Patronage

Patronage is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another. In the history of art, arts patronage refers to the support that kings, popes, and the wealthy have provided to artists such as musicians, painters, and sculptors. It can also refer to the right of bestowing offices or church benefices, the business given to a store by a regular customer, and the guardianship of saints. The word "patron" derives from the Latin: patronus ("patron"), one who gives benefits to his clients (see Patronage in ancient Rome).

In some countries the term is used to describe political patronage, which is the use of state resources to reward individuals for their electoral support. Some patronage systems are legal, as in the Canadian tradition of the Prime Minister to appoint senators and the heads of a number of commissions and agencies; in many cases, these appointments go to people who have supported the political party of the Prime Minister. As well, the term may refer to a type of corruption or favoritism in which a party in power rewards groups, families, ethnicities for their electoral support using illegal gifts or fraudulently awarded appointments or government contracts.[1]

Arts

From the ancient world onward, patronage of the arts was important in art history. It is known in greatest detail in reference to medieval and Renaissance Europe, though patronage can also be traced in feudal Japan, the traditional Southeast Asian kingdoms, and elsewhere—art patronage tended to arise wherever a royal or imperial system and an aristocracy dominated a society and controlled a significant share of resources. Samuel Johnson defined a patron as "one who looks with unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and, when he has reached ground, encumbers him with help".[2]

Rulers, nobles and very wealthy people used patronage of the arts to endorse their political ambitions, social positions, and prestige. That is, patrons operated as sponsors. Most languages other than English still use the term mecenate, derived from the name of Gaius Maecenas, generous friend and adviser to the Roman Emperor Augustus. Some patrons, such as the Medici of Florence, used artistic patronage to "cleanse" wealth that was perceived as ill-gotten through usury. Art patronage was especially important in the creation of religious art. The Roman Catholic Church and later Protestant groups sponsored art and architecture, as seen in churches, cathedrals, painting, sculpture and handicrafts.

While sponsorship of artists and the commissioning of artwork is the best-known aspect of the patronage system, other disciplines also benefited from patronage, including those who studied natural philosophy (pre-modern science), musicians, writers, philosophers, alchemists, astrologers, and other scholars. Artists as diverse and important as Chrétien de Troyes, Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson all sought and enjoyed the support of noble or ecclesiastical patrons.[3][4] Figures as late as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven also participated in the system to some degree; it was only with the rise of bourgeois and capitalist social forms in the middle 19th century that European culture moved away from its patronage system to the more publicly supported system of museums, theaters, mass audiences and mass consumption that is familiar in the contemporary world.

This kind of system continues across many fields of the arts. Though the nature of the sponsors has changed—from churches to charitable foundations, and from aristocrats to plutocrats—the term patronage has a more neutral connotation than in politics. It may simply refer to direct support (often financial) of an artist, for example by grants. In the latter part of the 20th century, the academic sub-discipline of patronage studies began to evolve, in recognition of the important and often neglected role that the phenomenon of patronage had played in the cultural life of previous centuries.

Charity

Charitable and other non-profit making organisations often seek an influential figurehead to act as patron. The relationship often does not involve money. As well as conferring credibility, these people can use their contacts and charisma to assist the organisation to raise funds or to affect government policy. The British Royal Family are especially prolific in this respect, devoting a large proportion of their time to a wide range of causes.[5]

Commercial

Sometimes consumers support smaller or local businesses or corporations out of loyalty even if less expensive options exist. Their regular custom is referred to as 'patronage'. Patronage may entitle members of a cooperative to a share of the surplus or profit generated by the co-op, called a patronage refund. This refund is a form of dividend.

Ecclesiastical

Anglican

See main article Parish

In the Church of England, patronage is the commonly used term for the right to present a candidate to a benefice.

Catholic

Patronage of Our Lady

The liturgical feast of the Patronage of Our Lady was first permitted by Decree of the Sacred Congregation of Rites on 6 May 1679, for all the ecclesiastical provinces of Spain, in memory of the victories obtained over the Saracens, heretics and other enemies from the sixth century to the reign of Philip IV of Spain. Pope Benedict XII ordered it to be kept in the Papal States on the third Sunday of November. To other places it is granted, on request, for some Sunday in November, to be designated by the ordinary. In many places the feast of the Patronage is held with an additional Marian title of Queen of All Saints, of Mercy, Mother of Graces. The Office is taken entirely from the Common of the Blessed Virgin, and the Mass is the "Salve sancta parens".[6]

Presbyterian

The Church Patronage (Scotland) Act 1711, (in force until 1874) resulted in multiple secessions from the Church of Scotland, including the secession of 1733, which led to the formation of the Associate Presbytery, the secession of 1761, which led to the formation of the Relief Church, and the Disruption of 1843, which led to the formation of the Free Church of Scotland.

