Pax Romana

The Pax Romana (Latin for "Roman Peace") was a long period of peace and stability experienced by the early Roman Empire. It is traditionally dated as commencing from the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, in 27 BC and concluding in 180 AD with the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the "good emperors".[1] Since it was inaugurated by Augustus with the end of the Final War of the Roman Republic, it is sometimes called the Pax Augusta. During this period of approximately 207 years, the Roman empire achieved its greatest territorial extent and its population reached a maximum of up to 70 million people – a third of the world’s population.[2] According to Cassius Dio, the dictatorial reign of Commodus, later followed by the Year of the Five Emperors and the crisis of the third century, marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust".[3]

Augusto 30aC - 6dC 55%CS jpg
Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. Yellow represents the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, while green represents gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas represent client states.
Romeinse keizers Gordianus III antoninianus Antiochie 243-244
AR Antoninianus of Gordian III, struck Antioch 243-244 AD with Pax Augusta on the reverse

Overview

Fresco depicting a seated woman, from the Villa Arianna at Stabiae, Naples National Archaeological Museum (17393152265)
Fresco of a relaxed seated woman from Stabiae, 1st century AD

The Pax Romana is said to have been a "miracle" because prior to it there had never been peace for so many centuries in a given period of history. However, Walter Goffart wrote: "The volume of the Cambridge Ancient History for the years A.D. 70–192 is called 'The Imperial Peace', but peace is not what one finds in its pages".[4] Arthur M. Eckstein writes that the period must be seen in contrast to the much more frequent warfare in the Roman Republic in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Eckstein also notes that the incipient Pax Romana appeared during the Republic, and that its temporal span varied with geographical region as well: "Although the standard textbook dates for the Pax Romana, the famous “Roman Peace” in the Mediterranean, are 31 BC to AD 250, the fact is that the Roman Peace was emerging in large regions of the Mediterranean at a much earlier date: Sicily after 210 [BC], the Italian Peninsula after 200 [BC]; the Po Valley after 190 [BC]; most of the Iberian Peninsula after 133 [BC]; North Africa after 100 [BC]; and for ever longer stretches of time in the Greek East."[5]

The first known record of the term Pax Romana appears in a writing by Seneca the Younger in AD 55.[6] The concept was highly influential, and the subject of theories and attempts to copy it in subsequent ages. Arnaldo Momigliano noted that "Pax Romana is a simple formula for propaganda, but a difficult subject for research."[7] In fact, the "Pax Romana" was broken by the First Jewish–Roman War, the Kitos War (also in Judea, 115–117), the Bar Kokhba Revolt (also known as the Third Jewish–Roman War), the Roman–Parthian War of 58–63, Trajan's Roman–Parthian War of 113, the Dacian Wars, various battles with Germanic tribes, including the Teutoburg Forest, and Boudica's war in Britain in AD 60 or 61.

The Pax Romana began when Octavian (Augustus) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in the Battle of Actium on 2 September 31 BC and became Roman emperor.[1][8][2] He became princeps, or first citizen. Lacking a good precedent of successful one-man rule, Augustus created a junta of the greatest military magnates and stood as the front man. By binding together these leading magnates in a coalition, he eliminated the prospect of civil war. The Pax Romana was not immediate, despite the end of the civil wars, because fighting continued in Hispania and in the Alps. Nevertheless, Augustus closed the Gates of Janus (a ceremony indicating that Rome was at peace) three times,[9] first in 29 BC and again in 25 BC. The third closure is undocumented, but Inez Scott Ryberg (1949) and Gaius Stern (2006) have persuasively dated the third closure to 13 BC with the commissioning of the Ara Pacis.[10][11][12] At the time of the Ludi Saeculares in 17 BC the Concept of Peace was publicized, and in 13 BC was proclaimed when Augustus and Agrippa jointly returned from pacifying the provinces. The order to construct the Ara Pacis was no doubt part of this announcement.

