The Paul VI Audience Hall (Italian: Aula Paolo VI) also known as the Hall of the Pontifical Audiences is a building in Rome named for Pope Paul VI with a seating capacity of 6,300, designed in reinforced concrete by the Italian architect Pier Luigi Nervi and completed in 1971. It was constructed on land donated by the Knights of Columbus.
It lies partially in the Vatican City but mostly in Italy: the Italian part of the building is treated as an extraterritorial area of the Holy See and is used by the Pope as an alternative to Saint Peter's Square when conducting his Wednesday morning General Audience. It is dominated by an 800-quintal (8 metric ton) bronze/copper-alloy sculpture by Pericle Fazzini entitled La Resurrezione (Italian for The Resurrection). A smaller meeting hall, known as Synod Hall (Aula del Sinodo), is located in the building as well. This hall sits at the east end on a second floor.
On 25 May 2007, it was revealed that the roof of the building was to be covered with 2,400 photovoltaic panels, generating sufficient electricity to supply all the heating, cooling and lighting needs of the building throughout the year. The system was donated by SolarWorld, a German manufacturer, and valued at $1.5 million. It was officially placed into service on 26 November 2008, and was awarded the 2008 European Solar Prize in the category for "Solar architecture and urban development".
An audience is a formal meeting that takes place between a head of state and another person at the invitation of the head of state. Often, the invitation follows a request for a meeting from the other person. Though sometimes used in republics to describe meetings with presidents, the term is more usually associated with monarchs and popes.Chiamatemi Francesco
Chiamatemi Francesco (Call Me Francis) is a 2015 Italian biographical film about Pope Francis directed by Daniele Luchetti.Congregation for Borders
The Congregation for Borders (Congregazione dei Confini) was a congregation of the Roman curia. It was set up by pope Urban VIII in his apostolic constitution Debitum pastoralis officii on 1 October 1627 to oversee the borders of the Papal States. It was suppressed in 1847.Culture of Vatican City
Vatican City is itself of great cultural significance. Buildings such as St. Peter's Basilica and the Sistine Chapel are home to some of the most famous art in the world, which includes works by artists such as Botticelli, Bernini and Michelangelo. The Vatican Library and the collections of the Vatican Museums are of the highest historical, scientific and cultural importance. In 1984, the Vatican was added by UNESCO to the List of World Heritage Sites; it is the only one to consist of an entire country.The Vatican can be said to be the de facto custodian of the Latin language through its Latinitas Foundation. An important product of this foundation is the Latin lexicon of recent neologisms, the Lexicon Recentis Latinitatis.
The permanent population of the Vatican City is predominantly male, although two communities of nuns live in the Vatican. A minority are senior Catholic clergy, some are members of institutes of consecrated life, and the Swiss Guards make up an important segment. Many workers in Vatican City and embassy personnel accredited to the Holy See live outside its walls.
Tourism and pilgrimages are an important factor in the daily life in the Vatican. The Pope has weekly public audiences and celebrates public Mass and other services, and imparts his Urbi et Orbi blessing every Easter and Christmas, and immediately following his election as Pope. For significant events with large numbers of attendees, he concelebrates open-air Mass in Saint Peter's Square.Economy of Vatican City
The unique, noncommercial economy of Vatican City is supported financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps and tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.Geography of Vatican City
The geography of Vatican City is unique due to the country's position as an urban, landlocked enclave of Rome, Italy. With an area of 0.17 sq mi (0.44 km2), it is the world's smallest independent state. Outside the Vatican City, thirteen buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo (the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights. (One building, the Paul VI Audience Hall, straddles the border, but its Italian portion has extraterritorial rights.) The country contains no major natural resources, and no known natural hazards other than those that affect Rome in general, such as earthquakes.Grottammare
Grottammare is a town and comune on Italy's Adriatic coast, in the province of Ascoli Piceno, Marche region.
