Patriarch of Alexandria

The Patriarch of Alexandria is the archbishop of Alexandria, Egypt. Historically, this office has included the designation "pope" (etymologically "Father", like "Abbot").[1]

The Alexandrian episcopate was revered as one of the three major episcopal sees (along with Rome and Antioch) before Constantinople or Jerusalem were granted similar status (in 381 and 451, respectively).[2] Alexandria was elevated to de facto archiepiscopal status by the Councils of Alexandria, and this status was ratified by Canon Six of the First Council of Nicaea, which stipulated that all the Egyptian episcopal provinces were subject to the metropolitan see of Alexandria (already the prevailing custom). In the sixth century, these five archbishops were formally granted the title of "patriarch" and were subsequently known as the Pentarchy.[3]

Due to several schisms within Christianity, the title of the Patriarch of Alexandria is currently held by four persons belonging to different denominations: the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, the Melkite Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and all the East and the Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria.[2] It was also previously held by the Latin Patriarch of Alexandria. Each of those denominations consider their patriarch as the successor to the original early bishops of Alexandria.[2]

StMarkcoptic
Coptic icon of Saint Mark the Evangelist, the apostolic founder of the Church of Alexandria, and the first Primate of Alexandria

History

According to church tradition, the patriarchate was founded in 42 AD by Mark the Evangelist. It was the centre from which Christianity spread throughout all Egypt. Within its jurisdiction, during its most flourishing period, were included about 108 bishops; its territory embraced the six provinces of Libya Superior, Libya Inferior, the Thebaid, Egypt, Heptanomis, and Augustamnica. In the beginning the successor of St. Mark was the only metropolitan bishop, and he governed ecclesiastically the entire territory. As the Christians multiplied, and other metropolitan sees were created, he became known the arch-metropolitan. The title of patriarch did not come into use until the fifth century.[4]

Up to the time of the First Council of Constantinople (381) the Patriarch of Alexandria ranked next to the Bishop of Rome. By the third canon of this council, afterwards confirmed by the twenty-eighth canon of the Council of Chalcedon (451), the Patriarch of Constantinople, supported by imperial authority and by a variety of concurring advantages, was given the right of precedency over the Patriarch of Alexandria. But neither Rome nor Alexandria recognized the claim until many years later. During the first two centuries of our era, though Egypt enjoyed unusual quiet, little is known of the ecclesiastical history of its chief see, beyond a barren list of the names of its patriarchs, handed down to us chiefly through the church historian Eusebius.[4]

All denominations acknowledge the succession of church leaders until the time of the monophysite Second Council of Ephesus (the so-called "Robber Council") of 449 and the orthodox Council of Chalcedon in 451, which gave rise to the non-Chalcedonian Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and the Chalcedonian Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Pope

"Papa" has been the designation for the Archbishop of Alexandria and Patriarch of Africa in the See of Saint Mark. This office has historically held the title of Pope—"Παπας" (papas), which means "Father" in Greek and Coptic—since Pope Heraclas of Alexandria, the 13th Alexandrine Bishop (227–248), was the first to associate "Pope" with the title of the Bishop of Alexandria.

The word pope derives from the Greek πάππας "father". In the early centuries of Christianity, this title was applied informally (especially in the east) to all bishops and other senior clergy. In the west it began to be used particularly for the Bishop of Rome (rather than for bishops in general) in the sixth century; in 1075, Pope Gregory VII issued a declaration widely interpreted as stating this by-then-established convention.[5][6][7][8][9] By the sixth century, this was also the normal practice in the imperial chancery of Constantinople.[5]

The earliest record of this title was regarding Pope Heraclas of Alexandria (227–240) in a letter written by his successor, Pope Dionysius of Alexandria, to Philemon (a Roman presbyter): "τοῦτον ἐγὼ τὸν κανόνα καὶ τὸν τύπον παρὰ τοῦ μακαρίου πάπα ἡμῶν Ἡρακλᾶ παρέλαβον."[10] This is translated, "I received this rule and ordinance from our blessed father/pope, Heraclas."[11] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest recorded use of "pope" in English is in an Old English translation (c. 950) of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People, "Þa wæs in þa tid Uitalius papa þæs apostolican seðles aldorbiscop."[12] In modern English, "At that time, Pope Vitalian was chief bishop of the apostolic see."

