Peace of Utrecht

The Peace of Utrecht is a series of peace treaties signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht between April 1713 and February 1715.

Before Charles II of Spain died childless in 1700, he had named his grandnephew Philip of France as his successor. However, Philip was a French prince, grandson of Louis XIV of France and also in line for the French throne, and the other major powers in Europe were not willing to tolerate the potential union of two such powerful states. Essentially, the treaties allowed Philip to take the Spanish throne in return for permanently renouncing his claim to the French throne, along with other necessary guarantees that would ensure that France and Spain should not merge, thus preserving the balance of power in Europe.

The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war. The treaties were concluded between the representatives of Louis XIV of France and of his grandson Philip on one hand, and representatives of Anne of Great Britain, Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, John V of Portugal and the United Provinces of the Netherlands on the other. Though the king of France ensured the Spanish crown for his dynasty, the treaties marked the end of French ambitions of hegemony in Europe expressed in the continuous wars of Louis XIV, and paved the way to the European system based on the balance of power.[1] British historian G. M. Trevelyan argues:

That Treaty, which ushered in the stable and characteristic period of Eighteenth-Century civilization, marked the end of danger to Europe from the old French monarchy, and it marked a change of no less significance to the world at large, — the maritime, commercial and financial supremacy of Great Britain.[2]

Another enduring result was the creation of the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty, still reigning over Spain up to the present while the original House of Bourbon has long since been dethroned in France.

Treaty Of Utrecht
First edition of the Anglo-Spanish treaty
First edition of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht between Great Britain and Spain in Spanish (left) and a later edition in Latin and English.
Context
Signed1713–15
LocationUtrecht, United Provinces
Signatories
Languages
Wikisource

Negotiations

Europe c. 1700
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession was occasioned by the failure of the Habsburg king, Charles II of Spain, to produce an heir. Dispute followed the death of Charles II in 1700, and fourteen years of war were the result.

France and Great Britain had come to terms in October 1711, when the preliminaries of peace had been signed in London. The preliminaries were based on a tacit acceptance of the partition of Spain's European possessions. Following this, the Congress of Utrecht opened on 29 January 1712, with the British representatives being John Robinson, Bishop of Bristol, and Thomas Wentworth, Lord Strafford.[3] Reluctantly the United Provinces accepted the preliminaries and sent representatives, but Emperor Charles VI refused to do so until he was assured that the preliminaries were not binding. This assurance was given, and so in February the Imperial representatives made their appearance. As Philip was not yet recognized as its king, Spain did not at first send plenipotentiaries, but the Duke of Savoy sent one, and the Kingdom of Portugal was represented by Luís da Cunha. One of the first questions discussed was the nature of the guarantees to be given by France and Spain that their crowns would be kept separate, and little progress was made until 10 July 1712, when Philip signed a renunciation.[4]

With Great Britain, France and Spain having agreed to a "suspension of arms" (armistice) covering Spain on 19 August in Paris, the pace of negotiation quickened. The first treaty signed at Utrecht was the truce between France and Portugal on 7 November, followed by the truce between France and Savoy on 14 March 1714. That same day, Spain, Great Britain, France and the Empire agreed to the evacuation of Catalonia and an armistice in Italy. The main treaties of peace followed on 11 April 1713. These were five separate treaties between France and Great Britain, the Netherlands, Savoy, Prussia and Portugal. Spain under Philip V signed separate peace treaties with Savoy and Great Britain at Utrecht on 13 July. Negotiations at Utrecht dragged on into the next year, for the peace treaty between Spain and the Netherlands was only signed on 26 June 1714 and that between Spain and Portugal on 6 February 1715.[5]

Several other treaties came out of the congress of Utrecht. France signed treaties of commerce and navigation with Great Britain and the Netherlands (11 April 1713). Great Britain signed a like treaty with Spain (9 December 1713).[5]

Principal provisions

Europe 1714
Western Europe in 1714, after the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt

The Peace confirmed the provisions contained in the will of Charles II of Spain by confirming the Bourbon candidate as Philip V of Spain. In return, Philip renounced the French throne, both for himself and his descendants, with reciprocal renunciations by French Bourbons to the Spanish throne, including Louis XIV's nephew Philippe of Orléans. These became increasingly important after a series of deaths between 1712 to 1714 left the five year old Louis XV as his great-grandfather's heir.[6]

Britain is usually seen as the main beneficiary, Utrecht marking the point at which it became the primary European commercial power.[7] In Article X, Spain ceded the ports of Gibraltar and Menorca, giving Britain a dominant position in the Western Mediterranean and gaining a monopoly over the Asiento or slave trade between Africa and Spanish America.

