Pauline Diana Baynes
Portrait of Pauline Baynes
|Born||9 September 1922|
|Died||1 August 2008 (aged 85)|
|Education||Slade School of Fine Art|
|Known for||Illustration, mainly children's books|
|The Chronicles of Narnia|
|Awards||Kate Greenaway Medal |
Pauline Baynes was born in Hove, Sussex. For a few years she was raised in India, where her father was commissioner in Agra, but she and her elder sister were sent back to England for their schooling. She spent much of her childhood in Farnham, studying at the Farnham School of Art (now the University for the Creative Arts) and eventually attended the Slade School of Fine Art, but after a year there she volunteered to work for the Ministry of Defence, where she made demonstration models for instruction courses. This work did not last long. She was soon transferred to a map-making department, where she acquired skills that she later employed when she drew maps of Narnia for Lewis and of Middle-earth for J. R. R. Tolkien.
Baynes is probably best known for her covers and interior illustrations for The Chronicles of Narnia by C. S. Lewis, seven books published, one volume a year, from 1950 to 1956. Years later she provided some new illustrations for The Land of Narnia: Brian Sibley Explores the World of C. S. Lewis (1998).
When she began work on the Narnia books she was already the chosen illustrator of Lewis's friend and colleague J. R. R. Tolkien. In her obituary for The Daily Telegraph, Charlotte Cory[a] described how Baynes and Tolkien came to be associated:
In 1948 Tolkien was visiting his publishers, George Allen & Unwin, to discuss some disappointing artwork that they had commissioned for his novella Farmer Giles of Ham, when he spotted, lying on a desk, some witty reinterpretations of medieval marginalia from the Luttrell Psalter that greatly appealed to him. These, it turned out, had been sent to the publishers 'on spec' by the then-unknown Pauline Baynes. Tolkien demanded that the creator of these drawings be set to work illustrating Farmer Giles of Ham and was delighted with the subsequent results, declaring that Pauline Baynes had 'reduced my text to a commentary on her drawings.' Further collaboration between Tolkien and his Farmer Giles of Ham illustrator followed, and a lifelong friendship developed ... Later, when she showed him her artwork for a poster featuring Frodo and Bilbo Baggins, the author nodded approvingly and murmured quietly: 'There they are, there they are.'
Eventually drawings by Baynes appeared not only in Farmer Giles of Ham, but also in The Adventures of Tom Bombadil, Smith of Wootton Major, Tree and Leaf and (after the author's death) the poem Bilbo's Last Song, which appeared as a poster in 1974 and as a book in 1990. Baynes also painted the covers for two British paperback editions of The Lord of the Rings (in one volume in 1973 and in three volumes in 1981) and produced illustrated poster versions of the maps from The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit as well as the Tolkien-related A Map of Middle-earth.
Baynes listed as one of her favourites the artwork she provided for A Dictionary of Chivalry (1968), a project that required two years to complete as it contained nearly 600 illustrations. For this work she won the Kate Greenaway Medal from the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP) for the year's best children's book illustration.
Four years later, Baynes was a commended runner-up for the Greenaway, for Snail and Caterpillar by Helen Piers.
Baynes also illustrated The Borrowers Avenged by Mary Norton (1982), the fifth and final book in the Borrowers series, following the death of Diana Stanley, who had illustrated the previous four books. Baynes also provided the covers for a Puffin Books edition of the entire series issued in the 1980s.
Baynes married German-born Fritz Otto Gash in 1961, and they lived in a village near Farnham until his death in 1988. Their only child was still-born. Apart from her art, Baynes' interests included world religions and cultures, her pet dogs, and the music of Handel, to which she listened while working. According to her obituaries, she had a warm relationship with Tolkien but was professionally offended when learning of C. S. Lewis's criticism "that she could not draw lions".
A Map of Middle-earth is the name of two colour posters by different artists, published in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the American and British publishers of J. R. R. Tolkien's book The Lord of the Rings. Both posters were based on cartography by J. R. R. Tolkien and Christopher Tolkien to depict the fictional region of Middle-earth. None of these maps cover the whole continent of Middle-earth; instead they only portray the north-western part of the continent, where the story of The Lord of the Rings takes place.
The earlier poster, signed "BRem" (Barbara Remington), was published in the 1960s by Ballantine Books and features border images adapted from Remington's cover designs for the 1965 Ballantine paperback edition of The Lord of the Rings.
