Patrick Parrinder

Patrick Parrinder (born 1944) is an academic, currently Professor of English at the School of English and American Literature at the University of Reading.

He was educated at Leighton Park School before going on to King's College, Cambridge. He has written books of literary criticism on James Joyce and H. G. Wells. He is associate editor of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, focusing on literary authors in the period 1890-1920. He is an editor of H. G. Wells texts published recently by Penguin Classics.[1]


  1. ^ Ryle, Martin H.; Bourne Taylor, Jenny (2005). George Gissing. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. vii. ISBN 0-7546-3675-5.


1812 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1812.

Antoni Słonimski

Antoni Słonimski (15 November 1895 – 4 July 1976) was a Polish poet, artist, journalist, playwright and prose writer, president of the Union of Polish Writers in 1956–1959 during the Polish October, known for his devotion to social justice.

Słonimski was the grandson of Hayyim Selig Slonimski, the founder of "ha-Tsefirah"- the first Hebrew weekly with an emphasis on the sciences. His father, an ophthalmologist, converted to Christianity when he married a Catholic woman. Słonimski was born in Warsaw and baptized and raised as a Christian. Słonimski studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. In 1919 he co-founded the Skamander group of experimental poets with Julian Tuwim and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. In 1924 he travelled to Palestine and Brasil and in 1932 to the Soviet Union.

Słonimski spent the war years in exile in England and France, returning to Poland in 1951. He worked as contributor to popular periodicals: Nowa Kultura (1950–1962), Szpilki (1953–73) and Przegląd Kulturalny. He was an active anti-Stalinist and supporter of liberalization. Słonimski died on 4 July 1976 in a car accident in Warsaw.

Cyrus Patell

Cyrus R. K. Patell (born October 9, 1961) is a literary and cultural critic who writes and teaches on World literature with a focus on US literature. He is currently Professor of English at New York University (NYU) and Global Network Professor of Literature at New York University Abu Dhabi, where he previously served as Associate Dean of Humanities.Patell received his AB from Harvard College in 1983 and his PhD from Harvard University in 1991. His dissertation, supervised by Sacvan Bercovitch, was entitled The cultural logic of individualism in late twentieth century America. Before taking up his position at NYU, he was a President's Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley.

He has interests in the theory and practice of cosmopolitanism; US literature and culture; the history and culture of New York City; Global Shakespeare; minority discourse; cultural studies; and literary historiography. His publications include:

Cosmopolitanism and the Literary Imagination. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Emergent US Literatures: From Multiculturalism to Cosmopolitanism in the Late Twentieth Century. New York: New York UP, 2014.

Some Girls (33 1/3, 81). New York, NY: Continuum, 2011.

The Cambridge Companion to the Literature of New York. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2010. [Co-edited with Bryan Waterman].

Negative Liberties: Morrison, Pynchon, and the Problem of Liberal Ideology. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2001.

Joyce's Use of History in Finnegans Wake. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1984.Patell also served as associate editor for the first two volumes of the Cambridge History of American Literature (general editor, Sacvan Bercovitch) and contributed the "Emergent Literatures" section to volume seven, Prose Writing, 1940–1990.

He is the co-editor (with Deborah Lindsay Williams) of the The Oxford History of Literature in English: Volume 8, American Fiction after 1940 (general editor, Patrick Parrinder).

Danièle Chatelain

Danièle Chatelain (born in France) is a professor of French and a writer. She holds master's degrees from the

University of Strasbourg and the University of California, Riverside, where she also got a Ph.D. in 1982. She is currently a professor of French at the University of Redlands.

Until his death in 2014, she was married to George Edgar Slusser, with whom she shared an interest for the comparative analysis of science fiction, with a focus on the influence of the works of H. G. Wells.

Definitions of science fiction

There have been many attempts at defining science fiction. This is a list of definitions that have been offered by authors, editors, critics and fans over the years since science fiction became a genre. Definitions of related terms such as "science fantasy", "speculative fiction", and "fabulation" are included where they are intended as definitions of aspects of science fiction or because they illuminate related definitions—see e.g. Robert Scholes's definitions of "fabulation" and "structural fabulation" below. Some definitions of sub-types of science fiction are included, too; for example see David Ketterer's definition of "philosophically-oriented science fiction". In addition, some definitions are included that define, for example, a science fiction story, rather than science fiction itself, since these also illuminate an underlying definition of science fiction.

The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by John Clute and Peter Nicholls, contains an extensive discussion of the problem of definition, under the heading "Definitions of SF". The authors regard Darko Suvin's definition as having been most useful in catalysing academic debate, though they consider disagreements to be inevitable as science fiction is not homogeneous. Suvin's cited definition, dating from 1972, is: "a literary genre whose necessary and sufficient conditions are the presence and interaction of estrangement and cognition, and whose main formal device is an imaginative framework alternative to the author's empirical environment". The authors of the Encyclopedia article—Brian Stableford, Clute, and Nicholls—explain that, by "cognition", Suvin refers to the seeking of rational understanding, while his concept of estrangement is similar to the idea of alienation developed by Bertolt Brecht, that is, a means of making the subject matter recognizable while also seeming unfamiliar.