The importance placed by British negotiators on commercial interests was demonstrated by their demand France agree to 'level the fortifications of Dunkirk, block up the port and demolish the sluices that scour the harbour, (which) shall never be reconstructed.'[8] While it proved unenforceable, this was because Dunkirk was the primary base for French privateers, as it was possible to reach the North Sea in a single tide and escape British patrols in the English Channel.[9] This ultimately proved unenforceable.

Nouvelle-France map-en
North America ca 1750; some French forts listed here were not built until thirty years after 1713.

Under Article XIII, Spain agreed to a British demand they preserve Catalan historical rights, in return for Catalan support for the Allies during the war. Spanish territories in Italy and Flanders were divided, with Savoy receiving Sicily and parts of the Duchy of Milan. The former Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, Sardinia and the bulk of the Duchy of Milan went to Emperor Charles VI. In South America, Spain returned Colónia do Sacramento in modern Uruguay to Portugal and recognised Portuguese sovereignty over the lands between the Amazon and Oyapock rivers, now in Brazil.

In North America, France recognised British suzerainty over the Iroquois, ceded Nova Scotia and its claims to Newfoundland and territories in Rupert's Land.[10] The French portion of Saint Kitts in the West Indies was also ceded in its entirety to Britain.[10] France retained its other pre-war North American possessions, including Cape Breton Island, where it built the Fortress of Louisbourg, then the most expensive military installation in North America.[11]

The successful French Rhineland campaign of 1713 finally induced Charles to sign the 1714 treaties of Rastatt and Baden, although terms were not agreed with Spain until the 1720 Treaty of The Hague.[12]

Responses to the treaties

Hmap
North America in 1760, immediately before the Treaty of Paris. Note that New England was at this time depicted as bordering the St. Lawrence River, that New York State occupied the geographic area of Upper Canada or Ontario, that Pennsylvania occupied much of the region to the south of Lake Erie and that Nova Scotia had not yet been divided by New Brunswick.

The treaty's territorial provisions did not go as far as the Whigs in Britain would have liked, considering that the French had made overtures for peace in 1706 and again in 1709. The Whigs considered themselves the heirs of the staunch anti-French policies of William III and the Duke of Marlborough. However, in the Parliament of 1710 the Tories had gained control of the House of Commons, and they wished for an end to Great Britain's participation in a European war. Queen Anne and her advisors had also come to agree.

The party in the administration of Robert Harley (created Earl of Oxford and Mortimer on 23 May 1711) and the Viscount Bolingbroke proved more flexible at the bargaining table and were characterised by the Whigs as "pro-French"; Oxford and Bolingbroke persuaded the Queen to create twelve new "Tory peers"[13] to ensure ratification of the treaty in the House of Lords. The opponents of the treaty tried to rally support under the slogan of No Peace Without Spain.

Although the fate of the Spanish Netherlands in particular was of interest to the United Provinces, Dutch influence on the outcome of the negotiations was fairly insignificant, even though the talks were held on their territory. The French negotiator Melchior de Polignac taunted the Dutch with the scathing remark de vous, chez vous, sans vous,[14] meaning that negotiations would be held "about you, around you, without you." The fact that Bolingbroke had secretly ordered the British commander, the Duke of Ormonde, to withdraw from the Allied forces before the Battle of Denain (informing the French but not the Allies), and the fact that they secretly arrived at separate peace with France was a fait accompli, made the objections of the Allies pointless.[15] In any case, the Dutch achieved their condominium in the Austrian Netherlands with the Austro-Dutch Barrier Treaty of 1715.[16]

Aftermath

Allegory on the Peace of Utrecht
Allegory of the Peace of Utrecht by Antoine Rivalz

The Treaty stipulated that "because of the great danger which threatened the liberty and safety of all Europe, from the too close conjunction of the kingdoms of Spain and France, [...] one and the same person should never become King of both kingdoms."[17] Some historians argue this makes it a significant milestone in the evolution of the modern nation state and concept of a balance of power.[18]

First mentioned in 1701 by Charles Davenant in his Essays on the Balance of Power, it was widely publicised in Britain by author and Tory satirist Daniel Defoe in his 1709 article A Review of the Affairs of France. The idea was reflected in the wording of the treaties and resurfaced after the defeat of Napoleon in the 1815 Concert of Europe that dominated Europe in the 19th century.

