "Calonsor El Pintado" instead of "Calonsor El Visayo"; the term "Visayan" received its present scope (i.e., including inhabitants of Cebu, Bohol and Leyte) sometime the 1700s. However, American historian and scholar John N. Schumacher, S.J. disputes the Bisaya/Pintados dichotomy claim as at that time the Pintados were also referred to as Visayans regardless of location and said Pedro "was a Visayan" and may have been but doubtfully "from the island of Cebu" or "could have come any other Visayas islands."[8]

The Cebu camp reasoned that Ginatilan contains the highest concentrations of people surnamed Calungsod and that during the beatification process, they were the original claimants to having been Calungsod's birthplace. The Calungsod family in Iloilo also claims to be the oldest branch, based on baptismal records containing the surname "Calungsod" dating to circa 1748, compared to branches in Cebu and Leyte who possess baptismal records dating only to 1828 and 1903.[9] Regardless of his precise origin, all four locations were within the territory of the Diocese of Cebu at the time of Calungsod's martyrdom.

Training and arrival on Guam

In Guam, Calungsod received basic education at a Jesuit boarding school, mastering the Catechism and learning to communicate in Spanish. He also likely honed his skills in drawing, painting, singing, acting, and carpentry, as these were necessary in missionary work.

In 1668, Calungsod, then around 14, was amongst the exemplary young catechists chosen to accompany Spanish Jesuit missionaries to the Islas de los Ladrones ("Isles of Thieves"), which have since been renamed the Mariana Islands the year before to honor both the Virgin Mary and the mission's benefactress, María Ana of Austria, Queen Regent of Spain. Calungsod accompanied the priest Diego San Vitores to Guam to catechize the native Chamorros.[10] Missionary life on the island was difficult as provisions did not arrive regularly, the jungles and terrain were difficult to traverse, and the Marianas were frequently devastated by typhoons. The mission nevertheless persevered, and a significant number of locals were baptized into the faith.[11]

Martyrdom

A Chinese man named Choco, a criminal from Manila who was exiled in Guam began spreading rumors that the baptismal water used by missionaries was poisonous. As some sickly Chamorro infants who were baptized eventually died, many believed the story and held the missionaries responsible. Choco was readily supported by the macanjas (medicine men) and the urritaos (young males) who despised the missionaries.

In their search for a runaway companion named Esteban, Calungsod and San Vitores came to the village of Tumon, Guam on April 2, 1672. There they learnt that the wife of the village's chief Mata'pang had given birth to a daughter, and they immediately went to baptize the child. Influenced by the calumnies of Choco, Chief Mata'pang strongly opposed;[12] to give him some time to calm down, the missionaries gathered the children and some adults of the village at the nearby shore and started chanting with them the tenets of the Catholic faith. They invited Mata'pang to join them, but he shouted back that he was angry with God and was fed up with Christian teachings.

Determined to kill the missionaries, Mata'pang went away and tried to enlist another villager, a pagan named Hirao. The latter initially refused, mindful of the missionaries' kindness towards the natives, but became piqued and eventually capitulated when Mata'pang branded him a coward. While Mata'pang was away from his house, San Vitores and Calungsod baptized the baby girl, with the consent of her Christian mother.

When Mata'pang learnt of his daughter's baptism, he became even more furious. He violently hurled spears first at Calungsod, who was able to dodge them. Witnesses claim that Calungsod could have escaped the attack, but did not desert San Vitores. Those who knew personally Calungsod considered his martial abilities and that he could have defeated the aggressors with weapons; San Vitores had however banned his companions to bear arms. Calungsod was struck in the chest by a spear and he fell to the ground, then Hirao immediately charged towards him and finished him off with machete blow to the head. San Vitores quickly absolved Calungsod before he too was killed.