Claimants to the title

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa in the Holy See of St. Mark the Apostle leads the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, but has resided in Cairo since Christodoulos moved the residence in the mid-eleventh century. His full titles are Pope and Archbishop of the Great City of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa, the Holy Orthodox and Apostolic See of Saint Mark the Evangelist (Egypt, Libya, Nubia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and all Africa) and Successor of St. Mark the Evangelist, Holy Apostle and Martyr, on the Holy Apostolic Throne of the Great City of Alexandria.

Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa leads the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria. His full title is "His Divine Beatitude the Pope and Patriarch of the Great City of Alexandria, Libya, Pentapolis, Ethiopia, All Egypt and All Africa, Father of Fathers, Pastor of Pastors, Prelate of Prelates, the Thirteenth of the Apostles and Judge of the Universe".[13]

Eastern Catholic Churches

The Patriarch of Alexandria of the Copts, who leads the Coptic Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See, can also be granted the title of Cardinal Bishop by the Pope without compromising his patriarchal status.

The Patriarch of Antioch of the Greek-Melkites, who leads the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See, also has the titles of Titular Patriarch of Alexandria of the Greek-Melkites and Titular Patriarch of Jerusalem of the Greek-Melkites.

Latin Catholic Church

The Latin Patriarch of Alexandria was head of the titular Patriarchal See of Alexandria of the Roman Catholic Church, established by Pope Innocent III. The title was last held by Luca Ermenegildo Pasetto until his death in 1954; it remained vacant until its abolition in 1964.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Pope". Saint Takla Haymanot (Coptic Orthodox) (in Arabic). Alexandria, Egypt. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  2. ^ a b c  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Patriarch and Patriarchate". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  3. ^ "Pentarchy". Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 January 2015.
  4. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "The Church of Alexandria". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  5. ^ a b "Pope", Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3
  6. ^ Thomas H. Greer, Gavin Lewis, A Brief History of the Western World (Cengage Learning 2004 ISBN 9780534642365), p. 172
  7. ^ Enrico Mazza, The Eucharistic Prayers of the Roman Rite (Liturgical Press 2004 ISBN 9780814660782), p. 63
  8. ^ John W. O'Malley, A History of the Popes (Government Institutes 2009 ISBN 9781580512275), p. xv
  9. ^ Klaus Schatz, Papal Primacy (Liturgical Press 1996 ISBN 9780814655221), pp. 28–29
  10. ^ Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica Book VII, chapter 7.7
  11. ^ Pamphilus of Caesarea (2012). The Sacred Writings of Eusebius Pamphilus (Extended Annotated Edition). Jazzybee Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8496-2152-0.
  12. ^ "pope, n.1". OED Online. September 2011. Oxford University Press. 21 November 2011
  13. ^ "The Patriarchate of Alexandria and all Africa". Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and All Africa. Alexandria, Egypt. 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2018-10-25. His Divine Beatitude the Pope and Patriarch of the Great City of Alexandria, Libya, Pentapolis, Ethiopia, All Egypt and All Africa, Father of Fathers, Pastor of Pastors, Prelate of Prelates, the Thirteenth of the Apostles and Judge of the Universe
Alessandro Crescenzi (cardinal)

Alessandro Crescenzi, C.R.S. (1607 – 8 May 1688) was a Roman Catholic cardinal who served as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals (1685–1688), Archbishop (Personal Title) of Recanati e Loreto (1676–1682), Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (1671–1676), Bishop of Bitonto (1652–1668), Bishop of Ortona a Mare e Campli (1644–1652), and Bishop of Termoli (1643–1644).

Alessandro di Sangro

Alessandro di Sangro (died 18 February 1633) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Benevento (1616–1633) and Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (1604–1633)

Aloysius Bevilacqua

Aloysius Bevilacqua (1618–1680) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (1675–1680).

Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria

The Coptic Catholic Patriarchate of Alexandria is the Patriarchal and only Metropolitan see of the head of the Eastern sui iuris Coptic Catholic Church, a particular Church in the Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See, which follows the Alexandrian Rite in its own Coptic language. He is thus the superior of all Coptic dioceses, mostly in and around Egypt (where all its sees are), Copt(ic) being corruptions of the Greek word for Egypt(ian).