For the individual signatories, Britain established naval superiority over its competitors, commercial access to Spanish America and control of Menorca and Gibraltar, a territory it retains to this day. France accepted the Protestant succession, ensuring a smooth transition when Anne died in August 1714 and ended support for the Stuarts under the 1716 Anglo-French Treaty.[19] An often overlooked benefit was that while the war left all participants with unprecedented levels of government debt, only Britain successfully financed it.[20]

Andreas Moeller - Erzherzogin Maria Theresia - Kunsthistorisches Museum
Ensuring the succession of Maria Theresa reduced Austria's gains from the war and ultimately led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740

Spain retained the majority of its Empire and recovered remarkably quickly; the recapture of Naples and Sicily in 1718 was only prevented by British naval power and a second attempt was successful in 1734. The 1707 Nueva Planta decrees abolished regional political structures in the kingdoms of Aragon, Valencia and Majorca, although Catalonia retained some of these rights until 1767.[21]

Despite failure in Spain, Austria secured its position in Italy and Hungary, allowing them to continue expansion into areas of South-East Europe previously held by the Ottoman Empire. Even after paying expenses associated with the Dutch Barrier, increased tax revenues from the Austrian Netherlands funded a significant upgrade of the Austrian military.[22] However, these gains were diminished by various factors, chiefly the disruption of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 caused by Charles disinheriting his nieces in favour of his daughter Maria Theresa.[23]

Attempts to ensure her succession involved Austria in wars of little strategic value, much of the fighting in the 1733-1735 War of the Polish Succession taking place in their maritime provinces in Italy. Austria had traditionally relied on naval support from the Dutch, whose own capability had been severely degraded; Britain prevented the loss of Sicily and Naples in 1718 but refused to do so again in 1734.[24] The dispute continued to loosen Habsburg control over the Empire; Bavaria, Hanover, Prussia and Saxony increasingly acted as independent powers and in 1742, Charles of Bavaria became the first non-Habsburg Emperor in over 300 years.[25]

The Dutch Republic ended the war effectively bankrupt, the Barrier Treaty that cost so much proving largely illusory.[26] The forts were quickly overrun in 1740, Britain's promise of military support against an aggressor proving to be far more effective.[27] The damage suffered by the Dutch merchant navy permanently affected their commercial and political strength and it was superseded by Britain as the pre-eminent European mercantile power.[28]

Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715 and on his deathbed is alleged to have said 'I have loved war too well.'[29] True or not, while the final settlement at Utrecht was far more favourable than the Allied offer of 1709, France gained little that had not already been achieved through diplomacy by February 1701. It remained strong but concern at their relative decline in military and economic terms compared to Britain was an underlying cause of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740.[30]