Mata'pang took San Vitores' crucifix and pounded it with a stone whilst blaspheming God. Both assassins then undressed the corpses of Calungsod and San Vitores, tied large stones to the feet, and brought these on their proas out to Tumon Bay, dumping the bodies in the water.[11]

The Catholic Church considers Calungsod's martyrdom as committed In Odium Fidei ('In Hatred of the Faith'), referring to the religious persecution endured by the person in evangelization.[13][14]

Beatification

A month after the martyrdom of San Vitores and Calunsod, a process for beatification was initiated but only for San Vitores. Political and religious turmoil, however, delayed and halted the process. When Hagåtña was preparing for its 20th anniversary as a diocese in 1981, the 1673 beatification cause of Padre Diego Luís de San Vitores was rediscovered in old manuscripts and revived until San Vitores was finally beatified on October 6, 1985. This gave recognition to Calungsod, paving the way for his own beatification.[15]

In 1980, then-Cebu Archbishop Ricardo Cardinal Vidal asked permission from the Vatican to initiate the beatification and canonization cause of Pedro Calungsod. In March 1997, the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints approved the acta of the diocesan beatification process. That same year, Cardinal Vidal appointed Fr Ildebrando Leyson as vice-postulator for the cause, tasked with compiling a Positio Super Martyrio (position regarding the martyrdom) to be scrutinized by the Congregation. The positio, which relied heavily on the documentation of San Vitores' beatification, was completed in 1999.[16]

Wanting to include young Asian laypersons in his first beatification for the Jubilee Year 2000, John Paul II paid particular attention to the cause of Calungsod. In January 2000, he approved the decree super martyrio (concerning the martyrdom) of Calungsod, setting his beatification for March 5, 2000, at Saint Peter's Square in Rome.

Regarding Calungsod's charitable works and virtuous deeds, Pope John Paul II declared:[17]

...From his childhood, Pedro Calungsod declared himself unwaveringly for Christ and responded generously to his call. Young people today can draw encouragement and strength from the example of Pedro, whose love of Jesus inspired him to devote his teenage years to teaching the faith as a lay catechist. Leaving family and friends behind, Pedro willingly accepted the challenge put to him by Fr. Diego de San Vitores to join him on the Mission to the Chamorros. In a spirit of faith, marked by strong Eucharistic and Marian devotion, Pedro undertook the demanding work asked of him and bravely faced the many obstacles and difficulties he met. In the face of imminent danger, Pedro would not forsake Fr. Diego, but as a "good soldier of Christ" preferred to die at the missionary's side.

Sainthood

Pedro Calungsod 2012 stamp of the Philippines
A 2012 stamp of the Philippines dedicated to the canonization of Pedro Calungsod

On December 19, 2011, the Holy See officially approved the miracle qualifying Calungsod for sainthood by the Roman Catholic Church.[18] The recognized miracle dates from March 26, 2003, when a woman from Leyte who was pronounced clinically dead by accredited physicians two hours after a heart attack was revived when an attending physician invoked Calungsod's intercession.[19][20][21]

Cardinal Angelo Amato presided over the declaration ceremony on behalf of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. He later revealed that Pope Benedict XVI approved and signed the official promulgation decrees recognising the miracles as authentic and worthy of belief. The College of Cardinals were then sent a dossier on the new saints, and they were asked to indicate their approval. On February 18, 2012, after the Consistory for the Creation of Cardinals, Cardinal Amato formally petitioned Pope Benedict XVI to announce the canonization of the new saints.[22] The pope set the date for the canonization ceremony to October 21, 2012, on World Mission Sunday, 340 years after Calungsod's death.[23]

On October 21, 2012, Pope Benedict XVI canonised Calungsod in Saint Peter's Square.[24] The pope donned a pearl-studded mitre preciosa and a cream-colored, pleated Papal fanon, a special vestment reserved only for the pontiff and used on the most solemn and rare liturgical occasions. Filipino Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal concelebrated at the canonization Mass, and of note is that amongst the seven new saints, Calungsod was the only one without a first class relic exposed for veneration since his body was thrown into the sea. The cutlass knife used to hack Calungsod's head and neck was retrieved by Cardinal Vidal from Guam, and is currently venerated as a second-class relic. During the homily, Benedict XVI maintained that Calungsod received the Sacrament of Absolution from Diego Luis de San Vitores before his martyrdom and death.

After Saint Lorenzo Ruíz of Manila, Calungsod is the second Filipino to be declared a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Martyrology celebrates Calungsod's feast along with Blessed Diego Luis de San Vitores every April 2, their dies natalis (heavenly birthdate).[25] However, whenever April 2 falls within Holy Week or within the Octave of Easter, his feast is celebrated on the Saturday of the Fifth Week of Lent, that is, the Saturday before Palm Sunday.