Augustus faced a problem making peace an acceptable mode of life for the Romans, who had been at war with one power or another continuously for 200 years.[11] Romans regarded peace, not as an absence of war, but the rare situation which existed when all opponents had been beaten down and lost the ability to resist.[7] Augustus' challenge was to persuade Romans that the prosperity they could achieve in the absence of warfare was better for the Empire than the potential wealth and honor acquired when fighting a risky war. Augustus succeeded by means of skillful propaganda. Subsequent emperors followed his lead, sometimes producing lavish ceremonies to close the Gates of Janus, issuing coins with Pax on the reverse, and patronizing literature extolling the benefits of the Pax Romana.[11]

After Augustus' death in AD 14, most of his successors as Roman emperors continued his politics. The last five emperors of the Pax Romana were considered the "Five Good Emperors".[2]

Influence on trade

Roman trade in the Mediterranean increased during the Pax Romana. Romans sailed East to acquire silks, gems, onyx and spices. Romans benefited from large profits and incomes in the Roman empire were raised due to trade in the Mediterranean.[13][14]

As the Pax Romana of the western world by Rome was largely contemporaneous to the Pax Sinica of the eastern world by Han China,[15][16] long-distance travel and trade in Eurasian history was significantly stimulated during these eras.[16]

Analogous peaces

The prominence of the concept of the Pax Romana led to historians coining variants of the term to describe other systems of relative peace that have been established, attempted, or argued to have existed. Some variants include:[1]

More generically, the concept has been referred to as pax imperia,[17][18] (sometimes spelled as pax imperium[19]) meaning imperial peace,[20][21] or—less literally—hegemonic peace.[21][22] Raymond Aron notes that imperial peace—peace achieved through hegemony—sometimes, but not always—can become civil peace. As an example, the German Empire's imperial peace of 1871 (over its internal components like Saxony) slowly evolved into the later German state. As a counter-example, the imperial peace of Alexander the Great's empire dissolved because the Greek city states maintained their political identity and more importantly, embryos of their own armed forces. Aron notes that during the Pax Romana, the Jewish war was a reminder that the overlapping of the imperial institutions over the local ones did not erase them and the overlap was a source of tension and flare-ups. Aron summarizes that, "In other words, imperial peace becomes civil peace insofar as the memory of the previously independent political units are effaced, insofar as individuals within a pacified zone feel themselves less united to the traditional or local community and more to the conquering state."[20]

The concept of Pax Romana was highly influential, and attempts to imitate it occurred in the Byzantine Empire, and in the Christian West, where it morphed into the Peace and Truce of God (pax Dei and treuga Dei).[21] A theoretician of the imperial peace during the Middle Ages was Dante Aligheri. Dante's works on the topic were analyzed at the beginning of the 20th century by William Mitchell Ramsay in the book The Imperial Peace; An Ideal in European History (1913).[23][24]

In fiction

  • Isaac Asimov's fictional Galactic Empire and Foundation series refer to Pax Trantoria and Pax Imperium.
  • Pax Soprana is the sixth episode of the HBO original series The Sopranos.
  • In Magi: The Labyrinth of Magic, Reim's Peace is the Reim Empire's version of Pax Romana, established about 200 years prior to the series by Empress Scheherazade. Reim is a nation based on the Roman Empire.
  • In Fallout: New Vegas Caesar aims to use his Roman-style army to create a new Pax Romana across the wasteland.
  • First episode of season 4 of Gotham is known as "Pax Penguina".