The town is crossed by the 43rd parallel north. Economy is mostly based on summer tourism; other sectors include food and vegetables production, mechanics, and commerce.List of flags of the Papacy
The following is a list of flags used in Vatican City and the Papal States.Mary, Mediatrix of All Grace
Mary, Mediatrix of All Grace (Spanish: María, Mediadora de Toda-Gracia; Tagalog: María, Tagapamagitan ng Lahat ng Biyaya) is a Marian apparition that allegedly took place in the Carmelite Monastery of Lipa, Batangas, Philippines, to a former Carmelite postulant, Teresita Castillo. The apparition is known in the Philippines for the rose petals which allegedly fell within the vicinity of the monastery; some of these bear religious images, and are held by some to be miraculous. The Roman Catholic Church does not approve nor endorse the alleged apparition, which was ruled as non-supernatural by the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith in September 2015.
Initially declared "non-supernatural" after a thorough investigation by six Filipino bishops headed by Cardinal Rufino Santos on 11 April 1951, the case was reopened in 1991 with extensive research and investigation. In a reversal of fortune, on 12 September 2015, the Archbishop of Lipa Ramón Argüelles, against explicit direction from the Holy See and the Bishops' Conference of the Philippines, formally approved the apparitions, declaring them "supernatural in character and worthy of belief."
On 3 March 2011, Pope Benedict XVI was presented with a statue of the apparition by Bishop Guillermo Afable during the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines Ad Limina visit. On 9 March 2011, a life-sized Mediatrix statue brought by Filipino bishops was publicly displayed in the general Wednesday papal audience at Pope Paul VI Audience Hall. The original image is currently enshrined at the Lipa Carmelite Monastery, Batangas, Philippines. Devotees of Mary under this title are also closely affiliated with the movement pressuring the Holy See in to declaring the Blessed Virgin Mary as Co-Redemptrix.
On 11 December 2015, the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith ruled out that the Marian apparition are definitively non-supernatural based on the coerced negative verdict of six Filipino bishops in 1951 and the alleged confirmation of the same verdict by Pope Pius XII in the 1960s. The Archbishop of Lipa received the official copy on May 31 of final verdict. On 1 June 2016, Archbishop Arguelles released a public statement retracting his episcopal judgment on the controversial matter, reverting to the decision issued by the Vatican.Octava Dies
Octava Dies is a 25 minute weekly TV magazine show, which broadcasts worldwide since Easter 1998. It is also broadcast by Italian Catholic television channels and by press agencies such as APTN. It is available in English and Italian on the Vatican’s website (broadcast every Sunday at 12:30 after the Angelus).
The magazine is part of the Vatican Television Center (CTV) programs, which are transmitted by the national broadcaster of the state of Vatican City. This specific weekly program highlights the activities of Pope Francis and the Holy See. Taped at the Vatican and in other places visited by the Pope in the course of his day-to-day ministry.Vatican Central Television was first aired in 1983.Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah
The Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah (Holocaust) was the first official Vatican commemoration of the murder of six million Jews by the Nazis during World War II. It took place in the Sala Nervi (also called Paul VI Audience Hall) at the Vatican on April 7, 1994. The concert was conceived and created at the direct behest of Pope John Paul II by the American conductor Gilbert Levine, who had first met the Pope after he was appointed artistic director and conductor of the Krakow Philharmonic, in December 1987. Pope John Paul II, Rav Elio Toaff, the Chief Rabbi of Italy, and Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, President of Italy jointly presided over the event, and viewed it from positions of equal honor.Papal gentleman
A Papal gentleman, also called a Gentleman of His Holiness, is a lay attendant of the pope and his papal household in Vatican City. Papal gentlemen serve in the Apostolic Palace near St. Peter's Basilica in ceremonial positions, such as escorting dignitaries during state visits and other important occasions. The position is a successor to the earlier position of papal chamberlain, that existed prior to 1968. To be appointed is an honor. The appointee is an unpaid volunteer.Pontifical council
The pontifical councils are a group of several mid-sized dicasteries, each led by a cardinal or archbishop as president, which are part of the larger organization called the Roman Curia. The Roman Curia is charged with helping the Pope in his governance and oversight of the Roman Catholic Church.Prefecture of the Papal household
The Prefecture of the Papal Household is the office in charge of the Papal Household, a section of the Roman Curia that comprises the Papal Chapel (Cappella Pontificia) and the Papal Family (Familia Pontificia).