The second version, by Pauline Baynes, was published in 1970 by George Allen & Unwin in the UK and Ballantine Books in the USA. It features ten small inset illustrations of important locations from the story. The poster is framed at the top by a row of nine figures representing the members of the "Fellowship of the Ring" setting out on their quest. At the bottom is an array of antagonists from the novel, including the nine Black Riders, Gollum, Shelob, and various Orcs.Adaptations of The Chronicles of Narnia
The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. It is considered a classic of children's literature and is the author's best-known work, having sold over 100 million copies in 47 languages. Written by Lewis between 1949 and 1954, illustrated by Pauline Baynes and published in London between October 1950 and March 1956, The Chronicles of Narnia has been adapted several times, complete or in part, for television, radio, the stage, film, in audio books, and as video games.Baynes
Baynes is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Adam Baynes, English politician
Aron Baynes (born 1986), New Zealand-born Australian basketball player
Cary F. Baynes, translator of Richard Wilhelm's German edition of the I Ching into English
Helton Godwin Baynes, (1882–1943), analytical psychologist, author, translator of Carl Jung
James Baynes (1766–1837), English painter
Courtney Baynes American author and musician
Pauline Baynes (born 1922), English illustrator
Robert Lambert Baynes (1796–1869), British naval officer
Stephen Baynes (born 1956), Australian dancer
Thomas Mann Baynes (1794–1876), English artist, son of James Baynes
Thomas Spencer Baynes (1823–1887), English philosopherFictional characters:
Inspector Baynes, fictional character from the Sherlock Holmes story The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge
Baynes, character from the illustrated novel "Out Of The Abyss" and main IP of Build A' Berg Entertainment IncorporatedFarmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham is a comic Medieval fable written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1937 and published in 1949. The story describes the encounters between Farmer Giles and a wily dragon named Chrysophylax, and how Giles manages to use these to rise from humble beginnings to rival the king of the land. It is cheerfully anachronistic and light-hearted, set in Britain in an imaginary period of the Dark Ages, and featuring mythical creatures, medieval knights, and primitive firearms. It is only tangentially connected with the author's Middle-earth legendarium: both were originally intended as essays in "English mythology".
The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. The story has appeared with other works by Tolkien in omnibus editions, including The Tolkien Reader and Tales from the Perilous Realm.
Tolkien dedicated Farmer Giles of Ham to Cyril Hackett Wilkinson (1888-1960), a don he knew at Oxford University.Peter Pevensie
Peter Pevensie is a fictional character in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia book series. Peter appears in three of the seven books; as a child and a principal character in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and Prince Caspian, and as an adult in The Last Battle. He is only mentioned in The Horse and His Boy in which he is away on the northern frontier fighting giants and in The Voyage of the Dawn Treader in which he is studying under the tutelage of Professor Kirke.
In Disney's live-action films, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, Peter is portrayed by English actor William Moseley. Actor Noah Huntley portrays an older Peter at the end of the first film.
Peter is the eldest of the four Pevensie children and shares his adventures in Narnia with his sisters Susan and Lucy and with his brother Edmund.
Peter's reign in Narnia was a Tetrarchy (Greek: "leadership of four"), and as High King Peter the Magnificent, he had supreme authority over all subsequent Narnian monarchs. Peter is illustrated by Pauline Baynes in the original novels with dark hair, but there are no specific descriptions of his hair or eye colour or complexion by Lewis.Poems and Stories (J. R. R. Tolkien)
Poems and Stories is a posthumous anthology of some of the previously published short fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien (1892–1973). It also includes the literary essay "On Fairy Stories", and the illustrations of Pauline Baynes, which have appeared in other publications. In this volume, the illustrations are in colour.
Poems and Stories was first published in the UK in a boxed, hardcover "deluxe edition" by Allen & Unwin in 1980. It was reissued in hardcover by HarperCollins in 1992. Houghton Mifflin published a hardcover edition for the United States in 1994.Prince Caspian
Prince Caspian (originally published as Prince Caspian: The Return to Narnia) is a high fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1951. It was the second published of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956), and Lewis had finished writing it in 1949, before the first book was out. It is volume four in recent editions of the series, sequenced according to the internal chronology of the books. Like the others, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and her work has been retained in many later editions.Prince Caspian features "return to Narnia" by the four Pevensie children of the first novel, about a year later in England but 1300 years later in Narnia. It is the only book of The Chronicles with men dominating Narnia. The talking animals and mythical beings are oppressed, and some may be endangered. The English siblings, legendary Kings and Queens of Narnia, are magically recalled, once again children, by the refugee Prince Caspian.
Macmillan US published an American edition within the calendar year.Prince Caspian has been adapted and filmed as two episodes of BBC television series in 1989 and as a feature film in 2008.Shift (Narnia)
Shift is a fictional character in the children's fantasy series The Chronicles of Narnia by C. S. Lewis. He is the main antagonist of The Last Battle, which is the last book of the series.
