Patmos

Patmos (Greek: Πάτμος, pronounced [ˈpatmos]) is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea. It is the location of the vision given to the disciple John in the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, and where the book was written.

One of the northernmost islands of the Dodecanese complex,[2] it has a population of 2,998 and an area of 34.05 km2 (13.15 sq mi). The highest point is Profitis Ilias, 269 metres (883 ft) above sea level. The municipality of Patmos, which includes the offshore islands of Arkoi (pop. 44), Marathos (pop. 5), and several uninhabited islets, has a total population of 3,047 (2011 census)[3] and a combined land area of 45.039 square kilometres (17.390 sq mi).[4] It is part of the Kalymnos regional unit.

Patmos' main communities are Chora (the capital city), and Skala, the only commercial port. Other settlements are Grikou and Kampos. The churches and communities on Patmos are of the Eastern Orthodox tradition. The mayor of Patmos is Gregory Stoikos.[5]

Patmos

Πάτμος
Chora and the Castle of Patmos
Chora and the Castle of Patmos
Patmos is located in Greece
Patmos
Patmos
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Patmou
Coordinates: 37°19.5′N 26°32.5′E / 37.3250°N 26.5417°ECoordinates: 37°19.5′N 26°32.5′E / 37.3250°N 26.5417°E
CountryGreece
Administrative regionSouth Aegean
Regional unitKalymnos
Government
 • MayorGregory Stoikos
Area
 • Municipality45.0 km2 (17.4 sq mi)
Highest elevation
270 m (890 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Municipality
3,047
 • Municipality density68/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
855 xx
Area code(s)22470
Vehicle registrationKX, PO, PK
Websitewww.patmos.gov.gr

History

Patmos02
View of the port (Skala)
Meloi
The beach of Meloi, within walking distance of Skala

The birth of Patmos according to Greek mythology

According to a legend in Greek mythology, the island's original name was "Letois", after the goddess and huntress of deer, Artemis, daughter of Leto. It was believed that Patmos came into existence thanks to her divine intervention.

The myth tells how Patmos existed as an island at the bottom of the sea. Artemis frequently paid visits to Caria, the mainland across the shore from Patmos, where she had a shrine on Mount Latmos. There she met the moon goddess Selene, who cast her light on the ocean, revealing the sunken island of Patmos.

Selene was always trying to get Artemis to bring the sunken island to the surface and hence to life. Selene finally convinced Artemis, who, in turn, gained her brother Apollo's help to persuade Zeus to allow the island to arise from the sea.

Zeus agreed, and the island emerged from the water. The sun dried up the land and brought life to it. Gradually, inhabitants from the surrounding areas, including Mount Latmos, settled on the island and named it "Letois" in honour of Artemis.[6]

Jacopo vignali, san giovanni evangelista a patmos
John the Apostle on Patmos by Jacopo Vignali.

History from the Classical period to the present

Patmos is seldom mentioned by ancient writers. Therefore, very little can be conjectured about the earliest inhabitants. In the Classical period, the Patmians prefer to identify themselves as Dorians descending from the families of Argos, Sparta and Epidaurus, further mingling with people of Ionian ancestry.

During the 3rd century BC, in the Hellenistic period, the settlement of Patmos acquired the form of an acropolis with an improved defence through a fortification wall and towers.[7]

Patmos is mentioned in the Book of Revelation, the last book of the Christian Bible. The book's introduction states that its author, John, was on Patmos when he was given (and recorded) a vision from Jesus. Early Christian tradition identified this writer John of Patmos as John the Apostle.[8] For this reason, Patmos is a destination for Christian pilgrimage. Visitors can see the cave where John is said to have received his Revelation (the Cave of the Apocalypse), and several monasteries on the island are dedicated to Saint John.

After the death of John of Patmos, possibly around 100, a number of Early Christian basilicas were erected on Patmos. Among these was a Grand Royal Basilica in honour of Saint John, built c. 300–350 at the location where the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian stands today.