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Pax Romana". Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ a b c "The Pax Romana". www.ushistory.org. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
  3. ^ Dio Cassius 72.36.4, Loeb edition translated E. Cary
  4. ^ Walter Goffart (1989). Rome's Fall and After. Hambledon Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-85285-001-2.
  5. ^ Arthur M. Eckstein (2011) [2006]. "Conceptualizing Roman Imperial Expansion under the Republic: An Introduction". In Nathan Rosenstein and Robert Morstein-Marx (eds.). A Companion to the Roman Republic. John Wiley & Sons. p. 574. ISBN 978-1-4443-5720-2.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  6. ^ Ali Parchami (2009). Hegemonic Peace and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-134-00704-2.
  7. ^ a b Momigliano, Arnaldo (1942). "The Peace of the Ara Pacis" (PDF). Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 5: 228–231. doi:10.2307/750454. JSTOR 750454.
  8. ^ Davis, Paul K. (1999). 100 Decisive Battles from Ancient Times to the Present: The World's Major Battles and How They Shaped History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-5760-7075-8.
  9. ^ Augustus states in Res Gestae 13 that he closed the Gates three times, a fact documented by many other historians (See Gates of Janus).
  10. ^ Scott Ryberg, Inez (1949). "The Procession of the Ara Pacis". Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. 19: 77, 79–101. doi:10.2307/4238621. JSTOR 4238621.
  11. ^ a b c Stern, Gaius (2010) [2006]. Women, children, and senators on the Ara Pacis Augustae: A study of Augustus' vision of a new world order in 13 BCE. ProQuest. ISBN 978-0-549-83411-3.
  12. ^ Sir Ronald Syme had suggested a later date (but Rome was then at war).
  13. ^ Temin, Peter (2013). The Roman market economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780691147680. OCLC 784708336.
  14. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian Keith (2016). Pax Romana : war, peace, and conquest in the Roman world. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 392. ISBN 9780300178821. OCLC 941874968.
  15. ^ Plott, John C. (1989). Global History of Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 57. ISBN 9788120804562.
  16. ^ a b Krech III, Shepard; Merchant, Carolyn; McNeill, John Robert, eds. (2004). Encyclopedia of World Environmental History. 3: O–Z, Index. Routledge. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-0-415-93735-1.
  17. ^ Tatah Mentan (2010). The State in Africa: An Analysis of Impacts of Historical Trajectories of Global Capitalist Expansion and Domination in the Continent. African Books Collective. p. 153. ISBN 978-9956-616-12-1.
  18. ^ Hyo-Dong Lee (2013). Spirit, Qi, and the Multitude: A Comparative Theology for the Democracy of Creation. Oxford University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-8232-5501-6.
  19. ^ Stephen Ross (2004). Conrad and Empire. University of Missouri Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8262-1518-5.
  20. ^ a b Raymond Aron (2003). Peace and War: A Theory of International Relations. Transaction Publishers. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-0-7658-0504-1.
  21. ^ a b c David Gress (1985). Peace and Survival: West Germany, The Peace Movement & European Security. Hoover Press. pp. 96–99. ISBN 978-0-8179-8093-1.
  22. ^ Ali Parchami (2009). Hegemonic Peace and Empire: The Pax Romana, Britannica and Americana. Routledge. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-134-00704-2.
  23. ^ James Brown Scott (2002) [1939]. Law, the State, and the International Community. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-1-58477-178-4.
  24. ^ The imperial peace; an ideal in European history. Internet Archive. Oxford, The Clarendon Press. 1913.

Further reading

  • Burton, Paul. 2011. "Pax Romana/Pax Americana: Perceptions of Rome in American Political Culture, 2000-2010." International Journal of Classical Tradition 18.1:66-104.
  • Cornwell, Hannah. 2017. Pax and the Politics of Peace: Republic to Principate. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Galinsky, Karl. 2012. Augustus: Introduction to the Life of an Emperor. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Goldsworthy, Adrian. 2016. Pax Romana: War, Peace and Conquest in the Roman World. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Hardwick, Lorna. 2000. “Concepts of Peace.” In Experiencing Rome: Culture, Identity and Power in the Roman Empire, Edited by Janet Huskinson, 335-368. London: Routledge.
  • Lopez, Gennaro. 2002. “Pax Romana/Pax Augusta.” Invigilata Lucernis 24: 97-110.
  • Stern, Gaius. 2015. “The New Cult of Pax Augusta 13 BC-AD 14.” Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 55.1-4: 1-16.
  • Yannakopulos, Nikos. 2003. “Preserving the Pax Romana: The Peace Functionaries in Roman East.” Mediterraneo Antico 6.2: 825-905.