It has two cathedral archiepiscopal sees, both in Egypt: one dedicated to Our Lady of Egypt, in the national capital Cairo, the other dedicated to the Resurrection, in Ancient Alexandria.

Giovanni Battista Albani

Giovanni Battista Albani (died 1588) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Patriarch of Alexandria (1586–1588).

Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak

Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak (Coptic: ⲁⲃⲣⲁϩⲁⲙ ⲓⲥⲁⲁⲕ ⲥⲉⲇⲣⲁⲕ, Arabic: إبراهيم إسحاق سدراك‎; born 19 August 1955 in Beni-Chokeir, Egypt) is the current Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria.

Kyrillos Makarios

Kyrillos Makarios also written as Cyrillus Macaire (in Arabic كيرلس مقار ) (born 9 February 1867 - died 18 May 1921) was a leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1899 to 1908 when he resigned.

Kyrillos Makarios was born in Scenaineh in 1867 and was ordained a priest in 1891. He was appointed as Apostolic Vicar of the Coptic Catholic Church on 15 March 1895 and was appointed as Titular Archbishop of Caesarea Philippi and ordained on the position on 17 April 1895. He headed a Coptic Catholic delegation in September 1895 to the Vatican to meet with Pope Leo XIII after the latter's encyclical dated 11 June 1895 to the Egyptian Catholic Church followers. The delegation requested the reinstatement of the seat of the Coptic Catholic Patriarchate. The papal decision followed quickly on 26 November 1895 reestablishing the patriarchal seat, assigning two eparchies, namely The Eparchy of Hermopolis (El Minia) to be headed by Bishop Maximus Sedfawi and Eparchy of Taybeh (Luxor) to be headed by Bishop Ignatius Barazi, and confirmed Kyrillos Makarios as Apostolic Vicar.

In 1898, he held the First Alexandria Council for the Catholic Copts heading as vicar. He served as Vicar until 19 June 1899 when he was appointed as Patriarch of Alexandria as the first patriarch of the reinstated Coptic Catholic Patriarchate and was officially ordained as Patriarch in July 1899 and was instrumental in organizing the dioceses and the churches. His successes however prompted a lot of opposition, upon which he tended his resignation from the seat and retreated to Beirut, Lebanon.

After his resignation, the Patriarchal seat remained vacant for almost 4 decades (from 1908 until 1947). During this period, Maximos Sedfaoui served as locum tenens of the Coptic Catholic Church (1908–1925) with Kyrillos Makarios remaining as Patriarch Emeritus (a titular position) until his death on 18 May 1921.

After the death of Sedfaoui, Markos Khouzam became locum tenens of the Coptic Catholic Church (1927–1947) until his ordainment as Patriarch of Alexandria Markos II Khouzam in 1947.

Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria

The Latin Patriarchate of Alexandria was a nominal Patriarchate of the Latin church on the see of Alexandria in Egypt, that had no pastoral connection to the city of Alexandria.

List of 5th-century religious leaders

List of 4th-century religious leaders - List of 6th-century religious leaders - Lists of religious leaders by centuryThis is a list of the top-level leaders for religious groups with at least 50,000 adherents, and that led anytime from January 1, 401, to December 31, 500. It should likewise only name leaders listed on other articles and lists.

List of 6th-century religious leaders

List of 5th-century religious leaders - List of 7th-century religious leaders - Lists of religious leaders by centuryThis is a list of the top-level leaders for religious groups with at least 50,000 adherents, and that led anytime from January 1, 501, to December 31, 600. It should likewise only name leaders listed on other articles and lists.

List of Greek Orthodox Patriarchs of Alexandria

The Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria has the title Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa.

The following list contains all the incumbents of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Orientalis Ecclesiae

Orientalis ecclesiae (April 9, 1944) is an encyclical of Pope Pius XII. Its topic is St. Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria.

Patriarch John I of Alexandria

John Talaia was Patriarch of Alexandria from 481 until 482.He was consecreated Patriarch of Alexandria in 481, succeeding Timothy III Salophakiolos.

He was a convinced adherent of the Council of Chalcedon and refused to sign Emperor Zeno's Henoticon (which glossed over the Council of Chalcedon). Because of this, the Emperor expelled him and recognized the Miaphysite claimant Peter Mongus as the legitimate Patriarch on the condition that he would sign the Henoticon. Mongus complied and was recognized by the Patriarchs of Antioch and Constantinople.

