Pea galaxy

A Pea galaxy, also referred to as a Pea or Green Pea, might be a type of Luminous Blue Compact Galaxy which is undergoing very high rates of star formation.[1] Pea galaxies are so-named because of their small size and greenish appearance in the images taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).

Pea Galaxies were first discovered in 2007 by the volunteer citizen scientists within the forum section of the online astronomy project Galaxy Zoo (GZ), part of the Zooniverse web portal.[2][3][4]

Cardamone Peas
Galaxy Zoo Green Peas
Hubble Peas Ed
Three Hubble Space Telescope pictures of Green Peas


The Pea galaxies, also known as Green Peas (GPs), are compact oxygen-rich emission line galaxy that were discovered at redshift between z = 0.112 and 0.360.[1] These low-mass galaxies have an upper size limit generally no bigger than 16,300 light-years (5,000 pc) across, and typically they reside in environments less than two-thirds the density of normal galaxy environments.[1] An average GP has a redshift of z = 0.258, a mass of ~3,200 million M (~3,200 million solar masses), a star formation rate of ~10 M/yr (~10 solar masses a year), an [O III] equivalent width of 69.4 nm and a low metallicity.[1][5] A GP is purely star-forming, rather than having an Active galactic nucleus. They have a strong emission line at the [OIII] wavelength of 500.7 nm. [OIII], O++ or doubly ionized oxygen, is a Forbidden mechanism of the visible spectrum and is only possible at very low density.[1][6] When the entire photometric SDSS catalogue was searched, 40,222 objects were returned, which leads to the conclusion the GPs are rare objects.[1]

GPs are the least massive and most actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe.[7] "These galaxies would have been normal in the early Universe, but we just don’t see such active galaxies today", said Kevin Schawinski. "Understanding the Green Peas may tell us something about how stars were formed in the early Universe and how galaxies evolve".[6]

GPs exist at a time when the Universe was three-quarters of its present age and so are clues as to how Galaxy formation and evolution took place in the early Universe.[8] With the publication of Amorin's GTC paper in February 2012, it is now thought that GPs might be old galaxies having formed most of their stellar mass several billion years ago. Old stars have been spectroscopically confirmed in one of the three galaxies in the study by the presence of Magnesium.[9]

GP J1219 NearUV HST
A Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Near-UV image of Pea galaxy GP_J1219.

In January 2016, a study was published in the journal Nature identifying J0925+1403 as a Lyman continuum photons (LyC) 'leaker' with an escape fraction of ~8% (see section below).[10] A follow-up study using the same Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data identifies four more LyC leakers, described as GPs.[11] In 2014-15, two separate sources identified two other GPs to be likely LyC leaking candidates (J1219 and J0815), suggesting that these two GPs are also low-redshift analogs of high-redshift Lyman-alpha and LyC leakers.[7][12][13] Finding local LyC leakers is crucial to theories about the early universe and reionization.[12][13] More details here:Izotov et al. 2016

The image to the right shows Pea galaxy GP_J1219.[12] This was observed in 2014 by a HST team whose Principal Investigator was Alaina Henry, using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Near Ultraviolet channel.[14] The scale bar in the image shows 1 arc second (1"), which corresponds to ~10,750 light years at the distance of 2.69 billion light years for GP_J1219. When using the COS Multi-Anode Micro-channel Array, in NUV imaging mode, the detector plate scale is ~40 pixels per arcsecond (0.0235 arcseconds per pixel).[15]

History of discovery

Years 2007 to 2010

Galaxy Zoo (GZ) is a project online since July 2007 which seeks to classify up to one million galaxies.[16][17] On July 28, 2007, two days after the start of the Galaxy Zoo Internet forum, citizen scientist 'Nightblizzard' posted two green objects thought to be galaxies.[4] A discussion, or thread, was started on this forum by Hanny Van Arkel on the 12th of August 2007 called "Give peas a chance" in which various green objects were posted.[4] This thread started humorously, as the name is a word play of the title of the John Lennon song "Give Peace a Chance", but by December 2007, it had become clear that some of these unusual objects were a distinct group of galaxies. These "Pea galaxies" appear in the SDSS as unresolved green images. This is because the Peas have a very bright, or powerful, Spectral line in their spectra for highly-ionized oxygen, which in SDSS color composites increases the luminosity, or brightness, of the "r" color band with respect to the two other color bands "g" and "i". The "r" color band shows as green in SDSS images.[1][18] Enthusiasts, calling themselves the "Peas Corps" (another humorous play on the Peace Corps), collected over a hundred of these Peas, which were eventually placed together into a dedicated discussion thread started by Carolin Cardamone in July 2008. The collection, once refined, provided values that could be used in a systematic computer search of the GZ database of one million objects, which eventually resulted in a sample of 251 Pea galaxies, also known as Green Peas (GPs).

In November 2009, authors C. Cardamone, Kevin Schawinski, M. Sarzi, S. Bamford, N. Bennert, C. Urry, Chris Lintott, W. Keel and 9 others published a paper in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society titled "Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: Discovery of A Class of Compact Extremely Star-Forming Galaxies".[1] Within this paper, 10 Galaxy Zoo volunteers are acknowledged as having made a particularly significant contribution. They are: Elisabeth Baeten, Gemma Coughlin, Dan Goldstein, Brian Legg, Mark McCallum, Christian Manteuffel, Richard Nowell, Richard Proctor, Alice Sheppard and Hanny Van Arkel. They are thanked for "giving Peas a chance". Citations for 2009MNRAS.399.1191C are available from the SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System.[19] More details here:Cardamone 2009 Physics

It would be wrong to assume that the 80 GPs were all new discoveries. Out of the 80 original, 46 GPs have previous citations dated before November 2009 in the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. The original 80 GPs were part of a sample from SDSS data-release 7 (DR7), but did not include galaxies from other sources. Some of these other sources did include objects that might well have been classed as GPs if they were in the SDSS sample. One example of a paper that demonstrates this is: In April 2009, authors J. J. Salzer, A. L. Williams and C. Gronwall published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal Letters titled "A Population of Metal-Poor Galaxies with ~L* Luminosities at Intermediate Redshifts".[20] In this paper, "new spectroscopy and metallicity estimates for a sample of 15 star-forming galaxies with redshifts in the range 0.29 – 0.42" were presented. These objects were selected using the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS).[21] Certainly 3 of these 15 when viewed as objects in SDSS are green (KISSR 1516, KISSR 2042 and KISSRx 467). Indeed, quoting from Salzer et al. 2009, section 4.1, it reads "A New Class of Galaxy? Given the large number of studies of metal abundances in galaxies with intermediate and high redshift mentioned in the Introduction, it may seem odd that systems similar to those described here have not been recognized previously."[20]

In June 2010, authors R. Amorin, E. Perez-Montero and J. Vilchez published a paper in The Astrophysical Journal Letters titled "On the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances and the evolution of the "green pea" galaxies".[5] In it they explore issues concerning the metallicity of 79 GPs, disputing the original findings in Cardamone et al. They conclude, "arguing that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss drive by supernova winds may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties".[5] More details here:Two papers by Amorin


In February 2011, authors Y. Izotov, N. Guseva and T. Thuan published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal titled "Green Pea Galaxies and Cohorts: Luminous Compact Emission-line Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey".[22] They find that the 80 GPs are not a rare class of galaxies on their own, but rather a subset of a class known as 'Luminous Compact Galaxies' (LCGs), of which there are 803.[22] More details here:Luminous Compact Galaxies

In November 2011, authors Y. Izotov, N. Guseva, K. Fricke and C. Henkel published a paper in Astronomy and Astrophysics titled 'Star-forming galaxies with hot dust emission in the SDSS discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)'.[23] In this paper, they find four galaxies that have very red colours in the wavelength range 3.4 micrometres (W1) and 4.6 micrometres (W2). This implies that the dust in these galaxies is at temperatures up to 1000K. These four galaxies are GPs and more than double the number of known galaxies with these characteristics.[23]


In January 2012, authors R. Amorin, R. Perez-Montero and J.Vilchez published a 'Conference proceeding' titled "Unveiling the Nature of the "Green Pea" galaxies".[24] In this publication, they announce that they have conducted a set of observations using the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the Gran Telescopio Canarias, and that there is a forthcoming paper about their research. These observations "will provide new insights on the evolutionary state of the Green Peas. In particular, we will be able to see whether the Green Peas show an extended, old stellar population underlying the young starbursts, like those typically dominant in terms of stellar mass in most Blue Compact Galaxies".[24] More details here: Two papers by Amorin

In January 2012, authors L. Pilyugin, J. Vilchez, L. Mattsson and T. Thuan published a paper in the MNRAS titled: "Abundance determination from global emission-line SDSS spectra: exploring objects with high N/O ratios".[25] In it they compare the oxygen and nitrogen abundances derived from global emission-line SDSS spectra of galaxies using (1) the electron temperature method and (2) two recent strong line calibrations: the O/N and N/S calibrations.[25] Three sets of objects were compared: composite hydrogen-rich nebula, 281 SDSS galaxies and a sample of GPs with detectable [OIII]-4363 auroral lines.[25] Among the questions surrounding the GPs are how much nebulae influence their spectra and results. Through comparisons of the three objects using proven methodology and analysis of metallicity, they conclude that "the high nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios derived in some Green Pea galaxies may be caused by the fact that their SDSS spectra are spectra of composite nebulae made up of several components with different physical properties (such as metallicity). However, for the hottest Green Pea galaxies, which appear to be dwarf galaxies, this explanation does not seem to be plausible."[25]