Saturday has been designated as the day of devotion and novenas in his honour.

Birthplace issue

Various areas in the Visayan islands make the claim from which Pedro Calungsod was born and raised. An extensive research provided by the census research of Ginatilan, Cebu provided a longstanding record of Calonsor and Calungsod natives from their area, from which a strong claim had the most Calungsod natives originating since Filipino-Spanish era since the late 1700s. According to the Parish Pastoral Council William Pancho of Ginatilan, Cebu, there is a strong claim that in the mid-1600s, there were three Calungsod brothers:

  • Valerio Calungsod who migrated to Iloilo
  • Casimiro Calungsod who migrated to Bohol
  • Pablo Calungsod who remained in Ginatilan, Cebu and was the father of Pedro Calungsod.

In a public televised interview with ABS-CBN chief correspondent and newscaster Korina Sanchez, Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal emphasized his dismay that when the original beatification of Pedro Calungsod began in 1980's, no province except for Ginatilan, Cebu wanted to make a claim on his place of birth. Consequently, when the canonization was approved, Catholic bishops from the provinces of Cebu, Bohol, Leyte, Samar, and Iloilo and various Mindanao provinces wanted to claim Calungsod's official birthplace.

As a result, Cardinal Vidal ruled that he will not establish a definitive judgment on his birthplace, since Spanish records only indicate the words "Pedro Calonsor, El Visayo" as his native description. Furthermore, he stated that all Visayan provinces were under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Cebu during the Filipino-Spanish era.

Iconography

Doctrina-cristiana
Calungsod is often portrayed clutching a Catechism book, notably the "Doctrina Christiana". Only known surviving copy by Fray Juan de Plasencia. Library of Congress, Washington D.C. Circa 1590's.

It is not known exactly what Calungsod looked like, as no contemporary depictions survive. The writer Alcina, who was a contemporary of Pedro Calungsod, described the male Visayan indios of his time as usually more corpulent, better built and somewhat taller than the Tagalogs in Luzon; that their skin was light brown in color; that their faces were usually round and of fine proportions; that their noses were flat; that their eyes and hair were black; that they— especially the youth—wore their hair a little bit long; and that they already started to wear camisas (shirts) and calzones (knee-breeches). Pedro Chirino, S.J., who also worked in the Visayas in the 1590s, similarly described the Visayans as well-built, of pleasing countenance and light-skinned.[26]

Calungsod is often depicted as a teenaged young man wearing a camisa de chino that is sometimes bloodied, and usually dark loose trousers. His most popular attributes are the martyr's palm pressed to his chest and the Doctrina Christiana. To indicate his missionary status, he is depicted in mid-stride, occasionally also bearing a rosary or crucifix. In some early statues, Calungsod is sometimes shown with a spear and catana (cutlass), the instruments of his death.

In art

The first portraits of Pedro Calungsod were drawings done by award-winning artist, sculptor, and designer Eduardo Castrillo[27] in 1994 for the Heritage of Cebu Monument in Parian. A bronze statue of Calungsod was made and now forms part of the monument. Sculptors Francisco dela Victoria and Vicente Gulane of Cebu and Justino Cagayat, Jr., of Paete, Laguna, created statues of Calungsod in 1997 and 1999 respectively.[28]

When the Archdiocese of Manila in 1998 published the pamphlet Pedro Calungsod: Young Visayan "Proto-Martyr" by Jesuit theologian Catalino Arevalo, the 17-year-old Ronald Tubid of Oton, Iloilo, then a student-athlete at the University of the East, was chosen to model for a portrait of Calungsod.[29] This then became the basis for Rafael del Casal's painting in 1999, which was chosen as the official portrait for Calungsod. The Del Casal portrait is the first to feature a Christogram, the seal of the Society of Jesus with which he was affiliated. The original painting is now enshrined at the Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Pedro Calungsod in Cebu City.

Several statues of Calungsod were also commissioned for the beatification, with one brought to Rome and blessed by John Paul II. This became the "Pilgrim Image", now enshrined at the Archdiocesan Shrine of the Black Nazarene of the Society of the Angel of Peace in Cansojong, Talisay City, Cebu. Another image was enshrined at the Archdiocesan Shrine of Saint Pedro Calungsod in Cebu City. Both images also depict Calungsod wearing a white camisa (shirt) and trousers, with his characteristic palm, a rosary, and a crucifix pressed to his breast. During the novena before his feast day, a replica of the catana used to kill him is set into the arm of the statue.

