Pato

Pato, also called juego del pato (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxweɣo ðel ˈpato], literally "duck game"), is a game played on horseback that combines elements from polo and basketball. It is the national sport of Argentina since 1953.[1]

Pato is Spanish for "duck", as early games used a live duck inside a basket instead of a ball.[3] Accounts of early versions of pato have been written since 1610.[2] The playing field would often stretch the distance between neighboring estancias (ranches). The first team to reach its own casco (ranch house) with the duck would be declared the winner.

Pato was banned several times during its history because of the violence—not only to the duck; many gauchos were trampled underfoot, and many more lost their lives in knife fights started in the heat of the game. In 1796, a Catholic priest insisted that pato players who died in such a way should be denied Christian burial. Government ordinances forbidding the practice of pato were common throughout the 19th century.

During the 1930s, pato was regulated through the efforts of ranch owner Alberto del Castillo Posse, who drafted a set of rules inspired by modern polo. The game gained legitimacy, to the point that President Juan Perón declared pato to be Argentina's national game in 1953.[4]

In modern pato, two four-member teams[5] riding on horses fight for possession of a ball which has six conveniently-sized handles, and score by throwing the ball through a vertically positioned ring (as opposed to the horizontal rim used in basketball). The rings have a 100 cm (3.3 ft) diameter, and are located atop 240 cm (7.9 ft) high poles. A closed net, extending for 140 cm (4.6 ft), holds the ball after goals are scored.

The winner is the team with most goals scored after regulation time (six 8-minute "periods").

The dimensions of the field are: length 180 to 220 m (196.9 to 240.6 yd), width 80 to 90 m (87 to 98 yd). The ball is made of leather, with an inflated rubber chamber and six leather handles. Its diameter is 40 cm (15.7 in) handle-to-handle and its weight is 1050 to 1250 g (2.3 to 2.8 lbs).

The player that has control of the pato (i.e. holds the ball by a handle) must ride with his right arm outstretched, offering the pato so rival players have a chance of tugging the pato and stealing it. Not extending the arm while riding with the pato is an offense called negada (refusal).

During the tug itself, or cinchada, both players must stand on the stirrups and avoid sitting on the saddle, while the hand not involved in the tugging must hold the reins. The tug is usually the most exciting part of the game.

Pato is played competitively and also by amateurs, mostly in weekend fairs which usually include doma (Argentine rodeo). Its status as the national game of Argentina has been challenged by association football, which is much more widespread. While virtually the entire population of the country are avid football fans and players, it is estimated that 90% of Argentines have not seen a pato match, and there are only a few thousand players of the game.[4] In light of this, a bill was introduced in the Argentine legislature in 2010 to elevate football to the status of national sport and reduce pato to a traditional sport.[4] Defenders of pato's official status point out that it is a completely indigenous game, while football was imported.

Pato is similar to the game of horseball played in France, Portugal, and other countries.

Pato
Patogame
A game of pato in Monte Hermoso, Argentina.
Highest governing bodyFederación Argentina de Pato y Horseball (Argentine Federation of Pato and Horseball)
NicknamesEl deporte nacional ("The national sport")[1]
First played1610, Argentina[2]
Registered playersYes
Clubsno
Characteristics
ContactYes
Team members4 per team
Mixed genderNo
TypeEquestrian, ball game, team sport, outdoor
EquipmentBall
VenueField (grass)
Presence
Country or regionArgentina
OlympicNo
ParalympicNo
ObsoleteYes

References

  1. ^ a b "Argentina Decree Nº 17468 of 16/09/1953". Global Legal Information Network. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Decree 17468 of 9/16/1953 decrees that the national sport or game shall be the one known as 'El Pato', as developed from an old game engaged in by the gauchos, and so truly Argentinean in origin.
  2. ^ a b "Pato, Argentina's national sport". Argentina.ar. Secretariat of Public Communication, Presidency of the Nation. 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2012. In 1610, thirty years after Buenos Aires' second foundation and two hundred years before the May Revolution, a document drafted by the military anthropologist Felix de Azara described a pato sport scene taking place in the city.
  3. ^ Cobiella, Nidia Mabel. "Historia del pato" [History of pato]. Educar.org (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012. Consistía en arrojar un pato hacia arriba y liberar dos grupos de jinetes que se atropellaban para capturarlo como fuera, y llevarlo. Los jugadores, entonces, se pasaban el pato unos a otros lanzándolo o golpeándolo, para finalmente lograr encestarlo en una red. En ocasiones el pato se colocaba dentro de una cesta y con ella se jugaba.
  4. ^ a b c Moffett, Matt (18 June 2010). "In Soccer-Mad Argentina, the National Sport Is a Lame Duck". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  5. ^ Ocaranza Zavalía, Nono. "Reglamento oficial del juego de pato" [Official rulebook of the game of pato]. Folkloredelnorte.com.ar (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2012. El número de jugadores será de 4 por bando en todos los juegos y partidos debiendo numerarse del 1 al 4.