In January 2012, author S. Hawley published a paper in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific titled "Abundances in "Green Pea" Star-forming Galaxies".[26] In this paper, former NASA astronaut Steven Hawley compares the results from previous GP papers regarding their metallicities. Hawley compares different ways of calibrating and interpreting the various results, mainly from Cardamone et al. and Amorin et al. but some from Izotov et al., and suggests why the various discrepancies between these papers' findings might be. He also considers such details as the contribution of Wolf–Rayet stars to the gas ionization, and which sets of emission lines give the most accurate results for these galaxies. He ends by writing: "The calibrations derived from the Green Peas differ from those commonly utilized and would be useful if star-forming galaxies like the Green Peas with extremely hot ionizing sources are found to be more common."[26]

In February 2012, authors S. Chakraborti, N. Yadav, C. Cardamone and A. Ray published a paper in The Astrophysical Journal Letters titled 'Radio Detection of Green Peas: Implications for Magnetic Fields in Young Galaxies'.[27] In this paper, magnetism studies using new data from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope describe various observations based around the GPs. They show that the three "very young" starburst galaxies that were studied have magnetic fields larger than the Milky Way. This is at odds with the current understanding that galaxies build up their magnetic properties over time.[27] More details here:Radio detection

In April 2012, authors R. Amorin, E. Perez-Montero, J. Vilchez and P. Papaderos published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal titled "The Star Formation History and Metal Content of the 'Green Peas'. New Detailed GTC-OSIRIS spectrophotometry of Three Galaxies".[9] They give the results for the deep broad-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for 3 GPs that had been observed using the OSIRIS instrument, mounted on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory.[9] More details here:GTC-OSIRIS

In August 2012, authors R. Amorín, J. Vílchez, G. Hägele, V. Firpo, E. Pérez-Montero and P. Papaderos published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal Letters titled "Complex gas kinematics in compact, rapidly assembling star-forming galaxies".[28] Using the ISIS spectrograph on the William Herschel Telescope, they publish results of the high-quality spectra that they took of six galaxies, five of which are GPs. After studying the Hydrogen alpha emission lines (ELs) in the spectra of all six, it is shown that these ELs are made up of multiple lines, meaning that the GPs have several chunks of gas and stars moving at large velocities relative to each other. These ELs also show that the GPs are effectively a 'turbulent mess', with parts (or clumps) moving at speeds of over 500 km/s (five hundred km/s) relative to each other.[28]


In January 2013, authors S. Parnovsky, I. Izotova and Y. Izotov published a paper in Astrophysics and Space Science titled "H alpha and UV luminosities and star formation rates in a large sample of luminous compact galaxies".[29] In it, they present a statistical study of the star formation rates (SFR) derived from the GALEX observations in the Ultraviolet continuum and in the H alpha emission line for a sample of ~800 luminous compact galaxies (LCGs). Within the larger set of LCGs, including the GPs, SFR of up to ~110 M/yr (~110 solar masses a year) are found, as well as estimates of the ages of the starbursts.[29]

In April 2013, authors A. Jaskot and M. Oey published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal titled "The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Radiation in the "Green Pea" Galaxies".[30] Six "extreme" GPs are studied. Using these, the authors endeavour to narrow down the list of possibilities about what is producing the radiation and the substantial amounts of high-energy photon that might be escaping from the GPs.[30] Following on from this paper, observations on the Hubble Space Telescope, totalling 24 orbits, were taken in December 2013.[31] The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Advanced Camera for Surveys were used on four of the "extreme" GPs. More details here:Two papers by Jaskot and Oey


In January 2014, authors Y. Izotov, N. Guseva, K. Fricke and C. Henkel published a paper in Astronomy & Astrophysics entitled "Multi-wavelength study of 14000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey".[32] In it, they use a variety of sources to demonstrate: "that the emission emerging from young star-forming regions is the dominant dust-heating source for temperatures to several hundred degrees in the sample star-forming galaxies".[32] The first source of data is SDSS from which 14,610 spectra with strong emission lines are selected. These 14,610 spectra were then cross-identified with sources from photometric sky surveys in other wavelength ranges. Those are: 1)GALEX for the ultraviolet; 2)the 2MASS survey for the near-infrared; 3)the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All-Sky Source Catalog for infrared at differing wavelengths; 4)the IRAS survey for the far-infrared and the 5)NVSS Survey at radio-wavelengths. Only a small fraction of the SDSS objects were detected in the last two surveys. Among the results is a list of twenty galaxies with the highest magnitudes which have hot dust of several hundred degrees. Of these twenty, all could be classified as GPs and/or LCGs.[32] Also among the results, the luminosity is obtained in the sample galaxies in a wide wavelength range. At the highest luminosities, the sample galaxies had luminosites approaching those of high-redshift Lyman-break galaxy.[32]

In January 2014, authors A. Jaskot, M. Oey, J. Salzer, A. Van Sistine and M. Haynes gave a presentation titled "Neutral Gas and Low-Redshift Starbursts: From Infall to Ionization" to the American Astronomical Society at their meeting #223.[33] The presentation included data from The Arecibo Observatory Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA). The authors analyzed the optical spectra of the GPs and concluded "While the ALFALFA survey demonstrates the role of external processes in triggering starbursts, the Green Peas show that starbursts' radiation can escape to affect their external environment", finding "that the Peas are likely optically thin to Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation."[33]

In June 2014, authors A. Jaskot and M. Oey published a conference report titled "The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Photons in the Green Pea Galaxies".[34] This appears in "Massive Young Star Clusters Near and Far: From the Milky Way to Reionization", based on the 2013 Guillermo Haro Conference. More details here:Two papers by Jaskot and Oey


In May 2015, authors A. Henry, C. Scarlata, C. L. Martin and D. Erb published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal entitled, "Lyα Emission from Green Peas: The Role of Circumgalactic Gas Density, Covering, and Kinematics".[35] In this paper, ten Green Peas were studied in the ultraviolet, using high resolution spectroscopy with the Hubble Space Telescope using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. This study showed, for the first time, that Green Peas have strong Lyα emission much like distant, high-redshift galaxies observed in a younger universe.[35] Henry et al. explored the physical mechanisms that determine how Lyα escapes from the Green Peas, and concluded that variations in the neutral hydrogen column density were the most important factor.[35] More details here: Lyman Alpha Emission from Green Peas.


In May 2016, author Miranda C. P. Straub published a research paper in the open access journal Citizen Science: Theory and Practice called 'Giving Citizen Scientists a Chance: A Study of Volunteer-led Scientific Discovery'.[3] The abstract states: "The discovery of a class of galaxies called Green Peas provides an example of scientific work done by volunteers. This unique situation arose out of a science crowdsourcing website called Galaxy Zoo."[3]

In April 2016, Yang et al. published "Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyα Escape."[36] Archival Lyman-alpha spectra of 12 GPs that have been observed with the HST/COS were analysed and modelled with radiative transfer models. The dependence of Lyman-alpha (LyA) escape fractions on various properties were explored. All 12 GPs show LyA lines in emission, with a LyA equivalent width distribution similar to high-redshift emitters.[36] Among the findings are that the LyA escape fraction depends strongly on metallicity and moderately on dust extinction. The papers results suggest that low H1 column density and low metallicity are essential for LyA escape. "In conclusion, GPs provide an unmatched opportunity to study LyA escape in LyA Emitters."[36]


X-Ray Observations of Green Pea Analogs by Brorby et al
Combined images of J0842+1150 and SHOC 486 using Chandra x-ray and Hubble Space Telescope data. From Brorby and Kaaret AAS#229 2017

In a presentation to the American Astronomical Society Meeting #229 in January 2017, Matt Brorby and Philip Kaaret describe the observations of two GPs and their x-ray emission.[37] Using both space telescope programs Chandra GO: 16400764 and Hubble GO: 13940, they examine Luminous Compact Galaxies, both GPs, J0842+1150 and SHOC 486. They conclude: 1) These are the first x-ray observations of GPs.[37] 2) The two GPs studied are the first test of Lx-SFR-Z planar relation and that they are consistent with this.[37] 3) Low metallicity galaxies exhibit enhanced x-ray emission relative to normal metallicity starforming galaxies.[37] 4) GPs are useful for predictions of X-ray output in the early universe.[37]

In March 2017, Yang et al. published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal called: "Lyα and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies".[38] The authors studied the Lyman-alpha (LyA) escape in a statistical sample of 43 GPs with HST/COS LyA spectra, taken from 6 HST programs.[38] Their conclusions include: 1) Using GPs that cover the whole ranges of dust extinction and metallicity, they find about two-thirds are strong LyA emitters. This confirms that GPs generally are "the best analogs of high-z (redshift) Lyman-alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the nearby universe."[38] The LyA escape fractions show anti-correlations with a few LyA kinematic features. 3) The authors find many correlations regarding the dependence of LyA escape on galactic properties, such as dust extinction and metallicity.[38]) The single shell radiative transfer model can reproduce most LyA profiles of GPs.[38]) An empirical linear relation between the LyA escape fraction, dust extinction and the LyA red peak velocity.[38]