For the canonization celebrations, the sculpture by Justino Cagayat Jr. depicting Calungsod in midstride and carrying the Doctrina Christian and the martyr's palm pressed to his chest was chosen. This image was brought to Rome for the canonization festivities. Upon its return to the Philippines, the image toured the country. These visits are currently ongoing to promote devotion to Calungsod. When not on a pilgrimage tour, the image is enshrined at the Cebu Archdiocesan Shrine of St. Pedro Calungsod inside the archbishop's residence compound, D. Jakosalem Street, Cebu City.

In film

Pedro Calungsod: Batang Martir is a Filipino film released on December 25, 2013, as an official entry to the 2013 Metro Manila Film Festival. It is produced by HPI Synergy Group and Wings Entertainment, top-billed by actor Rocco Nacino and written and directed by Francis O. Villacorta.

Places and things named after Calungsod

Churches

Educational institutions

  • Academia de San Pedro Calungsod - Naga City
  • St. Pedro Calungsod Academy (formerly Blessed Pedro Calungsod Academy) - Pasig City
  • San Pedro Calungsod Learning Center - Carmen, Cebu
  • San Pedro Calungsod Mission School - Maribojoc, Bohol
  • San Pedro Calungsod Montessori & Science School - San Pedro, Laguna
  • San Pedro Calungsod Thechnical Vocational School, Inc. - Zamboanga

Bibliography

  • Arevalo, Catalino. Pedro Calungsod, Young Visayan Proto-Martyr, Archdiocese of Manila Youth Ministry 1998, New edition from the Daughters of St. Paul, Manila 2000
  • Leyson, Ildebrando Jesus. Pedro Calonsor Bisaya, Prospects of a Teenage Filipino, Cebu City, Claretian Publications 1999.
  • Leyson, Ildebrando Jesus A. Pedro Calonsor Bissaya: Prospects of a Teenage Filipino. Second Edition. Cebu: Basic Graphics, 2000. ISBN 971-501-834-3
  • Philippines

See also

References

  1. ^ Carlomagno Bacaltos. "A Catechetical Primer on the Life, Martyrdom and Glorification of Blessed Pedro Calungsod – Part 2". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  2. ^ a b Carlomagno Bacaltos. "A Catechetical Primer on the Life, Martyrdom and Glorification of Blessed Pedro Calungsod – Part 1". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  3. ^ "Blessed Pedro Calungsod By Emy Loriega / The Pacific Voice". newsaints.faithweb.com. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  4. ^ a b "Saint Pedro Calungsod". Research Center for Iloilo. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  5. ^ EWTN Televised Broadcast: Public Consistory for the Creation of New Cardinals. Rome, February 18, 2012. Saint Peter's Basilica. Closing remarks before recession preceded by Cardinal Agostino Vallini.
  6. ^ "About Pedro Calungsod – Pedro Calungsod". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  7. ^ G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122–123.
  8. ^ "Pedro 'was Visayan, and came possibly, but very doubtfully, from the island of Cebu. He could have come any other Visayas islands." http://journals.ateneo.edu/ojs/landas/article/view/882/912
  9. ^ Super User. "Scholarly evidence point to Calungsod's Ilonggo roots". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  10. ^ "Saints.SQPN.com". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  11. ^ a b Blessed Pedro Calungsod – Biography. Pedrocalungsod.page.tl (March 5, 2000). Retrieved on 2016-06-25.
  12. ^ ''Interea, illa infans puellula, christiana eius matre consentiente, sacramentali baptismatis lavacro est abluta.'' Translation: In the mean time, that an infant girl, Christian with the consent of her mother, cleansed by the washing of sacramental baptism. Vatican.va. Retrieved on June 25, 2016.
  13. ^ ''Pietro Calungsod, catechista, che per odio verso la fede cristiana furono uccisi e gettati in mare da alcuni apostati e seguaci locali di superstizioni pagane.'' Translation: Peter Calungsod, catechist, due to hatred of the Christian faith was killed and thrown overboard by some apostates and followers of local pagan superstitions. Vatican.va. Retrieved on June 25, 2016.
  14. ^ "1672". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  15. ^ "PhilPost CV and EV regional offices merged". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  16. ^ cebuarchdiocese.org. cebuarchdiocese.org. Retrieved on June 25, 2016.
  17. ^ Beatification of 44 Servants of God, Homily of Pope John Paul II, No. 5. Vatican, March 5, 2000. Link retrieved on March 23, 2010.
  18. ^ "DECREES OF THE CONGREGATION FOR THE CAUSES OF SAINTS". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  19. ^ "'Seek Pedro's intercession for Sendong victims'". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  20. ^ "Calungsod sainthood nears final step". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  21. ^ "PEDRO CALUNGSOD NEAR SAINTHOOD". Cebu Daily News. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  22. ^ CONCISTORO ORDINARIO PUBBLICO. vatican.va (18 February 2012)
  23. ^ 18, 2012&lang=en#CONCISTORO PER IL VOTO SU ALCUNE CAUSE DI CANONIZZAZIONE
  24. ^ Canonization Pilgrimage to Rome – Marianne Cope, Kateri Tekewitha, Pedro Calungsod, Carmen Salles y Barangueras, Anna Schaffer, Jacques Berthieu with 206 Tours. 206tours.com. Retrieved on June 25, 2016.
  25. ^ 2 Aprile, BB. Diego Luigi de San Vitores e Pietro Calungsod. Vatican.va. Retrieved on June 25, 2016.
  26. ^ "A Very Common Name". Pedro Calungsod. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  27. ^ "Home – EC Art Management". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  28. ^ "Iconography". Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  29. ^ "Eine Nasenoperation in Muenchen kann Ihnen Linderung verschaffen". Retrieved October 31, 2014.