Journalism

While most news companies, particularly in North America are funded through advertising revenue,[7] secondary funding sources include audience members and philanthropists who donate to for-profit and non-profit organizations.

Politics

Political leaders have at their disposal a great deal of patronage, in the sense that they make decisions on the appointment of officials inside and outside government (for example on quangos in the UK). Patronage is therefore a recognized power of the executive branch. In most countries the executive has the right to make many appointments, some of which may be lucrative (see also sinecures). In some democracies, high-level appointments are reviewed or approved by the legislature (as in the advice and consent of the United States Senate); in other countries, such as those using the Westminster system, this is not the case. Other types of political patronage may violate the laws or ethics codes, such as when political leaders engage in nepotism (hiring family members) and cronyism such as fraudulently awarding non-competitive government contracts to friends or relatives or pressuring the public service to hire an unqualified family member or friend.

Philippines

Political patronage, also known as "Padrino System" also a slang call as balimbing (starfruit), in the Philippines, has been the source of many controversies and corruption. It has been an open secret that one cannot join the political arena of the Philippines without mastery of the Padrino System. From the lowest Barangay official, to the President of the Republic, it is expected that one gains political debts and dispenses political favor to advance one's career or gain influence, if not wealth.

Russia

After Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin's retirement from politics in March 1923 following a stroke, a power struggle began between Soviet Premier Alexei Rykov, Pravda editor Nikolai Bukharin, Profintern leader Mikhail Tomsky, Red Army founder Leon Trotsky, former Premier Lev Kamenev, Comintern leader Grigory Zinoviev, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin. Stalin used patronage to appoint many Stalinist delegates (such as Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Grigory Ordzhonikidze, and Mikhail Kalinin) to the Party Politburo and Sovnarkom in order to sway the votes in his favour, making Stalin the effective leader of the country by 1929.

South Africa

During 2012, the African National Congress (ANC) mayor of Beaufort West in the Western Cape Province wrote a letter which openly and illegally solicited funds from the Construction Education and Training Authority for the ANC's 2016 election campaign. This episode, amongst many others including instances revolving around president Jacob Zuma, revealed how the African National Congress as ruling political party utilized patronage to reward supporters and strengthen the leading faction of the party's control over governmental institutions.[8]

United States

In the United States during the Gilded Age, patronage became a controversial issue. Tammany boss William M. Tweed was an American politician who ran what is considered now to have been one of the most corrupt political machines in the country's history. Tweed and his cronies ruled for a brief time with absolute power over the city and state of New York. At the height of his influence, Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City, a director of the Erie Railway, the Tenth National Bank, and the New-York Printing Company, as well as proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel.[9] At times he was a member of the United States House of Representatives, the New York City Board of Advisors, and the New York State Senate. In 1873, Tweed was convicted for diverting between $40 million and $200 million of public monies.[10]

Six months after James Garfield became president in 1881, Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office-seeker, assassinated him. To prevent further political violence and to assuage public outrage, Congress passed the Pendleton Act in 1883, which set up the Civil Service Commission. Henceforth, applicants for most federal government jobs would have to pass an examination. Federal politicians' influence over bureaucratic appointments waned, and patronage declined as a national political issue.

Beginning in 1969, a Supreme Court case in Chicago, Michael L. Shakman v. Democratic Organization of Cook County, occurred involving political patronage and its constitutionality. Shakman claimed that much of the patronage going on in Chicago politics was unlawful on the grounds of the first and fourteenth amendments. Through a series of legal battle and negotiations, the two parties agreed upon The Shakman Decrees. Under these decrees it was declared that the employment status of most public employees could not be affected positively or negatively based on political allegiance, with exceptions for politically inclined positions. The case is still in negotiation today, as there are points yet to be decided.[11][12][13]