In August 2017, Yang et al. published a study in the Astrophysical Journal called: "Lyα profile, dust, and prediction of Lyα escape fraction in Green Pea Galaxies".[39] The authors state that GPs are nearby analogues of high redshift Lyman-alpha (LyA)- emitting galaxies.[39] Using spectral data from the HST-COS MAST archive, 24 GPs were studied for their LyA escape and the spatial profiles of LyA and UV continuum emissions.[39] Results include: 1) Having compared LyA and UV sizes from the 2D spectra and 1D spatial profiles, it is found that most GPs show more extended LyA emission than the UV continuum. 2) 8 GPs had their spatial profiles of LyA photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities compared. 3) The LyA escape fraction was compared with the size ration of LyA to UV. It was found that GPs that have LyA escape fractions greater than 10% "tend to have more compact LyA morphology".[39]

In October 2017, Lofthouse et al. published a study in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society named:[40] The authors used integral field spectroscopy, from the SWIFT and Palm 3K instruments, to perform a spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of four GPs, numbered 1,2,4 and 5.[40] Among the results are that GPs 1 & 2 are rotationally-supported (they have a rotating centre), while GPs 4 & 5 are dispersion-dominated systems.[40] GPs 1 & 2 show morphologies indicative of ongoing or mergers. However, GPs 4 & 5 show no signs of recent interactions and have similar star-forming rates. This indicates mergers are not "a necessary requirement for driving the high star formation in these types of galaxies".[40]

In December 2017, authors Jaskot, Oey, Scarlata and Dowd published a paper in the Astrophysical Journal Letters titled:"Kinematics and Optical Depth in the Green Peas: Suppressed Superwinds in Candidate LyC Emitters".[41] Within the paper, they say that current thinking describes how superwinds clear neutral gas away from young starburst galaxies, which in turn regulates the escape of Lyman Continuum photons from star-forming galaxies. Models predict however that in the most extreme compact starbursts, those superwinds may not launch. The authors explore the role of outflows in generating low optical depth in GPs, using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope.[41] They compare the kinematics of ultraviolet absorption and with Lyman alpha escape fraction, Lyman alpha peak separation or low-ionisation absorption. The most extreme GPs show the slowest velocities, which "are consistent with models for suppressed superwinds, which suggests that outflows may not be the only cause of LyC escape from galaxies."[41]

J0925+1403 and LyC Leakage

In January 2016, a letter was published in the journal Nature called: "Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy" by authors: Y.I. Izotov, I. Orlitová, D. Schaerer, T.X. Thuan, A. Verhamme, N.G. Guseva & G. Worseck.[10] The abstract states: "One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionisation of the Universe after the cosmic Dark Ages".[10] It also states: "Here we present far-ultraviolet observations of a nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy, J0925+1403, selected for its compactness and high excitation... The galaxy is 'leaking' ionising radiation, with an escape fraction of 7.8%."[10] These levels of radiation are thought to be similar to those of the first galaxies in the universe, which emerged in a time known as reionization. These findings have led the research team to conclude that J0925 can ionise intergalactic material up to 40 times its own stellar mass.[10] The study was a result of observations carried out using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope.[42]

GP J0925 is thought to be similar to the most distant, and thus earliest, galaxies in the universe and has been shown to 'leak' LyC.[43][44][45] It is about 3 billion light years away (redshift z=0.301), or approximately 75% of the current age of the universe.[10][45] Co-author Trinh Thuan said in a statement: "The finding is significant because it gives us a good place to look for probing the reionization phenomenon, which took place early in the formation of the universe that became the universe we have today".[45] He also stated: "As we make additional observations using Hubble, we expect to gain a much better understanding of the way photons are ejected from this type of galaxy, and the specific galaxy types driving cosmic reionization."[45] He concludes: "These are crucial observations in the process of stepping back in time to the early universe."[45]

LyC Detection in J1152+3400, J1333+6246, J1442-0209, J1503+3644

In October 2016, a study was published in the MNRAS entitled: "Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies". Its authors are Y. I. Izotov, D. Schaerer, T. X. Thuan, G. Worseck, N. G. Guseva, I. Orlitova, A. Verhamme.[11] The abstract states: "Following our first detection reported in Izotov et al. (2016) [as above], we present the detection of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of four other compact star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)".

This study contains the methods and findings from Izotov et al. 2016 (a) which concentrated on one galaxy, whereas the above paper, Izotov et al. 2016 (b) has findings for four galaxies, all of which have LyC leakage. When compared with other known local galaxies that leak LyC, as listed in this article, Izotov et al. 2016 (a & b) doubles the numbers of known leakers.[11][10]

Lyman Alpha Emission from Green Peas

Greenpea lya
GP Spectra indicating the resonant scattering of Lyα photons.

In May 2015, authors Alaina Henry, Claudia Scarlata, Crystal Martin, and Dawn Erb published a paper titled: "Lyα Emission from Green Peas: The Role of Circumgalactic Gas Density, Covering, and Kinematics".[35] The motivation of this work was to understand why some galaxies have Lyα emission, while others don't. A host of physical conditions in galaxies regulate the output of this spectral feature; hence, understanding its emission is fundamentally important for understanding how galaxies form and how they impact their intergalactic surroundings.

Henry et al. hypothesized that, since the GPs seem more like galaxies at redshift=z>2, and Lyα is common at these redshifts, that Lyα would be common in the GPs as well. Observations with the HST using the COS, as in 'Description', proved this to be true for a sample of 10 GPs.[35] The spectra, shown here to the right, indicate resonant scattering of Lyα photons that are emitted near zero velocity. The wealth of data existing on the GPs, combined with the COS spectra, allowed Henry et al. to explore the physical mechanisms that regulate the Lyα output. These authors concluded that variations in the amount of neutral hydrogen gas, which scatters Lyα photons, are the cause of a factor of 10 difference in Lyα output in their sample.[35]

The spectrum of GP_J1219 (an image of which is in 'Description') shows its very strong flux measurements when compared to other 9 GPs.[35] Indeed, only GP_J1214 has a value approaching that of J1219. Note also the double peaks in some GPs and the velocity values of the emissions, indicating the inflow and outflow of matter in the GPs.[35]

Two papers by A. Jaskot and M.S. Oey

In April 2013, authors A. Jaskot and M. Oey published a paper in The Astrophysical Journal titled "The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Radiation in the "Green Pea" Galaxies".[30] Six "extreme" GPs are studied. Using these, they endeavour to narrow down the list of possibilities about what is producing the UV-radiation and the substantial amounts of high-energy photon that might be escaping from the GPs.[30] Through trying to observe these photons in nearby galaxies such as the GPs, our understanding of how galaxies behaved in the early Universe might well be revolutionised. It is reported that the GPs are exciting candidates to help astronomers understand a major milestone in the development of the cosmos 13 billion years ago, during the epoch of reionization.[46]

In February 2014, authors A. Jaskot and M. Oey published a conference report titled "The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Photons in the Green Pea Galaxies".[34] This will appear in "Massive Young Star Clusters Near and Far: From the Milky Way to Reionization", based on the 2013 Guillermo Haro Conference. In the publication, Jaskot and Oey write: "We are currently analyzing observations from IMACS and MagE on the Magellan Telescopes and COS and ACS on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to distinguish between WR (Wolf-Rayet star) and the shock ionization scenarios and confirm the GPs’ optical depths.[34] The absence of WR features in the deeper IMACS spectra tentatively supports the shock scenario, although the detection limits do not yet definitively rule out the WR photoionization hypothesis."[34]

Physics from the Cardamone 2009 paper

Pea Star Formation
Graph showing specific star formation rate plotted against galaxy mass, with the GPs (purple diamonds) and the Galaxy Zoo Merger Sample (black points)

At the time this paper was published, only five Green Peas (GPs) had been imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Three of these images reveal GPs to be made up of bright clumps of star formation and low surface density features indicative of recent or ongoing galaxy mergers.[1] These three HST images were imaged as part of a study of local ultraviolet (UV-luminous) galaxies in 2005.[47] Major mergers are frequently sites of active star-formation and to the right a graph is shown that plots specific star formation rate (SFR / Galaxy Mass) against galaxy mass.[48] In this graph, the GPs are compared to the 3003 mergers from the Galaxy Zoo Merger Sample (GZMS).[49] It shows that the GPs have low masses typical of dwarf galaxy and much higher star-forming rates (SFR) when compared to the GZMS. The black, dashed line shows a constant SFR of 10 M/yr (~10 solar masses). Most GPs have a SFR between 3 and 30 M/yr (between ~3 and ~30 solar masses).