External links

2nd century

The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

Early in the century, the Roman Empire attained its greatest expansion under the emperor Trajan, but after his death became primarily defensive for the rest of its history. Much prosperity took place throughout the empire at this time, ruled as it were by the Five Good Emperors, a succession of well-received and able rulers.

This period also saw the removal of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian after Bar Kokhba's revolt.

The last quarter of the century saw the end of the period of peace and prosperity known as the Pax Romana at the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius, last of the "Five Good Emperors", and the ascension of Commodus. After Commodus was murdered in 192, a turbulent period known as the Year of the Five Emperors ensued, which, after the quick successive removals of Pertinax and Didius Julianus from power, had the general-turned-emperor Septimius Severus, founder of the Severan dynasty, pitted against rival claimants in the form of Pescennius Niger, whom his forces defeated at the Battle of Issus in 194, and Clodius Albinus, whom he defeated at the Battle of Lugdunum in 197, granting him sole authority over the empire.

Although the Han Dynasty of China was firmly cemented into power and extended its imperial influence into Central Asia during the first half of the century, by the second half there was widespread corruption and open rebellion. This set in motion its ultimate decline, and in September 189, the Han general Dong Zhuo, after being summoned to the capital by He Jin to help quell the corrupt and powerful eunuch faction by serving as an intimidator to both them and the Empress Dowager, marched his army into Luoyang in light of He Jin's assassination and the subsequent slaughter of the eunuchs, taking over the capital and effectively becoming the de facto head of the government, although warlords and government officials quickly took against him in a campaign that, while failing to put him down, compelled Dong Zhuo to shift the seat of imperial power further west to Chang'an. As Dong Zhuo was killed in 192, the chaos in the wake of the collapse of centralized authority only continued, with various warlords attempting to vye for supremacy in order to establish or hold onto their authority within the decaying empire. Meanwhile, Dong Zhuo's former followers Li Jue and Guo Si were left to squabble amongst themselves, while the emperor himself eventually fled and returned to the ravaged city of Luoyang, but shortly thereafter, in 196, was given refuge by the warlord Cao Cao, who relocated him to the new capital city of Xu, from where Cao Cao could control the emperor. Cao Cao would only further exert his authority by defeating the powerful warlord Yuan Shao at the decisive Battle of Guandu in 200.

Anton van Hooff

Antonius Jacobus Leonardus (Anton) van Hooff (born 1943) is a Dutch historian of antiquity, author and a former docent. From 2009 until 2015, he chaired the freethinkers association De Vrije Gedachte.In 1971, Van Hooff graduated with the dissertation Pax romana: een studie van het Romeinse imperialisme ("Pax Romana: a Study of Roman Imperialism"). Until 2008, Van Hooff was docent in ancient history at the Radboud University Nijmegen. He specialises in classical antiquity, and regularly publishes in various newspapers and magazines. He wrote several books, including Nero & Seneca, Athene ("Athens") and Marcus Aurelius.Van Hooff is an atheist, a republican and a member of the Republican Society. On 3 December 2014, Van Hooff held the first ever Hans van den Bergh Lecture of the New Republican Society in De Balie.

Directory of International Associations of the Faithful

The Directory of International Associations of the Faithful, published by the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life, lists the international associations of the faithful in the Catholic Church that have been granted official recognition. It gives the official name, acronym, date of establishment, history, identity, organization, membership, works, publications, and website of the communities and movements.Recognition of similar national associations as Catholic is granted by the country's Episcopal Conference, and it is for the local bishop to grant recognition to local associations.The following is a list of the international associations that have received recognition, according to the Vatican website, which provides linked descriptions of each organization:

Adsis Communities (Adsis)

Amigonian Cooperators (A.Cs)

Apostolic Movement of Schoenstatt (Schoenstatt Movement)

Bread of Life Community

Catholic Fraternity (CF)

Catholic Integrated Community (KIG)

Catholic International Education Office (OIEC)

Cenacolo Community

Chemin Neuf Community (CCN)