Shift is an ape who, like many animals in Lewis' work, can talk; Lewis does not specify what kind of ape, but Pauline Baynes' illustrations depict him as a chimpanzee. At the beginning of the book, he lives near his friend/servant Puzzle the donkey at the base of the Great Waterfall, next to the Caldron Pool where the Great River starts its course to the sea. Lewis describes Shift as "the cleverest, ugliest, most wrinkled Ape you can imagine." (Lewis 1956, p. 1)Smith of Wootton Major
Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a novella by J. R. R. Tolkien.Tash (Narnia)
Tash is a fictional deity found in C. S. Lewis's Chronicles of Narnia series. He is an antagonist in the novels The Horse and His Boy and The Last Battle.
Tash is the patron god of the ruling class of Calormen. The Calormene capital is named Tashbaan, and the Tisrocs and Tarkaans and Tarkheenas all claim descent from Tash. The worship of Tash is the only formal religion depicted in the world of Narnia, except that the people of Narnia honour the memory of Aslan, a great lion who was killed and returned from the dead many generations before. There are temples to Tash, Calormenes regularly use ritual phrases such as "Tash the inexorable, the irresistible" and "Tash preserve us", and he is the only being referred to by any character in the books as a god. At the end of the series, Tash is revealed as the antithesis of Aslan (who represents Jesus), and appears as a terrible demon, with a skeletal, humanoid body, a vulture-like head, and four taloned arms.The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil (full title The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Other Verses from the Red Book) is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962. The book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring (the first volume in The Lord of the Rings). The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary verse and fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well. The book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium.
The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem. It is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval 'dream vision' poetry and Irish 'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion.
The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes and later by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, and contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth that is not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor. There is also some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers (some of them are ascribed to Samwise Gamgee).
The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin (one of the languages invented by Tolkien), a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings.The Borrowers Avenged
The Borrowers Avenged is a children's fantasy novel by Mary Norton, published in 1982 by Viking Kestrel in the UK and Harcourt in the US. It was the last of five books in a series that is usually called The Borrowers, inaugurated by The Borrowers in 1952.The Borrowers Avenged was written more than 20 years after its predecessor The Borrowers Aloft (1961).
It is about twice as long as the others at nearly 300 pages;
the 1966 British omnibus edition of four novels was only 699 pages. Pauline Baynes succeeded Diana L. Stanley as illustrator in the UK while Beth and Joe Krush continued as US illustrators.The book received a positive reception by critics. New York magazine called it a "well-drawn portrait ...wittily told"
while Country Life called it "a modern classic in the making".The Horse and His Boy
The Horse and His Boy is a novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1954. Of the seven novels that comprise The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956), The Horse and His Boy was the fifth to be published; it is also one of four of the novels that Lewis finished writing before the first book in the series had been published. In recent editions of The Chronicles of Narnia that are sequenced according to the history of the fictional land of Narnia, The Horse and His Boy is the third book in the series. Like the other novels in The Chronicles of Narnia, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes; her work has been retained in many later editions. The Horse and His Boy is the only novel within The Chronicles of Narnia that features children from the imagined world of Narnia (rather than English characters) as the main characters. It is also the only novel within The Chronicles of Narnia that takes place entirely in the fictional Narnian world.
The novel is set in the period covered by the last chapter of The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (which was the first of the Narnia books to be published), during the reign of the four Pevensie children as Kings and Queens of Narnia. Though three of the Pevensies appear as minor characters in The Horse and His Boy, the main characters are two children and two talking horses who escape from Calormen and travel north into Narnia. On their journey, they pass through Calormen's capital city; while there, they learn of Calormen's plan to invade Archenland. When they reach Archenland, they warn the king of the impending invasion.The Last Battle
The Last Battle is a high fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by The Bodley Head in 1956. It was the seventh and final novel in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956). Like the others it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and her work has been retained in many later editions.The Last Battle is set almost entirely in the Narnia world and the English children who participate arrive only in the middle of the narrative. The novel is set some 200 Narnian years after The Silver Chair and about 2500 years (and 49 Earth years) since the creation of the world narrated in The Magician's Nephew. A false Aslan is set up in the north-western borderlands and conflict between true and false Narnians merges with that between Narnia and Calormen, whose people worship Tash. It concludes with termination of the world by Aslan, after a "last battle" that is practically lost.