PeaAGN Graph ed
Graph showing 103 GPs plotted as Starburst galaxies (red stars), transition objects (green crosses) or A.G.N. (blue diamonds)

GPs are rare. Of the one million objects that make up GZ's image bank, only 251 GPs were found. After having to discard 148 of these 251 because of atmospheric contamination of their Stellar spectra, the 103 that were left, with the highest signal-to-noise ratio, were analyzed further using the classic emission line diagnostic by Baldwin, Phillips and Terlevich which separates starbursts and active galactic nuclei.[50] 80 were found to be starburst galaxies.[1] The graph to the left classifies 103 narrow-line GPs (all with SNR ≥ 3 in the emission lines) as 10 active galactic nuclei (blue diamonds), 13 transition objects (green crosses) and 80 starbursts (red stars). The solid line is: Kewley et al. (2001) maximal starburst contribution (labelled Ke01).[51][52] The dashed line is: Kauffmann et al. (2003) separating purely star-forming objects from AGN (labelled Ka03).[53]

Peas Equiv Width ed
Histogram showing [OIII] Eq.Wth. of 10,000 comparison galaxies (red); 215 UV-luminous Galaxies (blue); GPs (green)

GPs have a strong [OIII] emission line when compared to the rest of their spectral continuum. In a SDSS spectrum, this shows up as a large peak with [OIII] at the top.[54] The wavelength of [OIII] (500.7 nm) was chosen to determine the luminosities of the GPs using Equivalent width (Eq.Wth.). The histogram on the right shows on the horizontal scale the Eq.Wth. of a comparison of 10,000 normal galaxies (marked red), UV-luminous Galaxies (marked blue) and GPs (marked green).[1] As can be seen from the histogram, the Eq.Wth. of the GPs is much larger than normal for even prolific starburst galaxies such as UV-luminous Galaxies.[55]

Within the Cardamone et al. paper, comparisons are made with other compact galaxies, namely Blue Compact Dwarfs Galaxies and UV-luminous Galaxies, at local and much higher distances.[56] The findings show that GPs form a different class of galaxies than Ultra Blue Compact Dwarfs, but may be similar to the most luminous members of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy category.[57] The GPs are also similar to UV-luminous high redshift galaxies such as Lyman-break Galaxies and Lyman-alpha emitter.[58][59][60] It is concluded that if the underlying processes occurring in the GPs are similar to that found in the UV-luminous high redshift galaxies, the GPs may be the last remnants of a mode of star formation common in the early Universe.[1][61][62]

Peas Reddening ed
Histogram showing reddening values for GPs

GPs have low interstellar reddening values, as shown in the histogram on the right, with nearly all GPs having E(B-V) ≤ 0.25. The distribution shown indicates that the line-emitting regions of star-forming GPs are not highly reddened, particularly when compared to more typical star-forming or starburst galaxies.[1] This low reddening combined with very high UV luminosity is rare in galaxies in the local Universe and is more typically found in galaxies at higher redshifts.[63]

Cardamone et al. describe GPs as having a low metallicity, but that the oxygen present is highly ionized. The average GP has a metallicity of log[O/H]+12~8.69, which is solar or sub-solar, depending on which set of standard values is used.[1][64][65][66][67] Although the GPs are in general consistent with the mass-metallicity relation, they depart from it at the highest mass end and thus do not follow the trend. GPs have a range of masses, but a more uniform metallicity than the sample compared against.[68] These metallicities are common in low mass galaxies such as Peas.[1]

GANDALF 587724241767825591 ed
An example of a GP spectrum made using GANDALF.

As well as the optical images from the SDSS, measurements from the GALEX survey were used to determine the ultraviolet values.[69] This survey is well matched in depth and area, and 139 of the sampled 251 GPs are found in GALEX Release 4 (G.R.4).[70] For the 56 of the 80 star-forming GPs with GALEX detections, the median luminosity is ~30,000 million (~30,000 million solar luminosities).

When compiling the Cardamone paper, spectral classification was made using Gas And Absorption Line Fitting (GANDALF).[1] This sophisticated computer software was programmed by Marc Sarzi, who helped analyze the SDSS spectra.[71]

Analysis of the Cardamone 2009 paper

These values are from Table 4, pages 16–17 of Cardamone 2009 et al., which shows the 80 GPs that have been analysed here.[1] The long 18-digit numbers are the SDSS DR7 reference numbers.

Colour Split 2
r-i vs. g-r color-color diagram for 251 GPs (green crosses), a sample of normal galaxies (red points) and all quasar (purple points)
  Greatest Least Average Nearest to Average
Distance z=0.348
z=0.2583 z=0.261
Mass 1010.48 M
108.55 M
109.48 M 109.48 M
Rate of star-forming 59 M/yr
13.02 M/yr 13 M/yr
Luminosity ([OIII] Eq.Wth.) 238.83 nm
1.2 nm
69.4 nm 67.4 nm
Luminosity (UV) 36.1×1036 W
1.9×1036 W
12.36×1036 W 12.3×1036 W

Color selection was by using the difference in the levels of three Optical filters, in order to capture these color limits: u-r ≤ 2.5 (1), r-i ≤ -0.2 (2), r-z ≤ 0.5 (3), g-r ≥ r-i + 0.5 (4), u-r ≥ 2.5 (r-z) (5).[1] If the diagram on the right (one of two in the paper) is looked at, the effectiveness of this color selection can be seen. The Color-color diagram shows ~100 GPs (green crosses), 10,000 comparison galaxies (red points) and 9,500 comparison quasar (purple stars) at similar redshifts to the GPs. The black lines show how these figures are on the diagram.

Comparing a GP to the Milky Way can be useful when trying to visualize these star-forming rates. An average GP has a mass of ~3,200 million M (~3,200 million solar masses).[1] The Milky Way (MW) is a spiral galaxy and has a mass of ~1,125,000, million M (~1,125,000 million solar masses).[72] So the MW has the mass of ~390 GPs.

Research has shown that the MW converts ~2 M/yr (~2 solar masses per year) worth of interstellar medium into stars.[73] An average GP converts ~10 M/yr (~10 solar masses) of interstellar gas into stars, which is ~5 times the rate of the MW.[1]

One of the original ways of recognizing GPs, before SQL programming was involved, was because of a discrepancy about how the SDSS labels them within Skyserver.[74] Out of the 251 of the original GP sample that were identified by the SDSS spectroscopic pipeline as having galaxy spectra, only 7 were targeted by the SDSS spectral fibre allocation as galaxies i.e. 244 were not.[1][75]

Two Papers by R.Amorin, J.M.Vilchez and E.Perez-Montero

In June 2010, authors R. Amorín, E. Pérez-Montero and J.M. Vílchez published a paper in The Astrophysical Journal letters titled "On the Oxygen and Nitrogen Chemical Abundances and the Evolution of the "Green Pea" Galaxies", which disputes the metallicities calculated in the original Cardamone et al. GPs paper [1][5] Amorin et al. use a different methodology from Cardamone et al. to produce metallicity values more than one fifth (20%) of the previous values (about 20% solar or one fifth solar) for the 80 'starburst' GPs. These mean values are log[O/H]+12~8.05, which shows a clear offset of 0.65dex between the two papers' values. For these 80 GPs, Amorin et al., using a direct method, rather than strong-line methods as used in Cardamone et al., calculate physical properties, as well as oxygen and nitrogen ionic abundances.[76] These metals pollute hydrogen and helium, which make up the majority of the substances present in galaxies. As these metals are produced in Supernova, the older a galaxy is, the more metals it would have. As GPs are in the nearby, or older, Universe, they should have more metals than galaxies at an earlier time.

Nitrogen-to-oxygen vs. oxygen-to-hydrogen abundance ratio
N/O vs. O/H abundance ratio

Amorin et al. find that the amount of metals, including the abundance of nitrogen, are different from normal values and that GPs are not consistent with the mass-metallicity relation, as concluded by Cardamone et al.[1][77] This analysis indicates that GPs can be considered as genuine metal-poor galaxies. They then argue that this oxygen under-abundance is due to a recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss driven by Supernovae winds and that this can explain their findings.[68][78] This further suggests that GPs are likely very short-lived as the intense star formation in them would quickly enrich the gas.[5]

Oxygen-to-hydrogen vs. stellar mass
O/H vs. stellar mass

In May 2011, R.Amorin, J.M.Vilchez and E.Perez-Montero published a conference proceeding paper titled "Unveiling the Nature of the "Green Pea" galaxies".[24] In it they review recent scientific results and announcing a forthcoming paper on their recent observations at the Gran Telescopio Canarias.[24] This paper is also a modified report of a presentation at the Joint European and National Astronomy Meeting (JENAM) 2010.[79] They conclude that GPs are a genuine population of metal-poor, luminous and very compact starburst galaxies. Amongst the data, five graphs illustrate the findings they have made. Amorin et al. use masses calculated by Izotov, rather than by Cardamone.[5][22] The metallicities that Amorin et al. use agree with Izotov's findings, or vice versa, rather than Cardamone's.[5][22]

The first graph (on the left; fig.1 in paper) plots the nitrogen/oxygen vs. oxygen/hydrogen abundance ratio. The 2D histogram of SDSS star forming galaxies is shown in logarithmic scale while the GPs are indicated by circles. This shows that GPs are metal-poor.

Nitrogen-to- oxygen vs. stellar mass
N/O vs. stellar mass

The second graph (on the right; fig.2 in paper) plots O/H vs. stellar mass. The 2D histogram of SDSS SFGs is shown in logarithmic scale and their best likelihood fit is shown by a black solid line. The subset of 62 GPs are indicated by circles and their best linear fit is shown by a dashed line. For comparison we also show the quadratic fit presented in Amorin et al. 2010 for the full sample of 80 GPs. SFGs at z ≥ 2 by Erb et al. are also shown by asterisks for comparison.[5][80]

Oxygen-to-hydrogen vs. B-Band (rest-frame) absolute magnitude
O/H vs. B-band (rest-frame) absolute magnitude

The third graph (on the left; fig.3 in paper) plots N/O vs. stellar mass. Symbols as in fig.1.

