Peñón of Algiers

Peñón of Algiers (Spanish: Peñón de Argel) was a small islet off the coast of Algiers, fortified by the Kingdom of Spain during the 16th century. The islet was connected to the African continent to form a seawall and the harbour of Algiers.

History

In 1510 the Spaniards settled on a small island, the Peñón, north of Algiers (in modern Algeria). They forced Sālim al-Tūmī (Selim-bin-Teumi) to observe the terms of a treaty with Spain, namely, to accept a Spanish presence and to pay tribute.[1][2] Fortifications were built on the islet, and a garrison of 200 men was established.[2] Sālim al-Tūmī had to go to Spain to take an oath of obedience to Ferdinand of Aragon.[2]

The islet was captured in 1529 by Hayreddin Barbarossa during the Capture of Algiers. Barbarossa dismantled the fortifications, ending the Spanish presence in the area.

References

  1. ^ International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa. Trudy Ring. p. 54.
  2. ^ a b c E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma. p. 258

Coordinates: 36°46′N 3°08′E / 36.767°N 3.133°E

Algiers

Algiers ( al-JEERZ; Arabic: الجزائر‎, romanized: Al-Jazāʾir; French: Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the north-central portion of Algeria.Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea. The modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore; the old part, the ancient city of the deys, climbs the steep hill behind the modern town and is crowned by the casbah or citadel, 122 metres (400 ft) above the sea. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle.

Battle of Algiers

Battle of Algiers or Algiers expedition may refer to:

The Siege of Algiers (1510) by Spain leading to the establishment of the Peñón of Algiers

The Capture of Algiers (1516) by Aruj Barbarossa

The Capture of Algiers (1529) by Hayreddin Barbarossa

The Algiers expedition (1541) by Charles I of Spain

The Invasion of Algiers (1775) by Spain

The Bombardment of Algiers (1783) by Spain

The Bombardment of Algiers (1784) by Spain, Portugal, Malta, and Sicily

The Bombardment of Algiers (1816) by an Anglo-Dutch fleet

The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 by France

Part of Operation Torch (1942) involving the liberation of Algiers by the Allies and the French Resistance from Vichy

The Battle of Algiers (1956–57), a campaign of guerrilla warfare carried out by the National Liberation Front (FLN) against the French Algerian authorities from late 1956 to late 1957

The Battle of Algiers, a 1966 film by Gillo Pontecorvo about the Algerian War

Battle of Kars (1745)

The Battle of Kars (August 19, 1745) was the last major engagement of the Ottoman-Persian War. The battle resulted in the complete and utter destruction of the Ottoman army. It was also the last of the great military triumphs of Nader Shah. The battle was in fact fought over a period of ten days in which the first day saw the Ottomans routed from the field, followed by a series of subsequent blockades and pursuits until the final destruction of the Ottoman army. The severity of the defeat, in conjunction with the debacle near Mosul, ended any hopes Istanbul had entertained for a military victory in the war and forced them to enter negotiations with a significantly weaker position than they would otherwise have occupied.

Battle of Urmia (1604)

The Battle of Urmia (or, Urumiyeh) was fought near Lake Urmia in north-western Persia between the Safavid and Ottoman empires and resulted in a decisive Safavid victory. The Ottomans were fooled into an ambush where many of them were killed or captured in an encirclement manoeuvre. Over the next three years all of western and northern Persia was recaptured and the Safavids even re-established their suzerainty over their former vassals in the Caucasus.

Capture of Peñón of Algiers (1529)

The Capture of Peñón of Algiers was accomplished when the beylerbey of Algiers Hayreddin Barbarossa took a fortress (called Peñón of Algiers) in a small islet facing the Algerian city of Algiers from the Habsburg Spaniards.

Cusco School

The Cusco School (Escuela Cuzqueña) or Cuzco School, was a Roman Catholic artistic tradition based in Cusco, Peru (the former capital of the Inca Empire) during the Colonial period, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. It was not limited to Cuzco only, but spread to other cities in the Andes, as well as to present day Ecuador and Bolivia.There are high amount of Cusco School's paintings preserved, currently most of them are located at Cusco, but also currently there are in the rest of Peru and in museums of Brazil, England and United States.

European enclaves in North Africa before 1830

The European enclaves in North Africa (technically ‘semi-enclaves’) were towns, fortifications and trading posts on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of western North Africa (sometimes called also "Magreb), obtained by various Western European powers in the period before they had the military capacity to occupy the interior (i.e. before the French conquest of Algeria in 1830). The earliest of these were established in the 11th century CE by the Italian Maritime republics; Spain and Portugal were the main European powers involved; both France and, briefly, England also had a presence. Most of these enclaves had been evacuated by the late 18th century, and today only the Spanish possessions of Ceuta, Melilla, and the Plazas de soberanía remain.

Hernán Venegas Carrillo

Hernán Venegas Carrillo Manosalvas (c.1513 – 2 February 1583) was a Spanish conquistadorfor who participated in the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and Panche people in the New Kingdom of Granada, present-day Colombia. Venegas Carrillo was mayor of Santa Fe de Bogotá for two terms; in 1542 and from 1543 to 1544.