The current Prefect of the household is Archbishop Georg Gänswein, appointed on 7 December 2012.St Mary's College, Rawalpindi
St Mary’s College, Rawalpindi, is an institute of higher learning established by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Islamabad-Rawalpindi in 2006 to meet the growing educational needs of the region. It was first called the Ave Maria College of Professional and Applied Sciences.
Students from the college and local high school prayed a rosary Pope Benedict XVI led from the Vatican through a special satellite linkup on 10 March 2007. About 100 local students, mostly from the College but also a small group from St. Mary's High School, joined students in Hong Kong, Kolkata in India, Manila in the Philippines, and seven European cities for the two-way telecast. Rome diocese's Pastoral Office for Universities organized the event, titled Intellectual Charity, the Way to Renewed Cooperation between Europe and Asia, with local Churches. Hosted from Paul VI Audience Hall in the Vatican. The occasion was the 5th European Day for Universities. Bishop Anthony Lobo of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Islamabad-Rawalpindi led the gathering of Pakistani students who assembled in the chapel of Boys' Town Hostel at the college.The Association of Volunteers in International Service is launching a collaboration with Bishop Anthony Lobo, Director of the College. The AVSI support the college, giving many young people the chance to continue their studies and play an active role in Pakistani society.St. Mary's College has made its niche at the intermediate level. It offers pre-university classes for engineering, medical, computer sciences and business. In 2010 Aheed Naveed Ahmed stood first in whole college scoring 950 marks in the exam of intermediate and his score is still considered as the first. It is affiliated with the Northern Consortium UK for running Business and Engineering classes. The consortium comprises some of the top British Universities with a facility for students to complete 1–2 years in Pakistan and the remaining at the parent British university. Retired Brigadier Samson Simon Sharaf is the Rector of the College.The Resurrection (Fazzini)
The Resurrection (La Resurrezione) is an 800-quintal (80 metric ton) bronze/copper-alloy sculpture by Pericle Fazzini in the Paul VI Audience Hall in Rome. Intended to capture the anguish of 20th century mankind living under the threat of nuclear war, La Resurrezione depicts Jesus rising from a nuclear crater in the Garden of Gethsemane.
The sculpture's dimensions are 66 ft × 23 ft × 10 ft (20.1 m × 7.0 m × 3.0 m). The commission for the work was ordered by Count Galeassi in 1965; casting began at the Michelucci Art Foundry in Pistoia in 1972; the final sketch was produced in 1975; and the work was completed and inaugurated on September 28, 1977.
The original work was done in polystyrene and the fumes of the burning plastic gave Fazzini a blood clot during its production. The statue was restored over three months in 2011.Vatican Climate Forest
The Vatican Climate Forest, to be located in the Bükk National Park, Hungary, was donated to the Vatican City by a carbon offsetting company. The forest is to be sized to offset the carbon emissions generated by the Vatican during 2007. The Vatican's acceptance of the offer, at a ceremony on July 5, 2007, was reported as being "purely symbolic", and a way to encourage Catholics to do more to safeguard the planet. No trees have been planted under the project and the carbon offsets have not materialised.In a more effective move to combat global warming, in May 2007, the Vatican announced that the roof of the Paul VI Audience Hall would be covered with photovoltaic panels. The installation was officially placed into service on November 26, 2008.Vatican Media
Vatican Media (formerly Centro Televisivo Vaticano) is the Holy See national broadcaster of the Vatican City State which first aired in 1983.Vicar General for Vatican City
The Vicar General for Vatican City, more formally the Vicar General of His Holiness for Vatican City, is the vicar general for the part of the Diocese of Rome that lies within Vatican City. He is appointed by the Pope.