The order of the quotations is chronological; quotations without definite dates are listed last. The list below omits Hugo Gernsback's later redefining of the term "science fiction". According to anthologist, populist and historian of the genre Sam Moskowitz (1920–1997), Gernback's final words on the matter were: "Science fiction is a form of popular entertainment which contains elements of known, extrapolation of known or logical theoretical science". The list also omits John W. Campbell's infamous "Science fiction is what I say it is".

Frigyes Karinthy

Frigyes Karinthy (Hungarian: [ˈfriɟɛʃ ˈkɒrinti]; 25 June 1887 – 29 August 1938) was a Hungarian author, playwright, poet, journalist, and translator. He was the first proponent of the six degrees of separation concept, in his 1929 short story, Chains (Láncszemek). Karinthy remains one of the most popular Hungarian writers. He was the father of poet Gábor Karinthy and writer Ferenc Karinthy.

Among the English translations of Karinthy's works are two science fiction novellas that continue the adventures of Swift's character Gulliver. Voyage to Faremido is an early examination of artificial intelligence, with

a pacifist theme, while Capillaria is a polished and darkly humorous satire on the 'battle of the sexes'.

Gregory Claeys

Gregory Claeys (born 18 August 1953) is Professor of the History of Political Thought at Royal Holloway, University of London and author of books on British intellectual and political history.

H. G. Wells Society

There have been two groups called the H.G. Wells Society, both set

up to support the ideas of Herbert George Wells (1866–1946).

Joseph Wells (cricketer)

Joseph Wells (14 July 1828 – 14 October 1910) was an English cricketer and father of the noted author H. G. Wells.

Leighton Park School

Leighton Park School is a co-educational independent school for both day and boarding pupils in Reading in South East England. The school's ethos is closely tied to the Quaker values, having been founded as a Quaker School in 1890. The school's ethos is described as achievement with values, character and community.

Maurice Renard

Maurice Renard (28 February 1875, Châlons-en-Champagne – 18 November 1939, Rochefort-Sur-Mer) was a French writer.


Quinx, or The Ripper's Tale (1985), is the 5th and final volume in Lawrence Durrell's "quincunx" of novels, The Avignon Quintet, published from 1974 to 1985. It explores the activities of Constance, Aubrey Blanford, Robin Sutcliffe, Lord Galen, and most of the other surviving characters (including some who are theoretically fictional from Blanford's novel) as they return to Avignon and Provence in the immediate aftermath of World War II.

Science fiction studies

Science fiction studies is the common name for the academic discipline that studies and researches the history, culture, and works of science fiction and, more broadly, speculative fiction.

Speculative fiction

Speculative fiction is an umbrella genre encompassing fiction with certain elements that do not exist in the real world, often in the context of supernatural, futuristic or other imaginative themes. This includes, but is not limited to, science fiction, fantasy, superhero fiction, science fantasy, horror, utopian and dystopian fiction, supernatural fiction as well as combinations thereof.

The Island of Doctor Moreau

The Island of Doctor Moreau is an 1896 science fiction novel by English author H. G. Wells. The text of the novel is the narration of Edward Prendick, a shipwrecked man rescued by a passing boat who is left on the island home of Doctor Moreau, a mad scientist who creates human-like hybrid beings from animals via vivisection. The novel deals with a number of philosophical themes, including pain and cruelty, moral responsibility, human identity, and human interference with nature. Wells described it as "an exercise in youthful blasphemy."The Island of Doctor Moreau is a classic of early science fiction and remains one of Wells' best-known books. The novel is the earliest depiction of the science fiction motif "uplift" in which a more advanced race intervenes in the evolution of an animal species to bring the latter to a higher level of intelligence. It has been adapted to film and other media on many occasions, with Charles Laughton (1933), Burt Lancaster (1977), and Marlon Brando (1996) as the mad doctor.

The Lord of the Dynamos

"The Lord of the Dynamos" is a British short story by H.G. Wells. It was originally published in the Pall Mall Budget (6 September 1894), and then included in the collection The Stolen Bacillus and Other Incidents, published by Methuen & Co. in 1895, and subsequently in his Complete Short Stories. It deals with what Wells describes as "certain odd possibilities of the negro mind brought into abrupt contact with the crown of our civilisation" and the narration displays racist attitudes common among British society of the time, in addition to the overt thuggish racism of the character Holroyd.

The Story-Teller

The Story-Teller was a monthly British pulp fiction magazine from 1907 to 1937. The Story-Teller is notable for having published some of the works of prominent authors, including G. K. Chesterton, William Hope Hodgson, Rudyard Kipling, Katherine Mansfield, Sax Rohmer, Edgar Wallace, H. G. Wells, Oliver Onions, Hall Caine, Marjorie Bowen, E. Phillips Oppenheim, Alice & Claude Askew, and Tom Gallon.

The Tissue-Culture King

The Tissue-Culture King (1926 in Cornhill Magazine and in The Yale Review, reprinted 1927 in Amazing Stories and many times afterwards) is a science fiction short story by biologist Julian Huxley.

The story tells of biologist captured by an African tribe. It incorporates the idea of immortality based on reproduction from a tissue culture and genetic engineering, and an early mention of tin foil hats.

Vivian Beynon Harris

Vivian (Parkes Lucas) Beynon Harris (1906–1987) was an English writer. He was the younger brother of the well-known science fiction writer John Wyndham.

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