Lacandola Documents

The term "Lacandola Documents" is used by Philippine Historiographers to describe the section of the Spanish Archives in Manila which are dedicated to the genealogical records (cuadernos de linaje) of the "Manila aristocracy" from the period immediately following European colonial contact. As of 2001, only one bundle of twelve folders (containing eleven distinct sets of documents) remains in the archive, the rest having been lost, misplaced, or destroyed by various events such as the Japanese Occupation of Manila during World War II. The surviving bundle is labeled "Decendientes de Don Carlos Lacandola" (Descendants of Don Carlos Lakandula), and scholars use the term "Lacandola Documents" as an informal shortcut.Scholars specializing in the noble houses of Rajah Matanda, Rajah Sulayman, and Lakandula mostly use these documents in conjunction with the Archivo General de Indias (General Archive of the Indies) in Seville, Spain in studying the genealogies of these "noble houses." Other primary sources frequently referred to by historiographers are the Silsila or Tarsilas of Sulu, Maguindanao, and Brunei, and local records (usually Catholic parish registers) of towns where descendants of the three houses may have moved.

List of conflicts in Africa

This is a list of conflicts in Africa arranged by country, both on the continent and associated islands, including wars between African nations, civil wars, and wars involving non-African nations that took place within Africa. It encompasses colonial wars, wars of independence, secessionist and separatist conflicts, major episodes of national violence (riots, massacres, etc.), and global conflicts in which Africa was a theatre of war.

List of conflicts in Algeria

This is a list of conflicts in Algeria arranged chronologically from ancient to modern times. This list includes both nationwide and international types of war, including (but not limited to) the following: wars of independence, liberation wars, colonial wars, undeclared wars, proxy wars, territorial disputes, and world wars. Also listed might be any battle that occurred within the territory of what is today known as the, "People's Democratic Republic of Algeria" but was itself only part of an operation of a campaign of a theater of a war. There may also be periods of violent civil unrest listed, such as: riots, shootouts, spree killings, massacres, terrorist attacks, and civil wars. The list might also contain episodes of: human sacrifice, mass suicide, massacres, and genocides.

List of sieges

A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. A chronological list of sieges follows.

List of wars involving Spain

This is a list of wars fought by the Kingdom of Spain or on Spanish territory.

Louis-Adrien Berbrugger

Louis-Adrien Berbrugger (May 11, 1801 – July 2, 1869) was a French archeologist and philologist.Berbrugger was born in Paris. He was an Arabist, with a Muslim wife, who set up the National Library in Algiers.

Ottoman Algeria

The regency of Algiers (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. Situated between the regency of Tunis in the east and the Sharifian Empire (from 1553) in the west (and the Spanish and Portuguese possessions of North Africa), the Regency originally extended its borders from La Calle to the east to Trara in the west and from Algiers to Biskra, and after spread to the present eastern and western borders of Algeria.The Regency was governed by beylerbeys, pashas, aghas and deys, and was composed of various beyliks (provinces) under the authority of beys (vassals): Constantine in the east, Medea in the Titteri and Mazouna, then Mascara and then Oran in the west. Each beylik was divided into various outan (counties) with at their head the caïds directly under the bey. To administer the interior of the country, the administration relied on the tribes said makhzen. These tribes were responsible for securing order and collecting taxes on the tributary regions of the country. It was through this system that, for three centuries, the State of Algiers extended its authority over the north of Algeria. However, society was still divided into tribes and dominated by maraboutics brotherhoods or local djouads (nobles). Several regions of the country thus only lightly recognised the authority of Algiers. Throughout its history, they formed numerous revolts, confederations, tribal fiefs or sultanates that fought with the regency for control. Before 1830, out of the 516 political units, a total of 200 principalities or tribes were considered independent because they controlled over 60% of the territory in Algeria and refused to pay taxes to Algiers.

Peñón

A peñón (Spanish pronunciation: [peˈɲon], "rock", pl. peñones) is a term for certain offshore rocky island forts established by the Spanish Empire (especially in Africa). Several are still part of the plazas de soberanía ("places of sovereignty") of Spain in Northern Africa.

Quito School

The Quito School (Escuela Quiteña) is a Latin American artistic tradition that constitutes essentially the whole of the professional artistic output developed in the territory of the Royal Audience of Quito — from Pasto and Popayán in the north to Piura and Cajamarca in the south — during the Spanish colonial period (1542-1824). It is especially associated with the 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the realistic and by the degree to which indigenous beliefs and artistic traditions are evident, these productions were among of the most important activities in the economy of the Royal Audience of Quito. Such was the prestige of the movement even in Europe that it was said that King Carlos III of Spain (1716–1788), referring to one of its sculptors in particular, opined: "I am not concerned that Italy has Michelangelo; in my colonies of America I have the master Caspicara".

Siege of Buda (1541)

The Siege of Buda (4 May to 21 August 1541) ended with the capture of the city of Buda, Hungary by the Ottoman Empire, leading to 150 years of Ottoman control of Hungary. The siege, part of the Little War in Hungary, was one of the most important Ottoman victories over the Habsburg Monarchy during Ottoman–Habsburg wars (16th to 18th century) in Hungary and the Balkans.

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca

Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalβaɾ ˈnũɲeθ kaˈβeθa ðe ˈβaka]; Jerez de la Frontera, c. 1488/1490/1492 – Seville, c. 1557/1558/1559/1560) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition. During eight years of traveling across the US Southwest, he became a trader and faith healer to various Native American tribes before reconnecting with Spanish civilization in Mexico in 1536. After returning to Spain in 1537, he wrote an account, first published in 1542 as La relación y comentarios ("The Account and Commentaries"), which in later editions was retitled Naufragios ("Shipwrecks"). Cabeza de Vaca is sometimes considered a proto-anthropologist for his detailed accounts of the many tribes of Native Americans that he encountered.

In 1540, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed adelantado of what is now Argentina, where he was governor and captain general of New Andalusia. He worked to build up the population of Buenos Aires, where settlement had declined due to poor administration. Cabeza de Vaca was transported to Spain for trial in 1545. Although his sentence was eventually commuted, he never returned to the Americas. He died in Seville.

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