See also

References

  1. ^ R.R. Palmer, A History of the Modern World 2nd ed. 1961, p. 234.
  2. ^ G.M. Trevelyan, A shortened history of England (1942) p 363.
  3. ^ The staunch Tory Strafford was hauled before a committee of Parliament for his part in the treaty, which the Whigs considered not advantageous enough.
  4. ^ James Falkner (2015). The War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714. Pen and Sword. p. 205.
  5. ^ a b Randall Lesaffer, "The Peace of Utrecht and the Balance of Power", Oxford Public International Law.
  6. ^ Somerset, Anne (2012). Queen Anne: The Politics of Passion. Harper Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0007203765.
  7. ^ Pincus, Steven. "Rethinking Mercantilism: Political Economy, The British Empire and the Atlantic World in the 17th and 18th Centuries" (PDF). Warwick University: 7–8. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  8. ^ Moore, John Robert (1950). "Defoe, Steele, and the Demolition of Dunkirk". Huntington Library Quarterly. 13 (3): 279. doi:10.2307/3816138.
  9. ^ Bromley, JS (1987). Corsairs and Navies, 1600–1760. Continnuum-3PL. p. 233. ISBN 978-0907628774.
  10. ^ a b George Chalmers, Great Britain (24 January 1790). "A Collection of Treaties Between Great Britain and Other Powers". Printed for J. Stockdale – via Internet Archive.
  11. ^ Royle, Trevor (2016). Culloden; Scotland's Last Battle and the Forging of the British Empire. Little, Brown. p. 148. ISBN 978-1408704011.
  12. ^ "Treaties of Utrecht - European history". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  13. ^ The twelve peers consisted of two who were summoned in their father's baronies, Lords Compton (Northampton) and Bruce (Ailesbury), and ten recruits, namely Lords Hay (Kinnoull), Mountjoy, Burton (Paget), Mansell, Middleton, Trevor, Lansdowne, Masham, Foley, and Bathurst. David Backhouse, "Tory Tergiversation In The House of Lords, 1714–1760" Archived 28 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ Szabo, I. (1857) The State Policy of Modern Europe from the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century to the Present Time. Vol. I, Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans and Roberts, p. 166
  15. ^ Churchill, W. (2002) Marlborough: His Life and Times, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-10636-5, pp. 954–955
  16. ^ Israel, J.I. (1995), The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness and Fall, 1477–1806, Oxford University Press,ISBN 0-19-873072-1 hardback, ISBN 0-19-820734-4 paperback, p. 978
  17. ^ Article II, Peace and Friendship Treaty of Utrecht.
  18. ^ Lesaffer, Randall. "The peace of Utrecht and the balance of power". OUP Blog. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  19. ^ Szechi, Daniel (1994). The Jacobites: Britain and Europe, 1688-1788 (First ed.). Manchester University Press. pp. 93–95. ISBN 978-0719037740.
  20. ^ Carlos, Ann (author) Neal, Larry (author), Wandschneider, Kirsten (author) (2006). "The Origins of National Debt: The Financing and Re-financing of the War of the Spanish Succession" (PDF). International Economic History Association: 2. Retrieved 6 September 2018.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ Vives Vi, Jaime (1969). An Economic History of Spain. Princeton University Press. p. 591. ISBN 978-0691051659.
  22. ^ Falkner, James (2015). The War of the Spanish Succession (Kindle ed.). 4173-4181: Pen and Sword Military. ASIN B0189PTWZG.
  23. ^ Kann, Robert A (1974). A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918 (1980 ed.). University of California Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0520042063.
  24. ^ Anderson, MS (1995). The War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0582059504.
  25. ^ Lindsay, JO (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 7, The Old Regime, 1713-1763. Cambridge University Press; New Edition edition. p. 420. ISBN 978-0521045452.
  26. ^ Kubben, Raymond (2011). Regeneration and Hegemony; Franco-Batavian Relations in the Revolutionary Era 1795-1803. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 148. ISBN 978-9004185586.
  27. ^ Ward, Adolphus William (1922). The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, Volume 2 (2011 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-1108040136.
  28. ^ Dadson, Trevor (ed), Elliott, John (2014). The Road to Utrecht in Britain, Spain and the Treaty of Utrecht 1713-2013. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 978-1909662223.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  29. ^ Colville, Alfred (1935). Studies in Anglo-French History During the Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (2018 ed.). Forgotten Books. p. 149. ISBN 978-1528022392.
  30. ^ Lynn, John (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714 (Modern Wars In Perspective). Longman. pp. 361–362. ISBN 978-0582056299.

Bibliography

  • Bruin, Renger and Cornelis Haven, eds. Performances of Peace: Utrecht 1713 (2015).
  • Churchill, Winston (2002). Marlborough: His Life and Times, Bk. 2, vols. iii & iv. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-10635-7 online abridged edition
  • Gregory, Desmond: Minorca, the Illusory Prize: A History of the British Occupations of Minorca Between 1708 and 1802 (Associated University Press, 1990)
  • Lesaffer, Randall. "The peace of Utrecht and the balance of power", Oxford Historical Treaties 10 Nov 1914 online
  • Lynn, John A (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667–1714. Longman. ISBN 0-582-05629-2
  • Mowat, Robert Balmain. History of European diplomacy, 1451–1789 (1928) pp 141–54; online pp 165–82.
  • Sichel, Walter. Bolingbroke And His Times, 2 vols. (1901–02) Vol. 1 The Reign of Queen Anne
  • Stanhope, Philip: History of England, Comprising the Reign of Queen Anne until the Peace of Utrecht (London: 1870)
  • Trevelyan, G. M (1930–34). England Under Queen Anne. 3 volumes. Longmans, Green and co.

