Pattani (Patani) or the Sultanate of Patani was a Malay sultanate in the historical Patani Region. It covered approximately the area of the modern Thai provinces of Pattani, Yala, Narathiwat and much of the northern part of modern Malaysia. The 6–7th century Hindu state of Pan Pan may or may not have been related.
The Sultanate of Patani Darussalam
The Sultanate of Patani
Map of the Sultanate of Patani
|Common languages||Patani Malay|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
• Conquest by Siam in 1785, later followed by annexation
|Today part of||Thailand Malaysia|
Langkasuka was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom, founded in the region as early as the 2nd century CE, which appeared in many accounts by Chinese travellers, the most famous of whom was the Buddhist pilgrim I-Ching. The kingdom drew trade from Chinese, Indian, and local traders as a stopping place for ships bound for, or just arrived from, the Gulf of Thailand. Langkasuka reached its greatest economic success in the 6th and 7th centuries and afterward declined as a major trade center. Political circumstances suggest that by the 11th century Chola invasion, Langkasuka was no longer a major port visited by merchants. However, much of the decline may be due to the silting up of its harbour, shown most poignantly today because the most substantial Langkasukan ruins lie approximately 15 kilometres from the sea.
Patani became part of the Hindu-Buddhist Empire of Srivijaya, a maritime confederation based in Palembang. Srivijaya dominated trade in the South China Sea and exacted tolls on all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. Malay culture had substantial influence on the Khmer Empire, and the ancient city of Nakhon Pathom.
The founding of the Islamic kingdom of Patani is thought to have been around the mid-13th century CE, with folklore suggesting it was named after an exclamation made by Sultan Ismail Shah, "Pantai ini!" (pronounced as "pata ni!", 'this beach' in the local Malay language). However, some think it was the same country known to the Chinese as Pan Pan.
An alternative theory is that the Patani kingdom was founded in the 14th century. Local stories tell of a fisherman named Pak Tani (Father of Tani), who was sent by a king from the interior to survey the coast, to find a place for an appropriate settlement. After he established a successful fishing outpost, other people moved to join him. The town soon grew into a prosperous trading center that continued to bear his name. The authors of the 17th–18th century Hikayat Patani chronicle claim this story is untrue, and support the claim that the kingdom was founded by the Sultan.
The Patani kingdom's golden age was during the reign of its four successive queens from 1584, known as Ratu Hijau (The Green Queen), Ratu Biru (The Blue Queen), Ratu Ungu (The Purple Queen) and Ratu Kuning (The Yellow Queen), during which the kingdom's economic and military strength was greatly increased to the point that it was able to fight off four major Siamese invasions, with the help of the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanate of Johor.
In the 14th century CE, King Ram Khamhaeng the Great (c.1239 – 1317) of Sukhothai (also known as Pho Khun Ramkhamhaeng, Thai: พ่อขุนรามคำแหงมหาราช), occupied Nakhon Si Thammarat and its vassal states – including Patani.
The Thai Ayutthaya kingdom conquered the isthmus during the 14th century CE, bringing it into a single unified state, with Ayutthaya as a capital, and many smaller vassal states under its control. This consisted of a self-governing system in which the vassal states and tributary provinces owed allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya, but otherwise ran their own affairs.
A sheikh named Sa'id or Shafi'uddin from Kampong Pasai (presumably a small community of traders from Pasai who lived on the outskirts of Patani reportedly healed the king of a rare skin disease and after much negotiation (and recurrence of the disease), the king agreed to convert to Islam, adopting the name Sultan Ismail Shah. All of the sultan's officials also agreed to convert. However, there is fragmentary evidence that some local people had begun to convert to Islam prior to this. The existence of a diasporic Pasai community near Patani shows the locals had regular contact with Muslims. There are also travel reports, such as that of Ibn Battuta, and early Portuguese accounts that claimed Patani had an established Muslim community even before Melaka (which officially converted in 1413), which would suggest that merchants who had contact with other emerging Muslims centres were the first to convert to the region.
During much of the 15th century Ayutthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, especially the trading port of Malacca, which fell under the rule of the Malacca Sultanate. Ayutthaya's sovereignty extended over Malacca and the Malay states south of Tambralinga (Nakorn Sri Thammarat). Ayutthaya helped develop and stabilise the region, opening the way for lucrative trade on the isthmus. This attracted Chinese merchants seeking speciality goods for the Chinese market.
The 16th century witnessed the rise of Burma, which under an aggressive dynasty had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and made war on Ayutthaya. A second siege (1563–64) led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender in 1564. The royal family was taken to Bago, Burma, with the king's second son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king. With the brief decline of Ayutthaya's hegemony in this period, Patani may have become independent temporarily.