Political patronage is not always considered corrupt. In the United States, the U.S. Constitution provides the president with the power to appoint individuals to government positions. He or she also may appoint personal advisers without congressional approval. Not surprisingly, these individuals tend to be supporters of the president. Similarly, at the state and local levels, governors and mayors retain appointments powers. Some scholars have argued that patronage may be used for laudable purposes, such as the "recognition" of minority communities through the appointment of their members to a high-profile positions. Bearfield has argued that patronage be used for four general purposes: create or strengthen a political organization; achieve democratic or egalitarian goals; bridge political divisions and create coalitions; and to alter the existing patronage system.[14]

Venezuela

Boliburguesía is a term that was coined by journalist Juan Carlos Zapata in order to "define the oligarchy that has developed under the protection of the Chavez government".[15] During Hugo Chávez's tenure, he seized thousands of properties and businesses while also reducing the footprint of foreign companies.[16] Venezuela's economy was then largely state-run and was operated by military officers that had their business and government affairs connected.[16] Senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, Harold Trinkunas, stated that involving the military in business was "a danger", with Trinkunas explaining that the Venezuelan military "has the greatest ability to coerce people, into business like they have".[16] According to Bloomberg Business, "[b]y showering contracts on former military officials and pro-government business executives, Chavez put a new face on the system of patronage".[16]

Science

There are historical examples where the noble classes financed scientific pursuits.

Many Barmakids were patrons of the sciences, which greatly helped the propagation of Indian science and scholarship from the neighbouring Academy of Gundishapur into the Arabic world. They patronized scholars such as Gebir and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu. They are also credited with the establishment of the first paper mill in Baghdad. The power of the Barmakids in those times is reflected in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights; the vizier Ja'far appears in several stories, as well as a tale that gave rise to the expression "Barmecide feast".

We know of Yahya b Khalid al Barmaki (805) as a patron of physicians and, specifically, of the translation of Hindu medical works into both Arabic and Persian. In all likelihood however, his activity took place in the orbit of the caliphal court in Iraq, where at the behest of Harun al Rashid (786 -809), such books were translated into Arabic. Thus Khurasan and Transoxania were effectively bypassed in this transfer of learning from India to Islam, even though, undeniably the Barmakis cultural outlook owed something to their land of origin, northern Afghanistan, and Yahya al Barmaki's interest in medicine may have derived from no longer identifiable family tradition.[17]

Sports

In the same manner as commercial patronage, those who attend a sporting event may be referred to as patrons, though the usage in much of the world is now considered archaic—with some notable exceptions. Those who attend the Masters Tournament, one of the four major championships of professional golf, are still traditionally referred to as "patrons," largely at the insistence of the Augusta National Golf Club. This insistence is occasionally made fun of by sportswriters and other media.[18] In polo, a "patron" is a person who puts together a team by hiring one or more professionals. The rest of the team may be amateurs, often including the patron himself (or, increasingly, herself).

Also, people who attend hurling or Gaelic football games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association are referred to as patrons.[19][20]

See also

References

  1. ^ For a recent study of political patronage in the People's Republic of China, see Hillman, Ben. Patronage and Power: Local State Networks and Party-state Resilience in Rural China Stanford University Press, 2014.
  2. ^ Quoted in Michael Rosenthal, Constable, London: Thames and Hudson, 1987, p. 203.
  3. ^ F. W. Kent et al., eds.,Patronage, Art, and Society in Renaissance Italy, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1987.
  4. ^ Cedric C. Brown, Patronage, Politics, and Literary traditions in England, 1558–1658, Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1993.
  5. ^ "British Monarchy website, London".
  6. ^ Mershman, Francis. "Feast of the Patronage of Our Lady." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 11 November 2016
  7. ^ "Pew: Impact Of Billionaire Funded Journalism Is Tiny". Silicon Valley Watcher. March 2014.
  8. ^ "Power, patronage and gatekeeper politics in the time of Truman Prince". Daily Maverick. Johannesburg. 3 February 2016.
  9. ^ Ackerman, Kenneth D. (2005). Boss Tweed. New York: Carrol & Graf Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7867-1686-9.
  10. ^ "Boss Tweed". Gotham Gazette. New York. 4 July 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-04-27.
  11. ^ "Shakman Decrees". Encyclopedia of Chicago.
  12. ^ "The Shakman Decrees". Cook FP Shakman. Archived from the original on 2013-08-26.
  13. ^ "SHAKMAN v. DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION OF COOK CTY". Leagle.
  14. ^ Bearfield, Domonic A. (January–February 2009). "What Is Patronage? A Critical Reexamination". Public Administration Review. 69 (1): 64–76. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.01941.x. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
  15. ^ "Auge y caída de un boliburgués". talcualdigital.com (in Spanish). 24 November 2009. Archived from the original on November 25, 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2010. La boliburguesía –un término acuñado por el periodista Juan Carlos Zapata para definir a la oligarquía que ha crecido bajo protección del gobierno chavista– consituye hoy una "nueva clase social" de empresarios y políticos que se han servido de la falta de control del Parlamento, Fiscalía y Contraloría, para enriquecerse y hacer toda suerte de negocios, algunas veces de dudosa solvencia moral
  16. ^ a b c d Smith, Michael; Kurmanaev, Anatoly (12 August 2014). "Venezuela Sees Chavez Friends Rich After His Death Amid Poverty". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 16 April 2015.
  17. ^ Bosworth, C. E. Bosworth& Asimov, M.S. History of Civilizations of Central Asia. 4, Part 2. p. 300.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  18. ^ Davis, Seth: The difference between patrons and fans, Golf.com, April 6 2007. Archived October 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ McGee, Eugene (2010-10-04). "'Rules' critics must look at bigger picture". Irish Independent. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
  20. ^ "A new tradition in the GAA?". Irish Times. 2010-09-21. Retrieved 2010-10-04.