External links

1976 Portuguese presidential election

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With a broad base of support that comprised the center-left and the center-right, Ramalho Eanes won the election on the first round and became the first elected President of Portugal after the Carnation Revolution.

The Portuguese Communist Party presented its own candidate, Octávio Pato, a well known anti-fascist. One of the major responsibles for the military operations during the Carnation Revolution, in 1974, Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, was also a candidate.

Alexandre Pato

Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐleˈʃɐ̃dɾi ʁoˈdɾiɡiz dɐ ˈsiwvɐ]; born 2 September 1989), commonly known as Alexandre Pato ([ˈpatu]) or just Pato, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a forward for São Paulo.Pato began his career as a youth player for Internacional in 2000, making his debut in 2006 at age 16. He went on to score 12 goals in 27 appearances and helped them win the 2006 FIFA Club World Cup. In August 2007, he signed for Italian side Milan. In 2009, he scored 18 goals in 42 matches in all competitions, which earned him both the Golden Boy and Serie A Young Footballer of the Year awards. During the 2010–11 season, he helped Milan win the Serie A, where he was the club's joint top scorer with 14 goals in 25 games. In January 2013, Pato returned to Brazil signing for Corinthians for €15 million, where he won the Campeonato Paulista with the club. In 2014, Pato joined São Paulo on a two-year loan deal, where he went on to play 95 games, scoring 38 goals for the club. In January 2016, Pato transferred to English Premier League club Chelsea on a loan deal.

A full international for Brazil since 2008, Pato was part of their squads which won the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup and competed at the 2011 Copa América. He also won two consecutive Olympic medals for the country, a bronze in 2008 and silver four years later.

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The snow-capped mountains of Tullparahu (6,356 m), Pukarahu (6,259 m), Allpamayu (6,120 m) and others, constitute a splendid frame for the city. Near Parun Lake the snow summits are reflected. There are also mineral-medicinal springs like Colca and Shongor.

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To arrive to Huallanca, at the north end of the Callejón de Huaylas, 33 tunnels must be passed in a trip of 25 km, in which the Santa River breaks, roaring, the Cordillera Negra, to flow to the sea.

In Huallanca, 1,410 msnm, the hydroelectric power station of the Cañón del Pato is located. In this place, the highway that goes up to Chimbote began. This highway is planned over the ancient embankment of the railroad Chimbote-Huallanca that was destroyed by a cataclysm in 1970. In this place, it also began the highway that leads to the Callejón de Conchucos.

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Pato Branco

Pato Branco ("White Duck" in English) is a city in the southwest part of the Brazilian state Paraná. The municipality covers 537,8 km² (206.7 mi²) and has a population of 81,893 (2007 IBGE estimate). Pato Branco started off as a village in 1942 and was given status as a city December 14th 1952. It has two private colleges, Faculdade Mater Dei and Faculdade de Pato Branco, and a campus of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná. The city has experienced a positive economic development throughout the last few years.

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The current mayor (elected for 2013-2016) is Augustinho Zucchi.

The city has a small general aviation airport (Juvenal Loureiro Cardoso Airport).

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In the United Kingdom, it was originally broadcast on CITV, a children's strand on the ITV network. In September 2005, Channel 5 acquired terrestrial rights in the United Kingdom to the first and second series, making it part of the Milkshake! strand. The show, however, will continue to air on the CITV Channel. Other broadcasters in the English speaking countries include RTÉ in the Republic of Ireland, Syndication and on Univision in LATAM Spanish, Treehouse TV in Canada, ABC in Australia, Playhouse Disney in Asia and TVNZ in New Zealand.

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In Spain, TVE2 started broadcasting the second series in April 2007. The third season began airing in 2010 under the title Let's Go Pocoyo and was designed to teach English to Spanish preschoolers. The makers also wish to embark upon other projects, one of which may be a Pocoyo movie. In June 2006, Pocoyo was awarded the Cristal Award for the "Best TV Production" at the 30th Annecy International Animated Film Festival.

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