Pea Gas Mass Fraction versus Pea Metallicity
Gas Mass Fraction v. Metallicity

The fourth graph (on the right; fig.4 in paper) plots O/H vs. B-band (rest-frame) absolute magnitude. The meaning of symbols is indicated. Distances used in computing (extinction corrected) absolute magnitudes were, in all cases, calculated using spectroscopic redshifts and the same cosmological parameters. The dashed line indicates the fit to the HII galaxies in the Luminosity-Metallicity Relationship (MZR) given by Lee et al. 2004.[81]

The fifth graph (on the left; fig.5 in paper) plots gas mass fraction vs. metallicity. Different lines correspond to closed-box models at different yields, as indicated in the legend. Open and filled circles are GPs which are above and below the fit to their MZR. Diamonds are values for the same Wolf-Rayet galaxies as in Fig. 4.[5]

GTC-OSIRIS Spectrophotometry

In February 2012, authors R. Amorin, E. Perez-Montero, J. Vilchez and P. Papaderos published a paper titled "The star formation history and metal content of the "Green Peas". New detailed GTC-OSIRIS spectrophotometry of three galaxies" in which they presented the findings of observations carried out using the Gran Telescopio Canarias at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory. They gather deep broad-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of 3 GPs using high precision equipment.[9]

Their findings show that the three GPs display relatively low Extinction (astronomy), low oxygen abundances and high nitrogen-to-oxygen ratios.[9] Also reported are the clear signatures of Wolf–Rayet stars, of which a population are found (between ~800 and ~1200).[9] A combination of population and evolutionary synthesis models strongly suggest a formation history dominated by starbursts.[9] These models show that these three GPs currently undergo a major starburst producing between ~4% and ~20% of their stellar mass. However, as these models imply, they are old galaxies having formed most of their stellar mass several billion years ago.[9] The presence of old stars has been spectroscopically verified in one of the three galaxies by the detection of Magnesium.[9] Surface photometry, using data from the Hubble Space Telescope archive, indicates that the three GPs possess an exponential low surface brightness envelope (see Low-surface-brightness galaxy).[9] This suggests that GPs are identifiable with major episodes in the assembly history of local Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies.[9]

The three galaxies are (using SDSS references):[9]

  • 587724199349387411
  • 587729155743875234
  • 587731187273892048

Comparison of Green Peas to Luminous Compact Galaxies

In February 2011, Yuri Izotov, Natalia Guseva and Trinh Thuan published a paper titled "Green Pea Galaxies and Cohorts: Luminous Compact Emission-line Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey", examining the GPs and comparing these to a larger set of 803 Luminous Compact Galaxies (LCGs).[22] They use a different set of selection criteria from Cardamone et al. These are: a) a high extinction-corrected luminosity > 3x10^40 Ergs s^-1 of the hydrogen beta emission line; (see Hydrogen spectral series) b) a high equivalent width greater than 5 nm; c) a strong [OIII] wavelength at the 436.3 nm emission line allowing accurate abundance determination; d) a compact structure on SDSS images; and e) an absence of obvious active galactic nuclei spectroscopic features.[22]

Its conclusions (shortened) are:

  1. The selected galaxies have redshifts between 0.02 and 0.63, a range equal or greater than a factor of 2 when compared to the GPs. They find the properties of LCGs and GPs are similar to Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies. Explaining how the colours of emission-line galaxies change with distance using SDSS, they conclude that GPs are just subsamples within a narrow redshift range of their larger LCG sample.[22]
  2. Although there were no upper limits on the Hydrogen beta luminosities, it was found that there was a 'self-regulating' mechanism which bound the LCGs to a limit of ~3x10^42 Ergs s^-1.[22]
  3. In the [OIII] wavelength 500.7 nm ratio to hydrogen beta vs. [NII] wavelength 658.3 nm ratio to hydrogen alpha, LCGs occupy the region, in the diagnostic diagram, of star-forming galaxies with the highest excitation. However, some active galactic nuclei also lie in this region in the diagnostic diagram.[22]
  4. The oxygen abundances 12 + log O/H in LCGs are in the range 7.6–8.4 with a median value of ~8.11, confirming Amorin et al.'s analysis of a subset of GPs.[5][22] This range of oxygen abundances is typical of nearby lower-luminosity Blue Compact Dwarfs. These results show that the original Cardamone et al. median oxygen abundance of 12 + log O/H = ~8.7 is overestimated, as a different, Empirical evidence method was originally used, rather than the direct method by Amorin et al. and Izotov et al.[1] There is no dependence of oxygen abundance on redshift.
  5. In the luminosity-metallicity diagram (fig. 8 in paper), LCGs are shifted by ~2 magnitudes brighter when compared to nearby emission-line galaxies. LCGs form a common luminosity-metallicity relation, as for the most actively star-forming galaxies. Some LCGs have oxygen abundances and luminosities similar to Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs), despite much lower redshifts, thus enabling the study of LBGs through LCGs.[22]

Radio detection of Green Peas

In February 2012, authors Sayan Chakraborti, Naveen Yadav, Alak Ray and Carolin Cardamone published a paper titled "Radio Detection of Green Peas: Implications for Magnetic Fields in Young Galaxies" which deals with the magnetic properties of the GPs.[27] In it, they describe observations which have produced some unexpected results raising puzzling questions about the origin and evolution of magnetism in young galaxies.[27] The ages are estimated from looking at the star formation that the GPs currently have ongoing and then estimating the age of the most recent starburst. GPs are very young galaxies, with models of the observed stellar populations indicating that they are around 10^8 (one hundred million) years old (1/100th the age of the Milky Way).[27] There is some question as to whether the GPs all started from the same starburst or if multiple starbursts went on (much older stellar populations are hidden as we can't see the light from these).

Using data from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and archive observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), Chakraborti et al. produced a set of results which are based around the VLA FIRST detection of stacked flux from 32 GPs and three 3-hour low frequency observations from the GMRT which targeted the three most promising candidates which had expected fluxes at the milli-Jansky (mJy) level.

Chakraborti et al. find that the three GPs observed by the GMRT have a magnetic field of B~39 μG, and more generally a figure of greater than B~30μG for all the GPs. This is compared to a figure of B~5μG for the Milky Way.[27] The present understanding is of magnetic field growth based on the amplification of seed fields by dynamo theory and its action over a galaxy's lifetime.[27] The observations of GPs challenge that thinking.