External links

2013 Metro Manila Film Festival

The 39th Metro Manila Film Festival (MMFF), presented by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), was held from 25 December 2013 to the first week of January 2014. During the festival, no foreign films are shown in Philippine theaters in order to showcase locally produced films. For this year, eight film entries were chosen by the MMDA to be showcased in the festival. Contrary to previous years, the Enteng Kabisote, Panday, and Shake, Rattle & Roll films were not presented for this year's festival.

10,000 Hours won the most awards with fourteen, including Best Actor for Robin Padilla, Best Director for Joyce Bernal, and Best Picture. Other winners included My Little Bossings with four awards, Girl, Boy, Bakla, Tomboy with three, and Pagpag: Siyam na Buhay and Boy Golden with one.

Don Bosco Technical College–Cebu

Don Bosco Technical College–Cebu is a private school in Cebu City managed by the Salesians of the South Province (FIS) of the Philippines. It is an all-boys school except for the Senior High School, TVED and College Departments.

The school conducts class masses every week and some Institutional Masses on an important day in the Liturgical Calendar, such as:

Beginning of Classes - Anytime on the month of the Opening of Classes

Assumption of Mary - August 15

Nativity of Mary - September 8

Intramurals Opening - Anytime on the month of Intramurals

Rosary Rally - October 31 or anytime on the last week of October

Mass for the Dead - Anytime on November

Immaculate Conception of Mary - December 8

Novena Days of St. John Bosco - January 21–30

St. John Bosco - January 31

Our Lady of Lourdes - February 11

Ash Wednesday

Saint Joseph - March 19

St. Pedro Calungsod - April 2The current Vice President of the Pastoral Animation of the school is Rev. Fr. John Vernil Q. Lopez, S.D.B.

Felipe Songsong

Felipe Songsong (May 1, 1611 – January 11, 1686) was a Philippine Jesuit. He was born to a noble family of Macabebe, Pampanga. Songsong was the second Filipino Jesuit. He was married and had a son. After the death of his wife, he entered the Society of Jesus at the age of 57 as a donado and volunteered for the mission in the Marianas under Blessed Diego Luis de San Vítores. His superiors called him "the saintly Philippine" and noted that "(his) solid virtues were an example to his countrymen, and being a noble among his people, (he) is now, we believe, from his blameless life, a most noble citizen of the Realm of Heaven."