Further reading

  • Wikisource-logo.svg Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Patron and Patronage" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. This is the reference for the Canon law section.
  • Simpson, Jeffrey (1988). Spoils of Power: the Politics of Patronage. Toronto: Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-217759-7.

External links

1944 Jordan League

The Jordan Premier League first kicked off in 1944 with Al-Faisaly Club winning the inaugural event held under the patronage of HM King Abdullah I. Four teams competed: Al-Ahli, Urdun, Homentmen and Al-Faisaly.

Dividend

A dividend is a payment made by a corporation to its shareholders, usually as a distribution of profits. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, the corporation is able to re-invest the profit in the business (called retained earnings) and pay a proportion of the profit as a dividend to shareholders. Distribution to shareholders may be in cash (usually a deposit into a bank account) or, if the corporation has a dividend reinvestment plan, the amount can be paid by the issue of further shares or share repurchase. When dividends are paid, shareholders typically must pay income taxes, and the corporation does not receive a corporate income tax deduction for the dividend payments.A dividend is allocated as a fixed amount per share with shareholders receiving a dividend in proportion to their shareholding. For the joint-stock company, paying dividends is not an expense; rather, it is the division of after-tax profits among shareholders. Retained earnings (profits that have not been distributed as dividends) are shown in the shareholders' equity section on the company's balance sheet – the same as its issued share capital. Public companies usually pay dividends on a fixed schedule, but may declare a dividend at any time, sometimes called a special dividend to distinguish it from the fixed schedule dividends. Cooperatives, on the other hand, allocate dividends according to members' activity, so their dividends are often considered to be a pre-tax expense.

The word "dividend" comes from the Latin word "dividendum" ("thing to be divided").

Football Association of Thailand

The Football Association of Thailand (FAT) or the full name is the Football Association of Thailand under Patronage of His Majesty the King (Thai: สมาคมกีฬาฟุตบอลแห่งประเทศไทย ในพระบรมราชูปถัมภ์) is the governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer in Thailand. It was founded on 25 April 1916. They joined FIFA on 23 June 1925 and AFC in 1954.

Jus patronatus

The right of patronage in Roman Catholic canon law (jus patronatus or ius patronatus) is a set of rights and obligations of someone, known as the patron in connection with a gift of land (benefice). It is a grant made by the church out of gratitude towards a benefactor.

Its counterpart in English law and in the Church of England is called an advowson.

The right of patronage is designated in papal letters as "ius spirituali annexum" and is therefore subject to ecclesiastical legislation and jurisdiction as well as civil laws relating to the ownership of property.

K.V. Oostende

Koninklijke Voetbalclub Oostende, also called KV Oostende (Dutch pronunciation: [kaːˌveː oːˈstɛndə] or [- oːstˈʔɛndə]) or KVO, is a Belgian football club from the city of Ostend, West Flanders. The team was founded in 1904 as VG Oostende and has the matricule No. 31.

Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury

The Parliamentary Secretary to the Treasury is a junior ministerial position in the British Government. However, the office is now attached to the Treasury in name only. The holder is usually the Government Chief Whip in the House of Commons. The office can be seen as a sinecure, allowing the Chief Whip to draw a government salary, attend Cabinet, and use a Downing Street residence.