External links

As Pants the Hart (Handel)

As pants the hart (HWV 251) is an anthem composed by George Frideric Handel for the Chapel Royal of Queen Anne and subsequently revised. There are five versions of the work (indicated by the letters a to e), the first being completed in 1713, and the final in 1738. HWV 251a was the first anthem Handel composed for the Chapel Royal.

The 1713 version is an early example of Handel setting words in English, which was his third language. The anthem takes its title from the first line, the incipit, of Psalm 42. The rest of the text – it is the same for all of Handel’s versions of the anthem – is also taken from the psalm, and has been attributed to John Arbuthnot. Arbuthnot clearly based his work on earlier translations, as the text opens with lines from Tate and Brady’s metrical version, but reverts at verse two to the Prayer Book version.

Handel met with royal favour in 1713 and received a major commission, the Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate to commemorate the Peace of Utrecht. Soon after the introduction of HWV 251a to the Chapel Royal repertoire, Handel was awarded a pension from Queen Anne of ₤200 per annum. The royal patronage continued under the Hanoverians. In 1723 (soon after the composition of HWV 251d), Handel received a second pension, granted to him as "Composer to the Chapel Royal". This second pension brought Handel’s total annual income from court pensions and his position as "Music Master to the Royal Princesses" to ₤600—a considerable sum for the time.

In Handel’s day, all parts were sung by male voices—typically twelve boys and twelve men.

Claviere

Claviere is a municipality in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont, located about 80 kilometres (50 miles) west of the centre of Turin, near the border with France. Claviere is a small, but well equipped skiing village. The snow season lasts from December to April. The parish church has a Gothic-style portal.

Dance of the Happy Shades

Dance of the Happy Shades is a book of short stories by Alice Munro, published by Ryerson Press in 1968. It was her first collection of stories and won the 1968 Governor General's Award for English Fiction. The title of the main story is the English translation provided for the ballet in Gluck's Orfeo ed Euridice when it was first presented in London.

Diego Ladrón de Guevara

Doctor Diego Ladrón de Guevara Orozco Calderón (1641, Cifuentes, Spain – September 9, 1718) was a Roman Catholic bishop and Spanish colonial administrator. From August 30, 1710 to March 2, 1716, he was viceroy of Peru.

François Pourfour du Petit

François Pourfour du Petit (June 24, 1664 – June 18, 1741) was a French anatomist, ophthalmologist and surgeon who was a native of Paris.

He studied medicine at the University of Montpellier, and afterwards studied surgery at the Hôpital de la Charité in Paris. During this period of time he also attended lectures by Guichard Joseph Duverney (1648–1730) in anatomy and Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656–1708) in botany. Between 1693 and 1713 he was a military physician in the armies of Louis XIV, and after the Peace of Utrecht (1713), he returned to Paris as an eye specialist. From 1722 to 1741 he was a member of the Académie Royale des Sciences.

Petit is remembered for his anatomical studies of the eye, as well as physiological research of the sympathetic nervous system. As a military physician, Petit noticed that there was a striking correlation between soldiers' head wounds and contralateral motor effects, which he documented in a 1710 treatise called Lettres d’un medecin des hopitaux du roi a un autre medecin de ses amis. He performed pioneer investigations on the internal structure of the spinal cord, and gave an early, detailed description of the decussation of the pyramids. He also provided the first clinical description of symptoms of what would later be known as Horner's syndrome.,

Grand Alliance (League of Augsburg)

The Grand Alliance is the name commonly used for the coalition formed on 20 December 1689 by England and the Dutch Republic (both led by Dutch stadtholder William III), and Holy Roman Emperor Leopold, including the Archduchy of Austria. With the later additions of Spain and Savoy, this fought the 1688–97 Nine Years' War against France that ended with the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick.