Given the high star-forming rates of GPs generally, they are expected to host a large number of Supernovae. Supernovae accelerate electrons to high energies, near to the speed of light, which may then emit synchrotron radiation in radio spectrum frequencies.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x C. Cardamone; K. Schawinski; M. Sarzi; S.P. Bamford; N. Bennert; C.M. Urry; C. Lintott; W.C. Keel; J. Parejko; R.C. Nichol; D. Thomas; D. Andreescu; P. Murray; M.J. Raddick; A. Slosar; A. Szalay; J. Vandenberg (December 2009). "Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: Discovery of A Class of Compact Extremely Star-Forming Galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 399 (3): 1191–1205. arXiv:0907.4155. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.399.1191C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15383.x.
  2. ^ M.J. Raddick; G. Bracey; P.L. Gay; C.J. Lintott; P. Murray; K. Schawinski; A.S. Szalay; J. Vandenberg (2010). "Galaxy Zoo:Exploring the motivations of citizen science volunteers". Astronomy Education Review. 9 (1): 010103. arXiv:0909.2925. Bibcode:2010AEdRv...9a0103R. doi:10.3847/AER2009036.
  3. ^ a b c M.C.P. Straub (20 May 2016). "Giving Citizen Scientists a Chance: A Study of Volunteer-led Scientific Discovery". Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. 1 (1): 5. doi:10.5334/cstp.40.
  4. ^ a b c Nielsen, M. (2011). Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14890-8.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j R. O. Amorín; E. Pérez-Montero; J.M. Vílchez (2010). "On the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances and the evolution of the "green pea" galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 715 (2): L128–L132. arXiv:1004.4910. Bibcode:2010ApJ...715L.128A. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/715/2/L128.
  6. ^ a b "Galaxy Zoo Hunters Help Astronomers Discover Rare 'Green Pea' Galaxies". Yale News. July 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
  7. ^ a b K. Nakajima & M. Ouchi (2014). "Ionization state of inter-stellar medium in galaxies: evolution, SFR-M*-Z dependence, and ionizing photon escape". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 442 (1): 900–916. arXiv:1309.0207. Bibcode:2014MNRAS.442..900N. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu902.
  8. ^ "New Image of Infant Universe reveals era of first stars, age of cosmos, and more". NASA. 2003. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l R. Amorin; E. Perez-Montero; J.M. Vilchez; P.Papaderos (2012). "The star formation history and metal content of the 'Green Peas'. New detailed GTC_OSIRIS spectrophotometry of three galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 749 (2): 185. arXiv:1202.3419. Bibcode:2012ApJ...749..185A. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/749/2/185.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Y.I. Izotov; I. Orlitova; D. Schaerer; T.X. Thuan; A. Verhamme; N.G. Guseva; G. Worseck (2016). "Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy". Nature. 529 (7585): 178–180. arXiv:1601.03068. Bibcode:2016Natur.529..178I. doi:10.1038/nature16456. PMID 26762455.
  11. ^ a b c Y. I. Izotov; D. Schaerer; T. X. Thuan; G. Worseck; N. G. Guseva; I. Orlitova; A. Verhamme (October 2016). "Detection of high Lyman continuum leakage from four low-redshift compact star-forming galaxies". MNRAS. 461 (4): 3683–3701. arXiv:1605.05160. Bibcode:2016MNRAS.461.3683I. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw1205.
  12. ^ a b c A. E. Jaskot & M. S. Oey (2014). "Linking Ly-alpha and Low-Ionization Transitions at Low Optical Depth". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 791 (2): L19. arXiv:1406.4413. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791L..19J. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/791/2/L19.
  13. ^ a b A. Verhamme; I. Orlitova; D. Schaerer; M. Hayes (June 2015). "Using Lyman-alpha to detect galaxies that leak Lyman continuum". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 578: A7. arXiv:1404.2958. Bibcode:2015A&A...578A...7V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201423978.
  14. ^ "HST Program 13293". Space Telescope Science Institute. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Instrument Handbook for Cycle 22" (PDF). Space Telescope Science Institute. January 2014. p. COS Quick Reference Guide. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  16. ^ C.J. Lintott; K. Schawinski; A. Slosar; K. Land; et al. (2008). "Galaxy Zoo: morphologies derived from visual inspection of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey". MNRAS. 389 (3): 1179–1189. arXiv:0804.4483. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.389.1179L. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13689.x.
  17. ^ C. Lintott; K. Schawinski; S. Bamford; A. Slosar; et al. (2011). "Galaxy Zoo 1: data release of morphological classifications for nearly 900,000 galaxies". MNRAS. 410 (1): 166–178. arXiv:1007.3265. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.410..166L. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17432.x.
  18. ^ "SDSS Color". Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
  19. ^ Cardamone, Carolin; Schawinski, Kevin; Sarzi, Marc; Bamford, Steven P; Bennert, Nicola; Urry, C. M; Lintott, Chris; Keel, William C; Parejko, John; Nichol, Robert C; Thomas, Daniel; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anže; Szalay, Alex; Vandenberg, Jan (2009). "Galaxy Zoo Green Peas: Discovery of a class of compact extremely star-forming galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 399 (3): 1191–1205. arXiv:0907.4155. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.399.1191C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15383.x.
  20. ^ a b John J. Salzer; Anna L.Williams & Caryl Gronwall (2009). "A Population of Metal-Poor Galaxies with ~L* Luminosities at Intermediate Redshifts". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 695 (1): L67–L71. arXiv:0903.3948. Bibcode:2009ApJ...695L..67S. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/695/1/L67.
  21. ^ J. J. Salzer; C. Gronwall; V. A. Lipovetsky; A. Kniazev; et al. (2000). "The KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. I. Description of the Survey". The Astronomical Journal. 120 (1): 80–94. arXiv:astro-ph/0004074. Bibcode:2000AJ....120...80S. doi:10.1086/301418.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Y.I. Izotov; N.G. Guseva; T.X. Thuan (2011). "Green Pea Galaxies and cohorts: Luminous Compact Emission-Line Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey". The Astrophysical Journal. 728 (2): 161. arXiv:1012.5639. Bibcode:2011ApJ...728..161I. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/728/2/161.
  23. ^ a b Y.I. Izotov; N.G. Guseva; K.J. Fricke & C. Henkel (2011). "Star-forming galaxies with hot dust emission in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey discovered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 536: L7. arXiv:1111.5450. Bibcode:2011A&A...536L...7I. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118402.
  24. ^ a b c d R. Amorin; R. Perez-Montero & J.Vilchez (2012). "Unveiling the Nature of the "Green Pea" Galaxies". Dwarf Galaxies: Keys to Galaxy Formation and Evolution. Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. 28. Springer. pp. 243–251. arXiv:1105.1477v1. Bibcode:2012ASSP...28..243A. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-22018-0_28. ISBN 978-3-642-22017-3.
  25. ^ a b c d L.S. Pilyugin; J.M. Vilchez; L. Mattsson; T.X. Thuan (2012). "Abundance determination from global emission-line SDSS spectra: exploring objects with high N/O ratios". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 421 (2): 1624–1634. arXiv:1201.1554. Bibcode:2012MNRAS.421.1624P. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20420.x.
  26. ^ a b S.A. Hawley (2012). "Abundances in Green Pea Star-forming Galaxies". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 124 (911): 21–35. Bibcode:2012PASP..124...21H. doi:10.1086/663866.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g S. Chakraborti; N. Yadav; C. Cardamone & A. Ray (2012). "Radio Detection of Green Peas: Implications for Magnetic Fields in Young Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 746 (1): L6. arXiv:1110.3312. Bibcode:2012ApJ...746L...6C. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/746/1/L6.
  28. ^ a b R. Amorín; J.M. Vílchez; G. Hägele; V. Firpo; et al. (2012). "Complex gas kinematics in compact, rapidly assembling star-forming galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 754 (2): L22. arXiv:1207.0509. Bibcode:2012ApJ...754L..22A. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/754/2/L22.
  29. ^ a b S.L. Parnovsky; I.Y. Izotova & Y.I. Izotov (2013). "H alpha and UV luminosities and star formation rates in a large sample of luminous compact galaxies". Astrophysics and Space Science. 343 (1): 361–376. arXiv:1209.3498. Bibcode:2013Ap&SS.343..361P. doi:10.1007/s10509-012-1253-9.
  30. ^ a b c d A.E. Jaskot; M.S. Oey (2013). "The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Radiation in the "Green Pea" Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 766 (2): 91. arXiv:1301.0530. Bibcode:2013ApJ...766...91J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/91.
  31. ^ "HST OBSERVING PROGRAM 13293". Space Telescope Science Institute. Retrieved 2014-03-13.
  32. ^ a b c d Y.I. Izotov; N.G. Guseva; K.J. Fricke & C. Henkel (2014). "Multi-wavelength study of 14000 star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 561: A33. arXiv:1310.1559. Bibcode:2014A&A...561A..33I. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322338.
  33. ^ a b A. Jaskot; M. Oey; J. Salzer; A. Van Sistine; et al. (January 2014). "Neutral Gas and Low-Redshift Starbursts: From Infall to Ionization". American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #223. AAS Meeting #223: 328.03. Bibcode:2014AAS...22332803J.
  34. ^ a b c d A.E. Jaskot; M.S. Oey (2014). The Origin and Optical Depth of Ionizing Photons in the Green Pea Galaxies. 2013 Guillermo Haro Conference. p. 171. arXiv:1402.4429. Bibcode:2014mysc.conf..171J. ISBN 978-607-8379-01-9.
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h A.L. Henry; C. Scarlata; C. L. Martin; D. Erb (2015). "Lyα Emission from Green Peas: The Role of Circumgalactic Gas Density, Covering, and Kinematics". Astrophysical Journal. 809 (1): 19. arXiv:1505.05149. Bibcode:2015ApJ...809...19H. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/809/1/19.
  36. ^ a b c Huan Yang; S. Malhotra; M. Gronke; J.E. Rhoads; M. Dijkstra; A. Jaskot; Zhenya Zheng; Junxian Wang (April 2016). "Green pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Lyman-alpha Escape". The Astrophysical Journal. 820 (2): 130. arXiv:1506.02885. Bibcode:2016ApJ...820..130Y. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/820/2/130.
  37. ^ a b c d e M. Brorby; P. Kaaret (2017). "Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies". American Astronomical Society. 229: 222.02. Bibcode:2017AAS...22922202B.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Huan Yang; S. Malhotra; M. Gronke; C. Leitherer; A. Wofford; Tianxing Jiang; M. Dijkstra; V. Tilvi; Junxian Wang (March 2017). "Lyman-alpha and U.V. Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 838 (1): 4. arXiv:1610.05767. Bibcode:2017ApJ...838....4Y. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6337.
  39. ^ a b c d Huan Yang; S. Malhotra; M. Gronke; J.E. Rhoads; C. Leitherer; A. Wofford; Tianxing Jiang; M. Dijkstra; V. Tilvi; Junxian Wang (August 2017). "Lyα profile, dust, and prediction of Lyα escape fraction in Green Pea Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 844 (2): 15. arXiv:1701.01857. Bibcode:2017ApJ...844..171Y. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7d4d. hdl:10852/60241.
  40. ^ a b c d E.K. Lofthouse; R.C.W. Houghton; S. Kaviraj (2017). "Local analogues of high-redshift star-forming galaxies: integral field spectroscopy of green peas". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 471 (2): 2311–2320. arXiv:1701.07015. Bibcode:2017MNRAS.471.2311L. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx1627. hdl:2299/19471.
  41. ^ a b c A.E. Jaskot; M.S. Oey; C. Scarlata; T. Dowd (December 2017). "Kinematics and Optical Depth in the Green Peas: Suppressed Superwinds in Candidate LyC Emitters". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 851 (1): 6. arXiv:1711.09516. Bibcode:2017ApJ...851L...9J. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9d83.
  42. ^ Trinh Thuan. "Green Peas and diagnostics for Lyman continuum leaking in star-forming dwarf galaxies". Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  43. ^ "Green pea galaxy provides insights to early universe evolution". 13 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  44. ^ "Green pea galaxy right after the Big Bang". Science Daily. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  45. ^ a b c d e K.Warner (14 January 2016). "What a tiny green galaxy reveals about the mysteries of the cosmos". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  46. ^ "Michigan_Uni_PR". University of Michigan. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2014-03-27.
  47. ^ T.M. Heckman; C.G. Hoopes; M. Seibert; C. Martin; S. Salim; et al. (January 2005). "The Properties of Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies at the Current Epoch". The Astrophysical Journal. 619 (1): L35–L38. arXiv:astro-ph/0412577. Bibcode:2005ApJ...619L..35H. doi:10.1086/425979.
  48. ^ A. Bauer; N. Drory; G. Hill; G. Feulner (2005). "Specific Star Formation Rates to Redshift 1.5". The Astrophysical Journal. 621 (2): L89–L92. arXiv:astro-ph/0412358. Bibcode:2005ApJ...621L..89B. doi:10.1086/429289.
  49. ^ D.W. Darg; S. Kaviraj; C.J. Lintott; K. Schawinski; M. Sarzi; S. Bamford; J. Silk; R. Proctor; D. Andreescu; P. Murray; R.C. Nichol; M.J. Raddick; A. Slosar; A.S. Szalay; D. Thomas; J. Vandenberg (January 2010). "Galaxy Zoo: The fraction of merging galaxies in the SDSS and their morphologies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 401 (2): 1043–1056. arXiv:0903.4937. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.401.1043D. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15686.x.
  50. ^ J. Baldwin; M. Phillips; R. Terlevich (1981). "Classification parameters for the emission-line spectra of extragalactic objects". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 93 (551): 5. Bibcode:1981PASP...93....5B. doi:10.1086/130766.
  51. ^ L.J. Kewley; M.A. Dopita; R.S. Sutherland; C.A. Heisler; J. Trevena (July 2001). "Theoretical Modeling of Starburst Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 556 (1): 121–140. arXiv:astro-ph/0106324. Bibcode:2001ApJ...556..121K. doi:10.1086/321545.
  52. ^ B. Groves; L. Kewley (2008). J.H. Knapen; T.J. Mahoney; A. Vazdekis, eds. "Distinguishing Active Galactic Nuclei and Star Formation". ASP Conference Series. 390: 283. arXiv:0707.0158. Bibcode:2008ASPC..390..283G.
  53. ^ G. Kauffmann; T.M. Heckman; S.D.M. White; S. Charlot; C. Tremonti; et al. (May 2003). "Stellar Masses and Star Formation Histories". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 341 (1): 33–53. arXiv:astro-ph/0204055. Bibcode:2003MNRAS.341...33K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2003.06291.x.
  54. ^ "SDSS Spectra". Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
  55. ^ C.G. Hoopes; T.M. Heckman; S. Salim; M. Seibert; C.A. Tremonti; et al. (December 2007). "The Diverse Properties of the Most Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies Discovered by GALEX". The Astrophysical Journal. 173 (2): 441–456. arXiv:astro-ph/0609415. Bibcode:2007ApJS..173..441H. doi:10.1086/516644.
  56. ^ O. Vaduvescu; M. McCall; M. Richer (2007). "Chemical Properties of Star-Forming Dwarf Galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 134 (2): 604–616. arXiv:0704.2705. Bibcode:2007AJ....134..604V. doi:10.1086/518865.
  57. ^ M. Corbin; et al. (2006). "Ultracompact Blue Dwarf Galaxies: HST Imaging and Stellar Population Analysis". The Astrophysical Journal. 651 (2): 861–873. arXiv:astro-ph/0607280. Bibcode:2006ApJ...651..861C. doi:10.1086/507575.
  58. ^ M. Bremer; et al. (2004). "The Properties of Galaxies at z~5". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 347 (1): L7–L12. arXiv:astro-ph/0306587. Bibcode:2004MNRAS.347L...7B. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.07352.x.
  59. ^ C. Gronwall; et al. (2007). "Lyα Emission-Line Galaxies at z = 3.1 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South". The Astrophysical Journal. 667 (1): 79–91. arXiv:0705.3917. Bibcode:2007ApJ...667...79G. doi:10.1086/520324.
  60. ^ L. Pentericii; et al. (2009). "The physical properties of Lyα emitting galaxies: not just primeval galaxies?". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 494 (2): 553–561. arXiv:0811.1861. Bibcode:2009A&A...494..553P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810722.
  61. ^ E. Gawiser; et al. (2007). "Lyα-Emitting Galaxies at z = 3.1: Progenitors Experiencing Rapid Star Formation". Astrophysical Journal. 671 (1): 278–284. arXiv:0710.2697. Bibcode:2007ApJ...671..278G. doi:10.1086/522955.
  62. ^ M. Giavalisco; et al. (2004). "The Rest-Frame Ultraviolet Luminosity Density of Star-forming Galaxies at Redshifts z > 3.51". The Astrophysical Journal. 600 (2): L103–L106. arXiv:astro-ph/0309065. Bibcode:2004ApJ...600L.103G. doi:10.1086/381244.
  63. ^ K. Masters; et al. (2010). "Galaxy Zoo: Dust in Spirals". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 404 (2): 792–810. arXiv:1001.1744. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.404..792M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16335.x.
  64. ^ N. Grevesse; A. Sauval (1998). "Standard Solar Composition". Space Science Reviews. 85 (1/2): 161–174. Bibcode:1998SSRv...85..161G. doi:10.1023/A:1005161325181.
  65. ^ C. Allende Prieto; D.L. Lambert; M. Asplund (2001). "The Forbidden Abundance of Oxygen in the Sun". The Astrophysical Journal. 556 (1): L63. arXiv:astro-ph/0106360. Bibcode:2001ApJ...556L..63A. doi:10.1086/322874.
  66. ^ M. Asplund; N. Grevesse; A.J. Sauval (2005). "Cosmic abundances as records of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis". ASP Conference Series. 336: 1–4. arXiv:astro-ph/0410214. Bibcode:2005ASPC..336...25A. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.06.010.
  67. ^ S. Basu; H.M. Antia (2008). "Helioseismology and Solar Abundances". Physics Reports. 457 (5–6): 217–283. arXiv:0711.4590. Bibcode:2008PhR...457..217B. doi:10.1016/j.physrep.2007.12.002.
  68. ^ a b C. Tremonti; et al. (2004). "The Origin of the Mass-Metallicity Relation: Insights from 53,000 Star-forming Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey". The Astrophysical Journal. 613 (2): 898–913. arXiv:astro-ph/0405537. Bibcode:2004ApJ...613..898T. doi:10.1086/423264.
  69. ^ "GALEX Observes the Universe". NASA. 2003. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
  70. ^ P. Morrissey; et al. (2007). "The Calibration and Data Products of GALEX". Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 173 (2): 682–697. Bibcode:2007ApJS..173..682M. doi:10.1086/520512.
  71. ^ M. Sarzi; et al. (2006). "The SAURON Project – V. Integral-field emission-line kinematics of 48 elliptical and lenticular galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 366 (4): 1151–1200. arXiv:astro-ph/0511307. Bibcode:2006MNRAS.366.1151S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.09839.x.
  72. ^ Paul J.McMillan (2011). "Mass models of the Milky Way". MNRAS. 414 (3): 2446–2457. arXiv:1102.4340. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.414.2446M. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18564.x.
  73. ^ Laura Chomiuk; Matthew S. Povich (2011). "Toward a Unification of Star Formation Rate Determinations in the Milky Way and Other Galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 142 (6): 197. arXiv:1110.4105. Bibcode:2011AJ....142..197C. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/142/6/197.
  74. ^ "SDSS Skyserver". Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-17.
  75. ^ C. Stoughton; et al. (2002). "Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Early Data Release" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 123 (1): 485–548. Bibcode:2002AJ....123..485S. doi:10.1086/324741.
  76. ^ E. Pérez-Montero; T. Contini (2009). "The impact of the nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio on ionized nebulae diagnostics based on [NII] emissionlines". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 398 (2): 949–960. arXiv:0905.4621. Bibcode:2009MNRAS.398..949P. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15145.x.
  77. ^ J. Lequeux; et al. (1979). "Chemical composition and evolution of irregular and blue compact galaxies". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 80 (2): 155–166. Bibcode:1979A&A....80..155L.
  78. ^ F. Kristian; R. Davé (2008). "The Origin of the Galaxy Mass-Metallicity Relation and Implications for Galactic Outflows". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 385 (4): 2181–2204. arXiv:0704.3100. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.385.2181F. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.12991.x.
  79. ^ "JENAM_2010". Retrieved 2011-06-21.
  80. ^ D.K. Erb; A.E. Shapley; M. Pettini; C.C. Steidel; et al. (2006). "The Mass/Metallicity Relation at z=2". The Astrophysical Journal. 644, 813, 2006 (2): 813–828. arXiv:astro-ph/0602473. Bibcode:2006ApJ...644..813E. doi:10.1086/503623.
  81. ^ J.C. Lee; J.J. Salzer; J. Melbourne (December 2004). "Metal Abundances of KISS Galaxies. III. Nebular Abundances for Fourteen Galaxies and the Luminosity-Metallicity Relationship for H II Galaxies". The Astrophysical Journal. 616 (2): 752–767. arXiv:astro-ph/0408342. Bibcode:2004ApJ...616..752L. doi:10.1086/425156.