Macmillan US published an American edition within the calendar year.Lewis and The Last Battle won the annual Carnegie Medal from the Library Association, recognising the year's best children's book by a British subject. The author wrote to illustrator Baynes, "is it not rather 'our' medal? I'm sure the illustrations were taken into account as well as the text."The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is a fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1950. It is the first published and best known of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956). Among all the author's books, it is also the most widely held in libraries. Although it was originally the first of The Chronicles of Narnia, it is volume two in recent editions that are sequenced by the stories' chronology. Like the other Chronicles, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes, and her work has been retained in many later editions.Most of the novel is set in Narnia, a land of talking animals and mythical creatures that is ruled by the evil White Witch. In the frame story, four English children are relocated to a large, old country house following a wartime evacuation. The youngest, Lucy, visits Narnia three times via the magic of a wardrobe in a spare room. Lucy's three siblings are with her on her third visit to Narnia. In Narnia, the siblings seem fit to fulfill an old prophecy and find themselves adventuring to save Narnia and their own lives. The lion Aslan gives his life to save one of the children; he later rises from the dead, vanquishes the White Witch, and crowns the children Kings and Queens of Narnia.
Lewis wrote the book for (and dedicated it to) his goddaughter, Lucy Barfield. She was the daughter of Owen Barfield, Lewis's friend, teacher, adviser, and trustee.The Magician's Nephew
The Magician's Nephew is a high fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Bodley Head in 1955. It is the sixth published of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956); it is volume one of the series in recent editions, which sequence the books according to Narnia history. Like the others, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes whose work has been retained in many later editions. The Bodley Head was a new publisher for The Chronicles, a change from Geoffrey Bles.The Magician's Nephew is a prequel to the series. The middle third of the novel features creation of the Narnia world by Aslan the lion, centred on a section of a lamp-post brought by accidental observers from London in 1900. The visitors then participate in the beginning of Narnia history, 1000 years before The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (which inaugurated the series in 1950).
The frame story is set in England and features two children ensnared in experimental travel via "the wood between the worlds". Thus, the novel shows Narnia and our middle-age world to be only two of many in a multiverse, which changes as some worlds begin and others end. It also explains the origin of foreign elements in Narnia, not only the lamp-post but also the White Witch and a human king and queen.
Lewis began The Magician's Nephew soon after completing The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, spurred by a friend's question about the lamp-post in the middle of nowhere, but he needed more than five years to complete it. The story includes several autobiographical elements and explores a number of themes with general moral and Christian implications, including atonement, original sin, temptation and the order of nature.The Silver Chair
The Silver Chair is a children's fantasy novel by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1953. It was the fourth published of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956); it is volume six in recent editions, which are sequenced according to Narnian history. Like the others, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and her work has been retained in many later editions.The novel is set primarily in the world of Narnia, decades after The Voyage of the Dawn Treader there but less than a year later in England. King Caspian X is now an old man, but his son and only heir, Prince Rilian, is missing. Aslan the lion sends two children from England to Narnia on a mission to resolve the mystery: Eustace Scrubb, from The Voyage of the Dawn Treader, and his classmate, Jill Pole. In the frame story, Eustace and Jill are students at a horrible boarding school, Experiment House.
The Silver Chair is dedicated to Nicholas Hardie, the son of Colin Hardie, a member of the Inklings with Lewis.
Macmillan US published an American edition within the calendar year.The Silver Chair was adapted and filmed as a BBC television series of six episodes in 1990.The Voyage of the Dawn Treader
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader is a high fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis, published by Geoffrey Bles in 1952. It was the third published of seven novels in The Chronicles of Narnia (1950–1956) and Lewis had finished writing it in 1950, before the first book was out. It is volume five in recent editions, which are sequenced according to the novels' internal chronology. Like the others, it was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and her work has been retained in many later editions. It is the only Narnia book that does not have a main villain.
Lewis dedicated the book to Geoffrey Corbett. He is the foster-son of Owen Barfield, the friend, teacher, adviser and trustee of Lewis.
Macmillan US published an American edition within the calendar year with substantial revisions that were retained in the US until 1994.
The Voyage of the Dawn Treader has been adapted and filmed as four episodes of a BBC television series in 1989 and as a feature film in 2010.Tree and Leaf
Tree and Leaf is a small book published in 1964, containing two works by J. R. R. Tolkien:
a revised version of an essay called "On Fairy-Stories" (originally published in 1947 in Essays Presented to Charles Williams)
an allegorical short story called "Leaf by Niggle" (originally published in the Dublin Review in 1945).Tree and Leaf was the first publication in which On Fairy-Stories and Leaf by Niggle became readily available to the general public. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes.
"Mythopoeia" was added to the 1988 edition (ISBN 0395502322). Later versions also include "The Homecoming of Beorhtnoth Beorhthelm's Son".
Both pieces were re-issued in the collection The Tolkien Reader (1966), and have also appeared in various subsequent collections.