It was reformed in September 1701 by the Treaty of The Hague shortly before the War of the Spanish Succession and dissolved after the 1714 Peace of Utrecht. This is often referred to as the Second Grand Alliance.

Guido Starhemberg

Guido Wald Rüdiger, count of Starhemberg (Graz, 11 November 1657 – Vienna, 7 March 1737) was an Austrian military officer (commander-in-chief).

He was a cousin of Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg (1638–1701), the famous commander of Vienna during the Turkish siege of 1683, and acted as his aide-de-camp during that siege. Guido followed his cousin, and later Prince Eugene of Savoy, in battles against the Turks.

In the War of the Spanish Succession, Starhemberg fought in Italy and Spain. Between 1706 and 1708 he was the commander-in-chief of the imperial army in Hungary, leading military operations against the insurgents of Francis II Rákóczi. In 1708, he was appointed Supreme Commander of the Austrians in Spain.

Together with James Stanhope he succeeded in conquering Madrid in 1710, after previously gaining victories at Almenar and Saragossa. In December, however, he was forced to leave the city by the lack of support by its inhabitants for the Habsburg pretender. After the subsequent defeats at the Battle of Brihuega and the Battle of Villaviciosa (1710), he had to pull back to Catalonia, where he was made viceroy when Archduke Charles returned to Austria.

After the Peace of Utrecht (1713), archduke Charles, now Emperor Charles VI, ordered him to abandon Catalonia. He pulled back with his troops to Genoa on English ships.

When he died in 1737, he was Governor of Slavonia.

Hartest

Hartest is a small village in the Babergh district of the English county of Suffolk. It is located halfway between Bury St. Edmunds and Sudbury on the B1066 road in the Glem valley. Brockley is two miles north.

The village of Hartest dates back to before 1086 and features in the Domesday Book. The name 'Hartest' is thought to mean either 'Stag Hill' or 'Stag Wood'. It is claimed that there are no other villages, towns or cities in the world of the same name.The village is centred on the large village green, fringed by an array of brightly coloured cottages, the village hall or institute, the medieval All Saints church and the Crown public house, formerly Hartest Hall the local landowner's seat. There is an annual fete held on the village green at the end of August each year.Running east of the village centre is Hartest Hill, the steepest in Suffolk.Former Special Envoy for the Archbishop of Canterbury and Islamic Jihad Organization hostage, Terry Waite lives in the village.

Julian Podger

Julian Podger (born 1966) is an English tenor who has appeared mostly in concert in historically informed performance. He took part in the 2000 Bach Cantata Pilgrimage. He also sings in vocal ensembles, and directs his own ensemble, Trinity Baroque.

Martti Koskenniemi

Martti Antero Koskenniemi (born 18 March 1953) is a Finnish international lawyer and former diplomat. Currently he is professor of International Law in the University of Helsinki and Director of the Erik Castrén Institute of International Law and Human Rights, as well as Centennial Professor at the Law Department of the London School of Economics. He is well known for his critical approach to international law. In 2008–2009 he held the seat of distinguished visiting Goodhart Professor at the Faculty of Law, Cambridge University. In 2011 Koskenniemi was Peace of Utrecht professor at Utrecht University. In 2014 he was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Koskenniemi is currently serving as an Academy Professor for the Academy of Finland.Previously he has been Global Professor of Law in the New York University, and a member of the International Law Commission (2002–2006). He served in the Finnish Diplomatic Service in the years 1978-1996, lastly as director of the Division of International Law. He was Finland's counsel in the International Court of Justice in the Passage through the Great Belt case (Finland v. Denmark) (1991–1992)

From 1997 to 2003 he served as a judge in the administrative tribunal of the Asian Development Bank.

He is a member of the Institut de droit international.