Christian Life Community (CVX)

Christian Life Movement (CLM)

Claire Amitié

"Comunità Domenico Tardini" Association

Conference of International Catholic Organisations (CICO)

Cooperators of Opus Dei

Couples for Christ (CFC)

Emmanuel Community

Encounters of Married Couples (Dialogues)

Encounters of Youth Promotion (EYP)

Fondacio. Christians for the World (Fondacio)

Foyers de Charité

Fraternity of Charles de Foucauld (FCF)

Fraternity of Communion and Liberation (CL)

Fraternity of St Thomas Aquinas groups (FASTA)

Heart’s Home

Heralds of the Gospel (EP)

Holy Family Association

Immaculate Heart of Mary, Mother of Mercy Association or Tuus Totus (CIM)

Institute for World Evangelisation (ICPE Mission)

Intercontinental Christian Fraternity of the Chronic Sick and Physically Disabled (FCIPMH)

International Alliance of Catholic Knights (IACK)

International Association of "Caterinati"

International Association of Charities (AIC)

International Association of Faith and Light

International Association of Missionaries of Political Charity

International Catholic Centre for Cooperation with UNESCO (CCIC)

International Catholic Centre of Geneva (ICCG)

International Catholic Charismatic Renewal Services (ICCRS)

International Catholic Child Bureau (BICE)

International Catholic Committee for Gypsies (CCIT)

International Catholic Committee of Nurses and Medical Social Assistants (CICIAMS)

International Catholic Conference of Guiding (ICCG)

International Catholic Conference of Scouting (ICCS)

International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC)

International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs (ICMICA-Pax Romana)

International Catholic Rural Association (ICRA)

International Catholic Society for Girls (ACISJF)

International Christian Union of Business Executives (UNIAPAC)

International Confederation of Professional Associations of Domestic Workers (IAG)

International Confederation of the Society of St Vincent de Paul (SSVP)

International Confederation of the Volunteers of Suffering Centers (International Confederation CVS)

International Coordination of Young Christian Workers (ICYCW)

International Council of Catholic Men (FIHC-Unum Omnes)

International Federation of Catholic Associations of the Blind (FIDACA)

International Federation of Catholic Medical Associations (FIAMC)

International Federation of Catholic Parochial Youth Movements (FIMCAP)

International Federation of Catholic Pharmacists (FIPC)

International Federation of Catholic Universities (IFCU)

International Federation of L’Arche Communities (L'Arche International) (L'Arche International)

International Federation of Pueri Cantores (FIPC)

International Federation of Rural Adult Catholic Movements (FIMARC)

International Forum of Catholic Action (IFCA)

International Independent Christian Youth (JICI)

International Kolping Society (IKS)

International Military Apostolate (AMI)

International Movement of Apostolate in the Independent Social Milieus (MIAMSI)

International Movement of Catholic Agricultural and Rural Youth (MIJARC)

International Movement of Catholic Students (IMCS-Pax Romana)

International Movement of the Apostolate for Children (MIDADE)

International Union of Catholic Esperantists (IKUE)

International Union of Catholic Jurists (UIJC)

International Union of European Guides and Scouts - European scouting Federation (UIGSE-FSE)

International Young Catholic Students (IYCS)

Jesus Youth (JY)

Lay Claretian Movement (MSC)

Legion of Mary

Life Ascending International (VMI)

Light-Life Movement (RŚŻ)

"Living In" Spirituality Movement

Marianist Lay Communities (MLC)

Memores Domini Lay Association (Memores Domini)

Militia Christi (MJC)

Militia of the Immaculata (M.I.)