The incumbent as of November 2017 is Julian Smith MP.

Patronage in ancient Rome

Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client"). The relationship was hierarchical, but obligations were mutual. The patronus was the protector, sponsor, and benefactor of the client; the technical term for this protection was patrocinium. Although typically the client was of inferior social class, a patron and client might even hold the same social rank, but the former would possess greater wealth, power, or prestige that enabled them to help or do favors for the client. From the emperor at the top to the local municipal person at the bottom, the bonds between these groups found formal expression in legal definition of patrons' responsibilities to clients.Benefits a patron might confer include legal representation in court, loans of money, influencing business deals or marriages, and supporting a client's candidacy for political office or a priesthood. In return, the clients were expected to offer their services to their patron as needed. A freedman became the client of his former master. A patronage relationship might also exist between a general and his soldiers, a founder and colonists, and a conqueror and a dependent foreign community.

Political machine

A political machine is a political group in which an authoritative boss or small group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually campaign workers), who receive rewards for their efforts. The machine's power is based on the ability of the boss or group to get out the vote for their candidates on election day.

Although these elements are common to most political parties and organizations, they are essential to political machines, which rely on hierarchy and rewards for political power, often enforced by a strong party whip structure. Machines sometimes have a political boss, often rely on patronage, the spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. Machines typically are organized on a permanent basis instead of a single election or event. The term may have a pejorative sense referring to corrupt political machines.The term "political machine" dates back to the 20th century in the United States, where such organizations have existed in some municipalities and states since the 18th century. Similar machines have been described in Latin America, where the system has been called clientelism or political clientelism (after the similar Clientela relationship in the Roman Republic), especially in rural areas, and also in some African states and other emerging democracies, like postcommunist Eastern European countries. Japan's Liberal Democratic Party is often cited as another political machine, maintaining power in suburban and rural areas through its control of farm bureaus and road construction agencies. In Japan, the word jiban (literally "base" or "foundation") is the word used for political machines.

RAF Benevolent Fund

The Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund (RAF Benevolent Fund or RAFBF) is the Royal Air Force's leading welfare charity, providing financial, practical and emotional support to serving and former members of the RAF – regardless of rank – as well as their partners and dependents.

They help members of the RAF family deal with a wide range of issues: from childcare and relationship difficulties to injury and disability, and from financial hardship and debt to illness and bereavement. Any member of the RAF family can approach the fund for help, which includes serving and former members of the RAF, their partners and dependents.

Real Murcia

Real Murcia Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., commonly known as Real Murcia ([reˈal ˈmuɾθja], "Royal Murcia"), is a Spanish football club based in Murcia, in the namesake region. Founded in 8 February 1908, it currently plays in Segunda División B – Group 4, playing home matches at Estadio Nueva Condomina, which holds 31,179 spectators.

In domestic football, the club has won a record 9 Segunda División titles.

Home colours are mainly scarlet shirt and white shorts.

In 2018, after facing financial difficulties, the club started a crowdfunding campaign to sell shares, with people all around the world becoming minority shareholders.

Royal Belgian Football Association

The Royal Belgian Football Association (Dutch: Koninklijke Belgische Voetbalbond, KBVB; French: Union royale belge des sociétés de football association, URBSFA; German: Königlicher Belgischer Fußballverband, KBFV) is the governing body of football in Brussels, Belgium. It was a founding member of FIFA in 1904 and UEFA in 1954 and is based in Brussels, not far from the King Baudouin Stadium. Its chairman is Gérard Linard.

Royal Dutch Football Association

The Royal Dutch Football Association (Dutch: Koninklijke Nederlandse Voetbalbond, pronounced [ˌkoːnɪŋkləkə ˌneːdərlɑntsə ˈvudbɑlbɔnt], or KNVB [ˌkaːʔɛnveːˈbeː]) is the governing body of football in Netherlands. It organises the main Dutch football leagues (Eredivisie and Eerste Divisie), the amateur leagues, the KNVB Cup, and the Dutch men's and women's national teams.

For three seasons in the 2010s, the KNVB and its Belgian counterpart operated a joint top-level women's league, the BeNe League, until the two countries dissolved the league after the 2014–15 season and reestablished their own top-level leagues. The KNVB is based in the central municipality of Zeist. With over 1.2 million members the KNVB is the single largest sports association in the Netherlands.

Royal Madras Yacht Club

The Royal Madras Yacht Club (RMYC) is a yacht club located in Chennai, India.