JM de Guzman

Juan Miguel Gob de Guzman (born September 9, 1988), popularly known by his screen name JM de Guzman, is a Filipino actor, mixed martial artist, model and singer. He is currently working as an exclusive talent of Star Magic.

Jesuit Martyrs in Micronesia

The Jesuit Martyrs of Micronesia (1670–1685) were a group of people were martyred in Guam and Marianas Island.

List of Filipino saints, blesseds, and servants of God

This page is a list of Filipino Saints, Blesseds, Venerables, and Servants of God recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. Majority of these men and women of religious life were born, died, or lived within the Philippines.

The Roman Catholic faith already existed since the country's earliest recorded history. Indeed, Ferdinand Magellans' expedition of 1521 included Catholic priests and missionaries among the crew. In fact, some Catholic missionaries became the explorers of the native lands while converting and coercing the Indios towards Christianism. Because of the Spanish colonization which had been started by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, Christianity was introduced as settling within Cebu. Now, Cebu is a well known bastion of the Roman Catholic faith.

Catholics continue to contribute to Filipino religious life to the present day. Subsequently, several Filipino Catholics have been considered for sainthood over the past centuries. Most of these saints-to-be are from the 20th Century and moving forward. Very few from the Spanish era within the Philippines found their way to the various levels of Church "sanctity."

The first Filipino saint canonized was Lorenzo Ruiz, a married lay Dominican and member of the Rosarian Confraternity in dedication to Our Lady. Ruiz died as a martyr of faith, during the persecutions in Nagasaki, Japan, where the Japanese rulers organized an anti-clerical campaign. Lorenzo Ruiz was beatified by Pope John Paul II in Manila in 1981 and was later canonized at St. Peter's Square, Vatican City in 1987. Twenty-five years later, the title of "saint" was bestowed upon another martyr, Pedro Calungsod. Calungsod was then-canonized on October 2012 by Pope Benedict XVI.

List of protomartyrs

A protomartyr (Koine Greek, πρότος prótos "first" + μάρτυρας mártyras "martyr") is the first Christian martyr in a country or among a particular group, such as a religious order. Similarly, the phrase the Protomartyr (with no other qualification of country or region) can mean Saint Stephen, the first martyr of the Christian church or Saint Thecla, the first female martyr of the Christian church.

List of religious films

This is a list of films with religious themes.

Mata'pang

Matå'pang (died 1680) was a Chamorro maga'låhi or chief of the ancient Chamorro village of Tomhom on the island of Guahan. His name meant "to be made pure by cleansing," in Chamorro.

Matå'pang is best known for resisting the Spanish invasion of his country and for his conflict with a Spanish priest Diego de San Vitores, an early missionary of the colonial Spanish empire on Guam, and his Filipino associate, Pedro Calungsod, resulting in the deaths of the foreigners at the hands of Matå'pang and his companion Hurao.

Today Matå'pang has become iconic among many activists for Chamorro self-determination.

Metro Manila Film Festival Award for Best Actor

The Metro Manila Film Festival Award for Best Actor is an award presented annually by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA). It was first awarded at the 1st Metro Manila Film Festival ceremony, held in 1975; Joseph Estrada received the award for his role in Diligan Mo ng Hamog ang Uhaw na Lupa and it is given in honor of an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance in a leading role while working within the film industry. Currently, nominees and winners are determined by Executive Committees, headed by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Chairman and key members of the film industry.

Philippine fifty peso note

The Philippine fifty-peso note (Filipino: Limampung Piso) (₱50) is a denomination of Philippine currency. Philippine president and former House Speaker Sergio Osmeña is currently featured on the front side of the bill, while the Taal Lake and the giant trevally (known locally as maliputo) are featured on the reverse side.

Pontificio Collegio Filippino

Pontificio Collegio Filippino (English: Pontifical Filipino College; Filipino: Dalubhasaang Pilipinong Pontipikal), officially Pontificio Collegio Seminario de Nuestra Señora de la Paz y Buen Viaje (English: Pontifical College Seminary of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage), is a college for diocesan priests from the Philippines studying at pontifical universities in Rome, Italy. It was formally established as an institution with pontifical rights by Pope John XXIII on June 29, 1961 through the Papal Bull Sancta Mater Ecclesia.