John fled to Rome, where he was welcomed by Pope Simplicius. This Pope, or his successor Felix III, refused to recognize Mongus and defended Talaia's rights in two letters to Acacius of Constantinople. As Acacius maintained the Henoticon and communion with Mongus, the Pope excommunicated the Patriarchs in 484. This Acacian schism lasted until 519.

John eventually relinquished his claim to the see of Alexandria and became Bishop of Nola.

Patriarch Metrophanes of Alexandria

Metrophanes Kritopoulos, sometimes Critopoulos, Critopoulus, Kritopulus (Greek: Μητροφάνης Κριτόπουλος, c. 1589 – 30 May 1639) was a Greek monk and theologian who served as Greek Patriarch of Alexandria between 1636 and 1639.

Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria

Not to be confused with the Patriarch Theodore II of Alexandria (Coadjutor).

For the Coptic Orthodox Pope with the same name and title, see Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria.Theodore (Theodoros) II (Greek: Πάπας και Πατριάρχης Αλεξανδρείας και πάσης Αφρικής Θεόδωρος Β΄; born Nikolaos Horeftakis (Νικόλαος Χορευτάκης), November 25, 1954) is the current Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa. He is formally styled His Divine Beatitude the Pope and Patriarch of the Great City of Alexandria, Libya, Pentapolis, Ethiopia, All Egypt and All Africa, Father of Fathers, Pastor of Pastors, Prelate of Prelates, the Thirteenth of the Apostles and Judge of the Ecumene. He is the leader of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Africa and Madagascar. He is a monk in the Agarathos Holy Monastery of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.

Petrus Draghi Bartoli

Petrus Draghi Bartoli (23 July 1646 – 13 April 1695) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Titular Patriarch of Alexandria (1690–1695).

Pope Alexander of Alexandria

Pope Alexander of Alexandria may refer to:

Pope Alexander I of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria in 313–326 or 328

Pope Alexander II of Alexandria, ruled in 702–729

Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria is the leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, a faith with ancient Christian roots in Egypt. The current holder of this position is Pope Tawadros II, who was selected as the 118th pope on November 18, 2012.

Following the traditions of the church, the pope is chairman and head of the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria as a first among equals. The Holy Synod is the highest authority in the Church of Alexandria, which has between 12 and 18 million members worldwide, 10 to 14 million of whom are in Egypt. It formulates the rules and regulations regarding matters of the church's organization, faith, and order. The pope is also the chairman of the church's General Congregation Council.

Although historically associated with the city of Alexandria, the residence and Seat of the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria has been located in Cairo since 1047. The pope is currently established in Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, inside a compound which includes the Patriarchal Palace, with an additional residence at the Monastery of Saint Pishoy.

After the death of Shenouda III on March 17, 2012 the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church voted. The names of the three candidates who received most votes were put in a glass chalice. The name then picked became the new Patriarch of Alexandria. It is believed the name is picked by 'Divine Choice', by a blindfolded boy. He is believed to be guided by the hand of God.

The liturgy of the Altar Ballot took place on November 4, 2012. The 60-year-old Bishop Tawadoros, Auxiliary Bishop of Beheira, assistant to Metropolitan Pachomios of Beheira, was chosen as the 118th Pope of Alexandria. He then chose the name of Theodoros II. He was formally enthroned on November 18, 2012.

Stéphanos I Sidarouss

Stéphanos I Sidarouss (Arabic: إسطفانوس الأول سيداروس‎) (22 February 1904 – 23 August 1987) was a Cardinal and leader of the Coptic Catholic Church, an Eastern Catholic sui juris particular church of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Patriarch of Alexandria from 1958 to 1986, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1965.

Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria of the See of Saint Mark
Patriarchs prior to the
Chalcedonian schism
(43–451)
Coptic Orthodox
Popes and Patriarchs

(451–present)
Greek Orthodox Popes and Patriarchs
(451–present)
Latin Catholic Patriarchs
(1276 –1954 )
Melkite Catholic Titular Patriarchs
(1724–present)
Coptic Catholic Patriarchs
(1824–present)

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