External links

Dwarf galaxy

A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of about 100 million up to several billion stars, a small number compared to the Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars. The Large Magellanic Cloud, which closely orbits the Milky Way and contains over 30 billion stars, is sometimes classified as a dwarf galaxy; others consider it a full-fledged galaxy. Dwarf galaxies' formation and activity are thought to be heavily influenced by interactions with larger galaxies. Astronomers identify numerous types of dwarf galaxies, based on their shape and composition.

Galaxy Zoo

Galaxy Zoo is a crowdsourced astronomy project which invites people to assist in the morphological classification of large numbers of galaxies. It is an example of citizen science as it enlists the help of members of the public to help in scientific research.There have been 15 versions as of July 2017, many of which are outlined in this article. Galaxy Zoo is part of the Zooniverse, a group of citizen science projects. An outcome of the project is to better determine the different aspects of objects and to separate them into classifications.

Galaxy formation and evolution

The study of galaxy formation and evolution is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning, the formation of the first galaxies, the way galaxies change over time, and the processes that have generated the variety of structures observed in nearby galaxies. Galaxy formation is hypothesized to occur from structure formation theories, as a result of tiny quantum fluctuations in the aftermath of the Big Bang. The simplest model in general agreement with observed phenomena is the Lambda-CDM model—that is, that clustering and merging allows galaxies to accumulate mass, determining both their shape and structure.