Missionary Community of Villaregia (CMV)

Missionary Contemplative Movement "P. de Foucauld"

Oasis Movement

"Pope John XXIII Community" Association

Prayer and Life Workshops (TOV)

"Pro Deo et Fratribus - Famiglia di Maria" Association (PDF-FM)

Promoting Group of the Movement for a Better World (PG of the MBW)

Regnum Christi Apostolic Movement

Salesian Cooperators Association (ACS)

Salesian Youth Movement (SYM)

Sanguis Christi Union (USC)

Sant'Egidio Community

Schoenstatt Women’s Apostolic Union

School of the Cross

Secular Missionary Carmel (CMS)

"Seguimi" Lay Group of Human-Christian Promotion

Sermig

Shalom Catholic Community

Silent Workers of the Cross Association (SODC)

St Benedict Patron of Europe Association (ASBPE)

St Francis de Sales Association

Teams of Our Lady (END)

Teresian Apostolic Movement (TAM)

Teresian Association (T.A.)

Union of Catholic Apostolate (UAC)

Work of Mary (Focolare Movement)

Work of Nazareth (ODN)

Work of Saint John of Avila

Work of Saint Teresa

World Catholic Association for Communication (SIGNIS)

World Confederation of the Past Pupils of Mary Help of Christians

World Federation of Nocturnal Adoration Societies

World Movement of Christian Workers (WMCW)

World Organisation of Former Pupils of Catholic Education (OMAEC)

World Organisation of the Cursillo Movement (OMCC)

World Union of Catholic Teachers (WUCT)

World Union of Catholic Women’s Organisations (WUCWO)

Worldwide Marriage Encounter (WWME)Although not yet included in the latest available edition of the Directory, the Neocatechumenal Way received its definitive approval from the Pontifical Council for the Laity on 11 May 2008.

List of periods of regional peace

The word "pax" together with the Latin name of an empire or nation is used to refer to a period of peace or at least stability, enforced by a hegemon.

Pax Americana

Pax Americana (Latin for "American Peace", modeled after Pax Romana, Pax Britannica, and Pax Mongolica) is a term applied to the concept of relative peace in the Western Hemisphere and later the world beginning around the middle of the 20th century, thought to be caused by the preponderance of power enjoyed by the United States. Although the term finds its primary utility in the latter half of the 20th century, it has been used with different meanings and eras, such as the post-Civil War era in North America, and regionally in the Americas at the start of the 20th century.

Pax Americana is primarily used in its modern connotations to refer to the peace among great powers established after the end of World War II in 1945, also called the Long Peace. In this modern sense, it has come to indicate the military and economic position of the United States in relation to other nations. For example, the Marshall Plan, which spent $13 billion to rebuild the economy of Western Europe, has been seen as "the launching of the pax americana".The Latin term derives from Pax Romana of the Roman Empire. The term is most notably associated with Pax Britannica (1815–1914) under the British Empire, which served as the global hegemon and constabulary from the late 18th century until the early 20th century.

Pax Europaea

Pax Europaea (English: the European peace – after the historical Pax Romana), is the period of relative peace experienced by Europe in the period following World War II—often associated above all with the creation of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors. After the Cold War this peace was even more evident because of the fall in political tensions, with the major exception of the Yugoslav Wars and various tensions with and within Russia. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Pax Khazarica

Pax Khazarica (Latin for "Khazar Peace") is a historiographical term, modeled after the original phrase Pax Romana, applied to the period (roughly 700-950 AD) during which the Khazar Khaganate dominated the Pontic steppe and the Caucasus Mountains. During this period, Khazar dominion over vital trans-Eurasian trade routes facilitated travel and trade between Europe and Asia by such groups as the Radhanites and the early Rus.

The originator of the term is unknown but it was in use by scholars as early as the nineteenth century.

Pax Ottomana

In historiography, the Pax Ottomana (literally "the Ottoman Peace") or Pax Ottomanica

is the economic and social stability attained in the conquered provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which, at the height of the Empire's power during the 16th and 17th centuries, applied to lands in the Balkans, Anatolia, the Middle East, North Africa and the Caucasus.

The term is preferred in particular by historians and writers who hold a positive view of Ottoman rule to underline the positive impact of Ottoman rule on the conquered regions. They compare it favourably with instability experienced before the Ottoman conquest and with the period after World War I, when only Asia Minor and Eastern Thrace remained under Turkish rule.