The current rector is the Rev. Gregory Ramon D. Gaston, S.T.D.

Rocco Nacino

Enrico Raphael Quiogue Nacino (born March 21, 1987 in Baguio City, Benguet, Philippines), better known by his screen name Rocco Nacino, is a Filipino actor and registered nurse who rose to fame and gained media attention for joining on the fifth season of StarStruck, a Philippine reality show broadcast on GMA Network. He was the Second Prince of StarStruck. He is an exclusive artist under GMA Artist Center.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cebu (or the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of the Most Holy Name of Jesus) (Latin: Archidioecesis Nominis Iesu seu Cæbuanus; Filipino: Arkidiyosesis ng Cebu; Cebuano: Arkidiyosesis sa Sugbo; Spanish: Arzobispado del Santisimo Nombre de Jesus) is a Roman Rite archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines and one of the ecclesiastical provinces of the Roman Catholic Church in the country. It is composed of the entire civil province of Cebu (Cebu and the nearby islands of Mactan, Bantayan, and Camotes). It is the Mother Church of the Philippines. The jurisdiction, Cebu, is considered as the fount of Christianity in the Far East.The seat of the archdiocese is the Metropolitan Cathedral and Parish of Saint Vitalis and of the Immaculate Conception, more commonly known as the Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral. The archdiocese honors Our Lady of Guadalupe de Cebú as its patroness while the second Filipino saint Pedro Calungsod as its secondary patron saint. The current archbishop is the Most Reverend José Serofia Palma, DD, STh.D, who was installed on January 13, 2011. As of 2013, the archdiocese registered a total of 4,609,590 baptized Catholics. It is currently the largest archdiocese in the Philippines and in Asia having the most number of Catholics, seminarians and priests.

Ronald Tubid

Ronald Tubid (born October 15, 1981) is a Filipino professional basketball player for the San Miguel Beermen of the Philippine Basketball Association (PBA). Known by many as The Fearless, he was also known, along with backcourt tandem Mark Caguioa and Jayjay Helterbrand, as one-third of the so-called, The Fast, The Furious, and The Fearless. He was also known as The Saint for modeling for the portrait of San Pedro Calungsod when he was 17.

St John the Baptist Church (Taytay, Rizal)

St John the Baptist Parish Church, also known as Parokya ni San Juan Bautista, is a Roman Catholic church located in Taytay, Rizal, Philippines.

Toledo, Cebu

Toledo, officially the City of Toledo, (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Toledo; Tagalog: Lungsod ng Toledo), or simply known as Toledo City, is a 3rd class city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 170,335 people.Toledo City is bordered to the north by the town of Balamban, to the west is the Tañon Strait, to the east is Cebu City And Naga and the town of Minglanilla, and to the south is the town of Pinamungajan.

On 18 June 1960 Toledo became a chartered city under Republic Act No. 2688.Toledo is about 50 kilometres (30 mi) away from Cebu City and is widely known for its huge mining industry owned by Atlas Consolidated Mining and Development Corporation, which is the umbrella of Carmen Copper Corporation and its Toledo Mine.

Trizer D. Mansueto

Trizer Dale Dajuya Mansueto, is a Filipino historian. He is a graduate of B.A. History and obtained his Master of Arts in History from Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Philippines. An author of several books, he is also involved in museums, translation and teaching. He contributes stories to Cebu Daily News and the Philippine Daily Inquirer (both under the Inquirer Group).He helped organize the Carcar City Museum in Carcar City, Cebu and the Cathedral Museum of Cebu, an ecclesiastical museum in 2006. He is also co-author of the books Balaanong Bahandi: Sacred Treasures of the Archdiocese of Cebu and Via Veritatis: The Life and Ministry of Ricardo Cardinal Vidal.In the field of translation, he is co-translator in English of Hunger in Nayawak together with Hope Sabanpan-Yu and translator in Cebuano of I See Cebu. His latest translation in Cebuano is a biography, Pedro Calungsod: Patron sa Kabatan-unang Pilipino originally written in English by Fr. Salvador G. Agualada, CMF.Mansueto acted as researcher and was later commissioned to write The History of Danao City of the Cebu Provincial History Project contracted by the Province of Cebu which is still to be released. He lives in Bantayan, Cebu.

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