King Dhammaraja (reigned 1569–90) was a Siamese noble of the Sukhothai dynasty, and was formerly the King of Phitsanulok - an important city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. Dhammaraja became the King of Ayutthaya by aiding the Burmese King in the siege of Ayutthaya in 1568. After, taking over Ayutthaya, Bayinnaung installed Dhammara as a vassal king. After Bayinnaung's death in 1581, uparaja Naresuan proclaimed Ayutthaya's independence in 1584. The Thai fought off repeated Burmese invasions (1584–1593). Thai independence was later restored by Dhammaraja son, King Naresuan the Great (reigned 1590–1605), who rebelled against the Burmese and by 1593 had driven them from the kingdom. The Burmese–Siamese War (1594–1605) was a Thai attack on Burma, resulting in the capture of the Tanintharyi Region as far as Mottama in 1595 and Lan Na in 1602. Naresuan even invaded mainland Burma as far as Taungoo in 1600, but was driven back.
Under King Naresuan, Ayutthaya returned to the summit of its power - its territory span over Lan Xang and the Khmer Kingdom. All the polities that broke away from its hegemony during Dhammaraja's reign returned to be under the Siamese control. King Naresuan set about unifying the country's administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya's provinces, instead assigning court officials who were expected to adhere the policies handed by the king. The royal princes were confined to the capital city. Their power struggles continued, but they were at court under the king's watchful eye. Even with King Naresuan's reforms, however, the power of the royal government during the next 150 years should not be overestimated.
Chinese merchants, beginning with Zheng He in the period 1406–1433 CE, played a major role in the rise of Patani as a regional trade center. They were joined by others including the Portuguese in 1516, Japanese in 1592, Dutch in 1602, English in 1612, and Malay and Siamese merchants who traded throughout the area. Many Chinese also moved to Patani, perhaps due to the activity of Lin Daoqian. A Dutch report of 1603 by Jacob van Neck estimated that there may be as many Chinese in Patani as there were native Malays, and they were responsible for most of the commercial activity of Patani. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) established warehouses in Patani in 1603, followed by the English East India Company in 1612, both carrying out intense trading. In 1619, John Jourdain, the East India Company's chief factor at Bantam was killed off the coast of Patani by the Dutch.
Patani was seen by European traders as a way to access the Chinese market. After 1620, the Dutch and English both closed their warehouses, but a prosperous trade was continued by the Chinese, Japanese, and Portuguese for most of the 17th century.
Following a 1688 invasion by Ayutthaya, political disorder continued for five decades, during which the local rulers were helpless to end the lawlessness in the region. Most foreign merchants abandoned trade with Patani.
In the mid-17th century Ratu Kuning (the Yellow Queen) died. She is believed to be the last of four successive female rulers of Patani, which then went through decades of political chaos and conflict, experiencing a gradual decline.
One hundred years later, Ayutthaya under King Ekatat (Boromaraja V) faced another Burmese invasion. This culminated in the capture and destruction of the city of Ayutthaya in 1767, as well as the death of the king. Siam was shattered, and as rivals fought for the vacant throne, Patani declared its complete independence.
King Taksin finally defeated the Burmese and reunified the country, opening the way for the establishment of the Chakri dynasty by his successor, King Rama I. In 1785, a resurgent Siam sent an army led by Prince Surasi (Viceroy Boworn Maha Surasinghanat), younger brother of King Rama I, to seek the submission of Patani.
Patani was easily defeated by Siam in 1785 and resumed its tributary status. However, a series of attempted rebellions prompted Bangkok to divide Patani into seven smaller puppet kingdoms in the early 1800s during the reign of King Rama II. Britain recognised the Thai ownership of Patani by the Burney Treaty.
Inland Dynasty (Sri Wangsa)
First Kelantanese Dynasty
Second Kelantanese Dynasty
The 300 Years Mosque (Thai: มัสยิด 300 ปี; RTGS: Matsayit Sam-roi-pi) also known as Al-Hussein Mosque (Thai: มัสยิดวาดี อัล ฮูเซ็น; RTGS: Matsayit Wadi An Husen) or Talo Mano Mosque (Thai: มัสยิดตะโละมาเนาะ) is one of the oldest mosques in Thailand. Located in Narathiwat, a southern province in Thailand, it is in use today by the large Muslim community in the area. The mosque was built in 1634 to serve the newly settled Muslim community during that time. It is the oldest wooden mosque in Thailand.Hikayat Patani
The Hikayat Patani, meaning Story Of Pattani, is a semi-legendary set of tales that chronicle the history of the Pattani kingdom, now a southern state of Thailand.
These stories date to as early as the late 15th century, but were most likely first recorded at various times between 1690 and 1730 by as many as six different authors (the sections outlined below were first established by linguist Andries Teeuw and historian David K. Wyatt) and written in Jawi alphabet.