Galaxy merger

Galaxy mergers can occur when two (or more) galaxies collide. They are the most violent type of galaxy interaction. The gravitational interactions between galaxies and the friction between the gas and dust have major effects on the galaxies involved. The exact effects of such mergers depend on a wide variety of parameters such as collision angles, speeds, and relative size/composition, and are currently an extremely active area of research. Galaxy mergers are important because the merger rate is fundamental measurement of galaxy evolution. The merger rate also provides astronomers with clues about how galaxies bulked up over time.

Green bean galaxy

Green bean galaxies (GBGs) are very rare astronomical objects that are thought to be quasar ionization echos. They were discovered by Mischa Schirmer and colleagues R. Diaz, K. Holhjem, N.A. Levenson, and C. Winge. The authors report the discovery of a sample of Seyfert-2 galaxies with ultra-luminous galaxy-wide narrow-line regions (NLRs) at redshifts z=0.2-0.6.While examining survey images taken with the 3.6-meter Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) atop 4200-m Mauna Kea, Hawaii, Schirmer noticed a galaxy with unusual colors—strongly peaking in the r filter, suggesting a spectral line. In fact, the color is quite similar to the Green Pea galaxies (GPs), which are compact star-forming galaxies. However, the object which became known as a GBG is much larger.

These galaxies are so rare that there is on average only one in a cube about 1.3 billion light-years across. They were nicknamed GBGs because of their color and because they are superficially similar to, but larger than, GPs. The interstellar gas in most GPs is ionized by UV-light from intense star formation, whereas the gas in GBGs is ionized by hard x-rays from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The scarcity of GBGs indicates that this phenomenon is very rare, and/or very short-lived.GBGs are likely related to the object known as Hanny's Voorwerp, another possible quasar ionization echo. GBGs are substantially different, though, as their luminosities, sizes and gas masses are 10-100 times higher than in other quasar ionisation clouds, for instance the 154 studied in Keel et al. 2012 (nicknamed 'voorwerpjes'). These 'voorwerpjes' are estimated to have bright phases that last between ~20,000 and 200,000 years.Possible formation mechanisms are currently under investigation. Likely, the giant gas outflows have been produced during the last stages in the life of super-luminous quasars, which subsequently experienced a rapid shut-down, e.g. due to a process known as AGN feedback. The escaping X-rays from the former very active quasar state still ionize the gas, causing the ionization echo.

Hanny's Voorwerp

Hanny's Voorwerp , (Dutch for Hanny's object) is a rare type of astronomical object called a quasar ionization echo. It was discovered in 2007 by Dutch schoolteacher Hanny van Arkel while she was participating as a volunteer in the Galaxy Zoo project, part of the Zooniverse group of citizen science websites. Photographically, it appears as a bright blob close to spiral galaxy IC 2497 in the constellation Leo Minor.

Haro 11

Haro 11 (H11) is a small galaxy at a distance of 300,000,000 light-years (92,000,000 parsecs)(redshift z=0.020598). It is situated in the southern constellation of Sculptor. Visually, it appears to be an irregular galaxy, as the ESO image to the right shows. H11 is named after Guillermo Haro, a Mexican astronomer who first included it in a study published in 1956 about blue galaxies. H11 is a starburst galaxy that has 'super star clusters' within it and is one of nine galaxies in the local universe known to emit Lyman Continuum photons (LyC).

Kevin Schawinski

Kevin Schawinski (April 28, 1981 in Zürich) is a Swiss astrophysicist. He is a professor at ETH Zurich (the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) in Zürich.

Lyman continuum photons

Lyman continuum photons (abbrev. LyC), shortened to Ly continuum photons or Lyc photon, are the photons emitted from stars at photon energies above the Lyman limit. Hydrogen is ionized by absorbing LyC. Working off of Victor Schumann's discovery of ultraviolet light, from 1906 to 1914, Theodore Lyman observed that atomic hydrogen absorbs light only at specific frequencies (or wavelengths) and the Lyman series is thus named after him. All the wavelengths in the Lyman series are in the ultraviolet band. This quantized absorption behavior occurs only up to an energy limit, known as the ionization energy. In the case of neutral atomic hydrogen, the minimum ionization energy is equal to the Lyman limit, where the photon has enough energy to completely ionize the atom, resulting in a free proton and a free electron. Above this energy (below this wavelength), all wavelengths of light may be absorbed. This forms a continuum in the energy spectrum; the spectrum is continuous rather than composed of many discrete lines, which are seen at lower energies.

The Lyman limit is at the wavelength of 91.2 nm (912 Å), corresponding to a frequency of 3.29 million GHz and a photon energy of 13.6 eV. LyC energies are mostly in the ultraviolet C portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (see Lyman series). Although X-rays and gamma-rays will also ionize a hydrogen atom, there are far fewer of them emitted from a star's photosphere—LyC are predominantly UV-C. The photon absorption process leading to the ionization of atomic hydrogen can occur in reverse: an electron and a proton can collide and form atomic hydrogen. If the two particles were traveling slowly (so that kinetic energy can be ignored), then the photon the atom emits upon its creation will theoretically be 13.6 eV (in reality, the energy will be less if the atom is formed in an excited state). At faster speeds, the excess (kinetic) energy is radiated (but momentum must be conserved) as photons of lower wavelength (higher energy). Therefore, photons with energies above 13.6 eV are emitted by the combination of energetic protons and electrons forming atomic hydrogen, and emission from photoionized hydrogen.


In the field of Big Bang theory, and cosmology, reionization is the process that caused the matter in the universe to reionize after the lapse of the "dark ages".

Reionization is the second of two major phase transitions of gas in the universe. While the majority of baryonic matter in the universe is in the form of hydrogen and helium, reionization usually refers strictly to the reionization of hydrogen, the element.

It's believed that the primordial helium also experienced the same phase of reionization changes, but at different points in the history of the universe. This is usually referred to as helium reionization.

Richard Nowell

Richard Nowell may refer to:

Richard Nowell (cricketer) (born 1975), English cricketer

Richard Nowell (MP) (fl. 1354), English politician

Richard Nowell, see Pea galaxy#History of discovery

Starburst galaxy

A starburst galaxy is a galaxy undergoing an exceptionally high rate of star formation, as compared to the long-term average rate of star formation in the galaxy or the star formation rate observed in most other galaxies. For example, the star formation rate of the Milky Way galaxy is approximately 3 M☉/yr, however, starburst galaxies can experience star formation rates that are more than a factor of 100 times greater. In a starburst galaxy, the rate of star formation is so large that the galaxy will consume all of its gas reservoir, from which the stars are forming, on a timescale much shorter than the age of the galaxy. As such, the starburst nature of a galaxy is a phase, and one that typically occupies a brief period of a galaxy's evolution. The majority of starburst galaxies are in the midst of a merger or close encounter with another galaxy. Starburst galaxies include M82, NGC 4038/NGC 4039 (the Antennae Galaxies), and IC 10.

Starburst region

A starburst is an astrophysical process that involves star formation occurring at a rate that is large compared to the rate that is typically observed. This starburst activity will consume the available interstellar gas supply over a timespan that is much shorter than the lifetime of the galaxy. For example, the nebula NGC 6334 has a star formation rate estimated to be 3600 Solar Masses per million years compared the star formation rate of the entire Milky Way of about seven million solar masses per million years. Due to the high amount of star formation a starburst is usually accompanied by much higher gas pressure and a larger ratio of Hydrogen cyanide to Carbon monoxide Emission-lines than are usually observed.

Starburst can occur in entire galaxies or just regions of space. A starburst region is a region of space that is undergoing a large amount of star formation. For example, the Tarantula Nebula is a Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud which has one of the highest star formation rates in the Local Group. By contrast a starburst galaxy is an entire galaxy that is experiencing a very high star formation rate. One notable example being Messier 82 in which the gas pressure is 100 times greater than in the local neighborhood and it is forming stars at about the same rate as the Milky Way in a region about 600 parsecs across. At this rate M82 will consume its 200 million Solar Masses of atomic and molecular hydrogen in 100 Mega years (its Free-fall time).Starburst regions can occur in different shapes, for example in Messier 94 the inner ring is a star burst region. Messier 82 has a starburst core of about 600 parsec in diameter. Starbursts are common during galaxy mergers such as the Antennae Galaxies. In the case of mergers the starburst can either be local or galaxy wide depending on the galaxies and how they are merging.

Tololo 1247-232

Tololo 1247-232 (Tol 1247 or T1247)) is a small galaxy at a distance of 652,000,000 light-years (200,000,000 parsecs) (redshift z=0.0480). It is situated in the southern equatorial constellation of Hydra. Visually, Tol 1247 appears to be an irregular or possibly a barred spiral galaxy. Tol 1247 is named after the surveys that were carried at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), the first of which was in 1976. It is one of nine galaxies in the local universe known to emit Lyman continuum photons.

Ultraviolet astronomy

Ultraviolet astronomy is the observation of electromagnetic radiation at ultraviolet wavelengths between approximately 10 and 320 nanometres; shorter wavelengths—higher energy photons—are studied by X-ray astronomy and gamma ray astronomy. Ultraviolet light is not visible to the human eye. Most of the light at these wavelengths is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere, so observations at these wavelengths must be performed from the upper atmosphere or from space.

Active nuclei
Energetic galaxies
Low activity
See also

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.