Peace of Vienna (1725)

The Peace of Vienna (often referred to as the First Treaty of Vienna) was a series of four treaties signed between 30 April 1725 and 05 November 1725 by the Habsburg Monarchy, the Holy Roman Empire (in accordance with Austria), and Bourbon Spain; the Russian Empire later joined the newly-found alliance in 1726. The signing of this treaty marks the founding of the Austro-Spanish Alliance and led the Fourth Anglo-Spanish War (1727-1729). This new alliance thereby removed Austria from the Quadruple Alliance. In addition to a formation of the new partnership, the Habsburgs relinquished all formal claims to the Spanish throne, while the Spanish removed their claims in the Southern Netherlands, and a number of other territories.Treaties on commerce between the two countries were also formally established. The main article of importance is the Spanish recognition of the Ostend East India Company and the permission of free docking rights which included the rights to refuel in the Spanish colonies. In addition, the treaty publicly signed certifying an alliance was only a defensive one, though later in the year, both parties signed a secret treaty which founded a general alliance between both nations.

Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope

Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope FRS (30 January 1805 – 24 December 1875), styled Viscount Mahon between 1816 and 1855, was a British politician and historian. He held political office under Sir Robert Peel in the 1830s and 1840s but is best remembered for his contributions to cultural causes and for his historical writings.

Ralph Creffeild

Sir Ralph Creffeild (often incorrectly Creffield; Colchester, Essex, England, 1653 - Colchester, 22 June 1732) was an alderman and three times Mayor of Colchester. A significant landowner, he controlled extensive estates in and around the town. He came from a family of wealthy wool merchants, originally from Flanders, but at Chappel by 1348. His father, also Ralph, was himself mayor on four occasions.Born in 1653, he ran the family business in the High Street of Colchester, but moved to Ardleigh, where he remained for fifty years. Creffeild was knighted by Queen Anne in 1713, having presented her with an address of thanks from the town's Corporation on the conclusion of the peace of Utrecht earlier that year. In 1684 he married Rachel, daughter of George Tayspill; Rachel is now best remembered in Colchester for making a bequest to the poor of Trinity Parish. Though they had five children, only one survived to bear children: his second son, another Ralph Creffeild, born in 1687. Ralph predeceased his father, dying in 1723; consequently the estate jumped him and proceeded to his son Peter Creffield.

Creffeild himself died on 22 June 1732, aged 79. He was buried in St. Nicholas Church. His estate was described in the Ipswich Gazette for 5 July 1735, as "a very good house with coach-houses, stables, granaries, yards, gardens, rishponds and about 40 acres of arable land." In addition to his houses in Colchester and Ardleigh, he held East Mersea Hall, eleven messuages, three gardens, three cottages and over 1,200 acres (4.9 km2) of land, incorporating Ardleigh, East Mersea, Elmstead, Frating, Great and Little Birch, Layer de la Haye, Layer Breton and Feering.

Simon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt

Simon Harcourt, 1st Viscount Harcourt, of Stanton Harcourt, Oxfordshire, PC (December 1661 – 23 July or 28 December 1727) was Queen Anne's Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. He was her solicitor-general and her commissioner for arranging the union with Scotland. He took part in the negotiations preceding the Peace of Utrecht.

Statue of Queen Anne, St Paul's Churchyard

A statue of Queen Anne is installed in the forecourt outside the west front of St Paul's Cathedral, in London, United Kingdom. It became a Grade II listed building in 1972.

Treaty of The Hague (1720)

The Treaty of The Hague (also known as the Treaty of Den Haag) was signed on 17 February 1720. The treaty ended the War of the Quadruple Alliance, a conflict that arose between King Philip V of Spain and an alliance of Great Britain, France, Austria and the Dutch Republic.

In 1700, the will of the childless King Charles II of Spain left Spain and the entire Spanish empire to the grandson of King Louis XIV of France, Philip d'Anjou, who was proclaimed King Philip V of Spain. As a result, England, The Dutch Republic, and Austria declared war on France and Spain in 1702 to replace the Bourbon Philip with a Habsburg candidate, the Archduke Charles. When Charles' elder brother, Emperor Joseph I, died in 1711, Charles succeeded him as Charles VI, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

This War of the Spanish Succession ended in 1713–14 with the series of agreements known as the Peace of Utrecht. This treaty divided the Spanish inheritance between Austria and Spain to create a balance of power in Europe, but both Austria and Spain objected to some of the terms. As a result, Spain attempted to seize some of the former Spanish territories that the Utrecht agreement had allotted to Austria. In 1716, France and Britain had already formed an alliance, and in light of Spanish ambitions in 1718, the Quadruple Alliance was formed with Britain, France, the Dutch Republic, and Austria. They were allied in order to prevent Spain’s attempt to deny the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, which had been signed by those who had participated in the War of Spanish Succession.