The term is derived by analogy from the more common Pax Romana, "the Roman Peace".

Pax Praetoriana

Pax Praetoriana (or Pax Pretoriana) refers to the relative stability of modern South Africa and the (economically and politically) dominant foreign policy of the country towards the African continent and its encouragement of stable, accountable, democratic governments in other African states. The term Pax Nigeriana is sometimes used in relation to Nigeria's similar status. Both these terms derive from the expression Pax Romana – the Roman peace. The term Praetoriana also derives from Pretoria, the administrative capital city of South Africa.

Critics of South African foreign policy (including political allies of the ANC such as the trade union organization COSATU), especially under former president Thabo Mbeki, point to domestic problems such as unemployment, crime and the scourge of AIDS that remain unresolved, and question the value of the ANC's policy of "quiet diplomacy" towards the Zimbabwean government during its current period of repressive rule.

The term has also been used to describe the dominant position of South Africa over its neighbors in the pre-1994 era, forcing agreements such as the Nkomati Accord between South Africa and Mozambique and a non-aggression treaty with Swaziland.

Pax Romana (comics)

Pax Romana is a creator-owned four-issue limited series comic book written and illustrated by Jonathan Hickman and published by Image Comics on March 7, 2012.

Pax Romana (disambiguation)

The Pax Romana was a time of peace established by Emperor Augustus during the Roman Empire.

Pax Romana may also refer to:

Pax Romana (comics), a comic book created by Jonathan Hickman.

Pax Romana (organization), an international federation of Catholic students and academics.

Pax Romana (reenactment), a Roman reenactment society from The Netherlands.

"Pax Romana" (Sanctuary), a season three episode of Sanctuary

Pax Romana, a monetary unit in The Secret World MMORPG.

Pax Romana (organization)

Pax Romana is an international lay Catholic movement. It combines the representation of two movements with similar interests and goals, the International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs (ICMICA or ICMICA/MIIC) and the International Movement of Catholic Students (IMCS or IMCS/MIEC). These two groups operate independently, but share the common name of Pax Romana in representation at the United Nations and UNESCO.

Pax Romana has many focuses, some of which are human rights, democracy, education, eradication of poverty, sustainable development, and inter-cultural/inter-religious dialogue. Each of these focuses is approached from the perspective of Catholic social teaching with the goal of promoting peace, in service of the common good.

Pax Romana (reenactment)

Pax Romana is a Classical reenactment society based in the Netherlands, with the main goal to show Romans in the Netherlands as they would have lived in the last quarter of the first century AD.

Pax Sinica

Pax Sinica (Latin for "Chinese peace") is a historiographical term for the periods of peace in East Asia, maintained by Chinese hegemony. China maintained the dominant civilization in the region, due to its political, economic, military and cultural power.

The Pax Sinica of the eastern world by Han China coincided with the Pax Romana of the western world by Rome. It stimulated the long-distance travel and trade in Eurasian history. The Pax Sinica and Pax Romana both eroded at about 200 AD.Tang China (618–907) had established another Pax Sinica. This was considered one of the golden ages of China. The economy, commerce, culture, and science was flourishing and reached new heights. During the early Tang-era, most notably during Emperor Taizong's reign, the Chinese brought their nomadic neighbors to submission. By securing the safety and peace at the many trade routes, this era of Pax Sinica saw a new age for exchange via the Silk Road. The Chinese civilization became open and cosmopolitan to all people from near and far away. Many people from different backgrounds and denominations traveled to the capital of Chang'an. These included clerics, merchants, and envoys from India, Persia, Arabia, Syria, Korea, and Japan.A resurgence of this term has happened in recent years, as the rise of China changes the geopolitical landscape in Asia. The view has been expressed that a renewed Pax Sinica in Central Asia may help maintain stability in the region.

Philippe Thibaut

Philippe Thibaut is a French designer and producer of several popular grand strategy video games, most notably Europa Universalis, the AGEod collection including Birth of America, AGEOD's American Civil War, Pax Romana, Great Invasions, and World War I: lla Grande Guerre '14-'18.