The RMYC was founded by Sir Francis Spring in 1911. It was the first sailing club in southern India, and was originally based in what was called the Timber Pond area of the Madras harbour. Soon after its founding the club was granted royal patronage by George V, and it became one of the most prestigious sporting and social clubs in British India. Today the club is located at Springhaven Wharf, named after its founder.

Royal Society of British Artists

The Royal Society of British Artists (RBA) is a British art body established in 1823 as the Society of British Artists, as an alternative to the Royal Academy.

Royal Spanish Football Federation

The Royal Spanish Football Federation (Spanish: Real Federación Española de Fútbol; RFEF) is the governing body of football in Spain. It is based in La Ciudad del Fútbol of Las Rozas, a municipality near Madrid. It was founded on 14 October 1909 as Federación Española de Clubs de Football, and officially founded on 29 September 1913.It administers the competition committee (including the handling of the trophy) of the Campeonato Nacional de Liga: the Primera División and the Segunda División, even though they are organized by LaLiga. It organizes the Segunda División B as well as the Tercera División with the assistance of the regional football federations.

It is also responsible for appointing the management of the Spanish national football team (men's), women's, and youth national football teams. The Spain national futsal team, also belongs to the federation.

Royal court

A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure. Hence the word court may also be applied to the coterie of a senior member of the nobility.

Royal courts may have their seat in a designated place, several specific places, or be a mobile, itinerant court.

In the largest courts, the royal households, many thousands of individuals comprised the court. These courtiers included the monarch or noble's camarilla and retinue, household, nobility, those with court appointments, bodyguard, and may also include emissaries from other kingdoms or visitors to the court. Foreign princes and foreign nobility in exile may also seek refuge at a court.

Near Eastern and Eastern courts often included the harem and concubines as well as eunuchs who fulfilled a variety of functions. At times, the harem was walled off and separate from the rest of the residence of the monarch. In Asia, concubines were often a more visible part of the court.

Lower ranking servants and bodyguards were not properly called courtiers, though they might be included as part of the court or royal household in the broadest definition. Entertainers and others may have been counted as part of the court.

Saint Christopher

Saint Christopher (Greek: Ἅγιος Χριστόφορος, Ágios Christóforos) is venerated by several Christian denominations as a martyr killed in the reign of the 3rd-century Roman Emperor Decius (reigned 249–251) or alternatively under the Roman Emperor Maximinus II Dacian (reigned 308–313). There appears to be confusion due to the similarity in names "Decius" and "Dacian". However his veneration only appears late in Christian tradition, and did not become widespread in the Western Church until the Late Middle Ages, although churches and monasteries were named after him by the 7th century.

It is disputed whether Christopher existed, and if so whether the name applied to a specific person or was a general title meaning "Christ-bearer" which was applied to several different real or legendary people. He may be the same figure as Saint Menas. His most famous legend, which is mainly known from the West and may draw from Ancient Greek mythology, tells that he carried a child, who was unknown to him, across a river before the child revealed himself as Christ. Therefore, he is the patron saint of travelers, and small images of him are often worn around the neck, on a bracelet, carried in a pocket, or placed in vehicles by Christians.

Spoils system

In politics and government, a spoils system (also known as a patronage system) is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends, and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a merit system, where offices are awarded on the basis of some measure of merit, independent of political activity.

The term was used particularly in politics of the United States, where the federal government operated on a spoils system until the Pendleton Act was passed in 1883 due to a civil service reform movement. Thereafter the spoils system was largely replaced by a nonpartisan merit at the federal level of the United States.

The term was derived from the phrase "to the victor belong the spoils" by New York Senator William L. Marcy, referring to the victory of Andrew Jackson in the election of 1828, with the term spoils meaning goods or benefits taken from the loser in a competition, election or military victory.Similar spoils systems are common in other nations that traditionally have been based on tribal organization or other kinship groups and localism in general.

Sydney Ferries

Sydney Ferries is the public transport ferry network serving the Australian city of Sydney, New South Wales. Services operate on Sydney Harbour and the connecting Parramatta River. The network is controlled by the New South Wales Government's transport authority, Transport for NSW, and is part of the authority's Opal ticketing system. In 2017-18, 15.3 million passenger journeys were made on the network.

Services are operated under contract by Harbour City Ferries. Sydney Ferries Corporation is the state government agency that owns the ferry fleet.

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