The story survives in a number of original manuscripts, the earliest transcribed by Abdullah Menshi in 1839, and held in the Library of Congress.Islam in Thailand
Islam is a minority faith in Thailand, with statistics suggesting 4.9 percent of the population are Muslim. Figures as high as 5 percent of Thailand's population have also been mentioned. Most Thai Muslims belong to the branch of Sunni Islam, although Thailand has a diverse population that includes immigrants from around the world.List of Classical Age states
Classical Antiquity is a period in the history of the Near East and Mediterranean, extending roughly from the 8th century BC to the 6th century AD.
It is conventionally taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity and the decline of the Roman Empire in the 5th to 6th centuries, the period during which Late Antiquity blends into the "Dark Ages" or Early Middle Ages.
The geographic scope of Classical Antiquity may be taken to extend to Central Asia and northern India due to the far-reaching influence of Greek culture during the Hellenistic period (late 4th to 2nd centuries BC),
but the historiographies of other world regions have their own notion of "classicity" which do not fall within the scope of this list.List of political entities in the 10th century
Political entities in the 9th century – Political entities in the 11th century – Political entities by yearThis is a list of political entities in the 10th century (901–1000) AD.List of political entities in the 11th century
This is a list of political entities in the 11th century.List of political entities in the 6th century
Political entities in the 5th century – Political entities in the 7th century – Political entities by yearThis is a list of political entities in the 6th century (501–600) AD.List of political entities in the 9th century
Political entities in the 8th century – Political entities in the 10th century – Political entities by yearThis is a list of political entities in the 9th century (801–900) AD.Pan Pan (kingdom)
Pan Pan or Panpan is a lost small Hindu Kingdom believed to have existed around the 3rd to 7th Century CE. It is believed to have been located on the east coast of the Malay peninsula, with opinion varying from somewhere in Kelantan or Terengganu, Malaysia to the vicinity of Amphoe Phunphin, Surat Thani Province, Thailand. It is speculated to be related to Pan tan i (the Pattani Kingdom), which occupied the same area many centuries later, and has some differences in culture and language to other Malay regions nearby.Pattani Province
Pattani (Template:فطاني, pronounced [pàt.tāː.nīː]) is one of the southern provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from southeast clockwise) Narathiwat, Yala, and Songkhla.Phaya Tani
Phaya Tani (or Seri Patani in Malay) is a 17th-century siege cannon from Pattani Province in southern Thailand. It is the largest cannon ever cast in what is now Thailand, measuring 2.7 m long (9 feet) and made of brass. It is on display in front of the Ministry of Defence, opposite the Grand Palace in Bangkok. The cannon still serves as the symbol of Pattani Province.Silat Pattani
Silat Patani (Thai: silat Pattani, Malay: silat Patani) is a style of silat originating in the Pattani kingdom, now a state of Thailand. It is primarily practiced in northern Malaysia and southern Thailand. The art is also known as silat tua (old silat) because tradition credits it as the oldest form of silat Melayu. It is sometimes called silat tua Yawi, being the Thai-Malay pronunciation of Jawi in this case referring to the Thai Malay community. These two latter names are increasingly popular among Malaysian practitioners, so as not to acknowledge the Pattani origin of the art.Thai Malays
Thai Malays (Malay: Orang Melayu Thai, Thai: ไทยเชื้อสายมลายู, Jawi: ملايو تاي, Pattani Malay: Oré Nayu, Jawi or Bangso Yawi) is a term used to refer to ethnic Malays in Thailand. Thailand hosts the third largest ethnic Malay population after Malaysia and Indonesia, and most Malays are concentrated in the Southern provinces of Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala, Songkhla, and Satun. Phuket and Ranong, home to a sizeable Muslim population, also has many people who are of Malay descent. A sizeable community also exists in Thailand's capital Bangkok, having descended from migrants or deportees who were relocated from the South from the 13th century onwards.Separatist inclinations among ethnic Malays in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala, and Songkhla are due in part to cultural differences from the Thai people as well as past experiences of forced attempts to assimilate them into Thai mainstream culture after the annexation of the Pattani Kingdom by the Sukhothai Kingdom. On the other hand, the Malay Muslims of Satun are less inclined towards separatism, this heavily a result of the historical affinity of the Malay King of Setul towards Siam, compared to the violent demise of the Pattani Kingdom. A parallel of pro-Thai inclination can also be observed by Malay community in Phuket, Ranong and Bangkok.Yala, Thailand
Yala (Thai: ยะลา, pronounced [jáʔlaː] or [jálaː]) is a city and seat of Mueang Yala District and Yala Province, southern Thailand. The provincial and district capital, it is 137 kilometres by road southeast of Hat Yai. The eastern part of the city is part of the neighboring tambon of Sateng Nok. As of 2010 the tambon had a total population of 76,853, up from 65,503 people reported in 2005. It lies on the border with Pattani Province in the north of Yala Province. It lies on Thailand Route 4106, south of Khao Tum and north of Krong Pinang. Yala railway station is on the State Railway of Thailand Southern Line. Yala is approximately 1,100 km south of Bangkok.