He was the original designer of Europa Universalis as a board game that was published in 1993 by Azure Wish, before leading the adaptation of the hit game for PC in 2000 in collaboration with Target Games that became Paradox Development Studio, and then co-founding AGEod in 2005, that he subsequently merged with Paradox Interactive in December 2009. Working as independent game designer since 2012.

Rocca (architecture)

A rocca (literally: "rock") is a type of Italian fortified stronghold, or fortress, typically located on a hilltop, beneath or on which a village or town historically clustered so that the inhabitants might take refuge at times of trouble. Generally under its owners' patronage the settlement might hope to find prosperity in better times. A rocca might in reality be no grander than a fortified farmhouse. A more extensive rocca would be referred to as a castello.

The rocca in Roman times would more likely be a site of a venerable cult than a dwelling, like the high place of Athens, its Acropolis. Though the earliest documentation is not often earlier than the eleventh century, it was during the Lombard times that farming communities, which had presented a Roman pattern of loosely distributed farmsteads or self-sufficient villas, moved from their traditional places on the fringes of the best arable lands in river valleys, where they were dangerously vulnerable from the Roman roads, to defensive positions, such as had once been occupied by Etruscan settlements, before the settled conditions of the Pax Romana. Historian J.B. Ward-Perkins made the following observation regarding the rocca at the town of Falerii.

At Falerii ... the inhabitants simply transferred their town back from its Roman site on the open plateau to the old cliff-top site of Falerii Veteres, to which they gave the significant name of Civita Castellana, or "the Fortress Town"; just as in antiquity, security was once again the basic consideration.

Similarly, in Greek-speaking Campania, the inhabitants of Paestum finally abandoned their town after raids by Saracens and moved a few miles to the top of a cliff, calling the new settlement Agropoli (i.e., "acropolis"). Where such fortress villages were sited at the end of a ridge, protected on three sides by steep, cliff-like escarpments, the rocca was often sited to control the narrow access along the crest of the spur.

Locally the term la rocca simply designates the local fortified high place.

Sanctuary (season 3)

The third season of the Canadian science fiction–fantasy television series Sanctuary, premiered on Syfy in the United States on October 15, 2010 and consists of 20 episodes. Created by Damian Kindler, the series was adapted from a series of webisodes released in 2007. The increased number of episodes in this season allows the producers to include numerous story arcs. The second half of the third season premiered on April 15, 2011 until it was moved to Monday nights on April 25, 2011.

Spanish era

The Spanish era or era of Caesar (Latin: Æra Hispanica) was a dating system commonly used in the states of the Iberian Peninsula from the 3rd century until the 14th–15th centuries, when it was phased out in favour of the Anno Domini system. Year one of this calendar era coincides with what is now known as 38 BC, possibly the date of a new tax imposed by the Roman Republic on the subdued population of Iberia. Whatever the case, the date signifies the beginning of the Pax Romana in Iberia.

To convert an Anno Domini (AD) date to the corresponding year in the Spanish era, add 38 to the Anno Domini year, such that Era 941 would be equivalent to AD 903.

Official usage ceased in different parts of the peninsula at different times: Aragon in AD 1349, Valencia 1358, Castile 1383, and Portugal 1422. While the year officially began on 1 January under the Spanish era, that was changed to 25 December when the Anno Domini system was adopted (while the Church used 11 January).

Switzerland in the Roman era

The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD.

The mostly Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps to the Rhine and into Gaul, most importantly by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in the Gallic Wars in 58 BC. Under the Pax Romana, the area was smoothly integrated into the prospering Empire, and its population assimilated into the wider Gallo-Roman culture by the 2nd century AD, as the Romans enlisted the native aristocracy to engage in local government, built a network of roads connecting their newly established colonial cities and divided up the area among the Roman provinces.

Roman civilization began to retreat from Swiss territory when it became a border region again after the Crisis of the Third Century. Roman control weakened after 401 AD, but did not entirely disappear until the mid-5th century after which the area began to be occupied by Germanic peoples.

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