Philip the V was married to Queen Elizabeth Farnese of Parma. Farnese's chief advisor, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, pressured Philip V to seize Sicily and Sardinia, territories that had been assigned to Savoy and Austria, respectively, by the Treaty of Utrecht.

In the Treaty of The Hague, Philip agreed to abandon his Italian claims, but won the assurance from Austria that the Duchy of Parma would be ceded to his son, Charles, upon the extinction of the Farnese line. This came to pass in the Treaty of Vienna, but Philip broke the treaty during the War of the Polish Succession when Spanish forces invaded Sicily.

The British fleet, as part of the Quadruple Alliance, traveled with Austrian troops to Sicily while French forces were occupying Spain. Charles VI got Sicily from Savoy in exchange for his Sardinian holdings. The Treaty of The Hague solved these conflicts by forcing Philip to give back his holdings in both Sicily and Sardinia.

In another provision of the Treaty of The Hague, Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy agreed to exchange Sicily with Austria, for the island of Sardinia, after which he was known as the King of Sardinia.

Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate

Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate is the common name for a sacred choral composition in two parts, written by George Frideric Handel to celebrate the Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, ending the War of the Spanish Succession. He composed a Te Deum, HWV 278, and a Jubilate Deo (Psalm 100), HWV 279. The combination of the two texts in English follows earlier models. The official premiere of the work was on 13 July 1713 in a service in St Paul's Cathedral in London.

War of the Quadruple Alliance

The War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718-1720) was caused by Spanish attempts to regain territorial losses in Italy agreed in the 1713 Peace of Utrecht. Spain recaptured Sardinia in 1717 without opposition but when followed by landing on Sicily in July 1718, it led to the formation of the Quadruple Alliance on 2 August 1718, comprising Britain, France, Emperor Charles VI and the Dutch Republic.

The war was primarily conducted in Italy, with minor engagements in the Americas and Northern Europe; It was ended by the Treaty of The Hague in 1720, which restored the position prior to 1717 but with Savoy and Austria exchanging Sardinia and Sicily.

War of the Spanish Succession

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power.

Charles left an undivided Monarchy of Spain to Louis XIV's grandson Philip, who was proclaimed King of Spain on 16 November 1700. Disputes over separation of the Spanish and French crowns and commercial rights led to war in 1701 between the Bourbons of France and Spain and the Grand Alliance, whose candidate was Archduke Charles, younger son of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.By the end of 1706, Allied victories in Italy and the Low Countries forced the French back within their borders but they were unable to make a decisive breakthrough. Control of the sea allowed the Allies to conduct successful offensives in Spain, but lack of popular support for Archduke Charles meant they could not hold territory outside the coastal areas.

Conflict extended to European colonies in North America, where it is known as Queen Anne's War, the West Indies as well as minor struggles in Colonial India. Related conflicts include Rákóczi's War of Independence in Hungary, funded by France and the 1704–1710 Camisard rebellion in South-East France, funded by Britain.

When his elder brother Joseph died in 1711, Charles succeeded him as Emperor, undermining the primary driver behind the war, which was to prevent Spain being united with either France or Austria. The 1710 British election returned a new government committed to ending it and with the Allied war effort now dependent on British financing, this eventually forced the others to make peace. The war ended with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, followed in 1714 by the treaties of Rastatt and Baden.

In return for confirmation as King of Spain, Philip V renounced his place in the line of succession to the French throne, both for himself and his descendants; Spain retained the bulk of its possessions outside Europe, while its territories in Italy and the Netherlands were divided between Austria, Britain and Savoy. The Dutch Republic was granted its Barrier Fortresses, while France acknowledged the Protestant succession in Britain and agreed to end support for the Stuart exiles.

In the longer term, the commercial provisions of Utrecht confirmed Britain's status as the leading European maritime and commercial power, while the Dutch lost their position as the pre-eminent economic power in Asia and the war marked their decline as a first-rank power. Other long-term impacts include the creation of a centralised Spanish state and the acceleration of the break-up of the Holy Roman Empire into larger and more powerful German principalities.

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