Early Christian life on Patmos, however, barely survived Muslim raids from the 7th to the 9th century. During this period, the Grand Basilica was destroyed. In the 11th century, the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos gave Christodoulos the complete authority over the island of Patmos, as well as the permission to build a monastery on the island. The construction of the monastery started in 1101.[7][9]

Population was expanded by infusions of Byzantine immigrants fleeing the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, and Cretan immigrants fleeing the fall of Candia in 1669.

The island was controlled by the Ottoman Empire for many years, but it enjoyed certain privileges, mostly related to tax-free trade by the monastery as certified by Ottoman imperial documents held in the Library. Ottoman rule in Patmos ("Batnaz" in Ottoman Turkish) was interrupted by initially Venetian occupation during Candian War between 1659 and 1669, then Russian occupation during Orlov Revolt between 1770 and 1774 and finally during Greek War of Independence.

In 1912, in connection with the Italo-Turkish War, the Italians occupied all the islands of the Dodecanese (except Kastellorizo), including Patmos. The Italians remained there until 1943, when Nazi Germany took over the island.

Around 1930, Elijah Muhammad of the Nation of Islam initiated the claim that, while residing on Patmos approximately 6,600 years ago, an evil scientist named Yakub initiated the creation of the white race through a process of selective breeding.[10]

In 1945, the Germans left and the island of Patmos remained autonomous until 1948, when, together with the rest of the Dodecanese Islands, it joined the independent Greece.[9]

In 1999, the island's historic center Chora, along with the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse, were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO.[11] The monastery was founded by Saint Christodulos.[12] Patmos is also home to the Patmian School, a notable Greek seminary.

21st century

In September 2008, the municipality of Patmos refused landing to a group of undocumented refugees from Afghanistan and Iraq. On the weekend of September 19, 2008, about 134 refugees were rescued at sea. The refugees were taken to Patmos, the nearest municipality, for processing and care. The administration refused them permission to land. Eventually they were sent to the island of Leros where they were processed and given humanitarian aid.[13][14]

Forbes magazine, in 2009, named Patmos "Europe's most idyllic place to live", writing that "Patmos has evolved over the centuries but has not lost its air of quiet tranquility, which is one reason why people that know it return again and again".[15]

Geography

Patmos3 002
Kalikatsou Rock, Petra Beach

Patmos is situated off the west coast of Turkey and the continent of Asia. It is one of the northernmost islands of the Dodecanese complex. It is further west than its nearby neighboring islands.

It contains an area of 34.05 km2 (13.15 sq mi). The highest point is Profitis Ilias, 269 metres (883 feet) above sea level.

Patmos' main communities are Chora (the capital city) and Skala, the only commercial port. Other settlements are Grikou and Kampos.

Economy

Hwra1
Street of Chora

Tourism

Christian pilgrims frequently visit due to the island's connection with the prophet John and the writing of the Book of Revelation.

Health

For emergencies, Patmos has a medical centre, with several medical doctors on the premises. When residents require hospitalization beyond first aid, they are airlifted out of the island by helicopter (in emergencies) to nearby hospitals or, if the weather permits, they are transported by ferry.

Infrastructure

Ferry

The Island of Patmos has regular ferry services, which connect it to the following ports: Agathonissi Island, Mykonos Island, Paros Island, Piraeus (the main port of Athens), Pythagoreio and Karlovassi on Samos Island, Syros Island, Leros Island, Naxos Island, Arkoi, Lipsi Island, Symi Island and Rhodes Island.

Notable people

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Patmos is twinned with:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. ^ "Pátmos: Greece". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2014-09-03.
  3. ^ https://greecetravelog.com/patmos-island-greece/ Archived 2012-11-05 at Archive.today
  4. ^ "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. area and average elevation)" (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-21.
  5. ^ "Patmos Municipality - GTP". 2017-02-13. Archived from the original on 2017-02-13. Retrieved 2017-02-13.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  6. ^ Patmos – official website Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Legendary folk tales and mythology. Retrieved on 4 September 2008.
  7. ^ a b Patmos – official website Archived 15 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2008-09-04.
  8. ^ Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 81.4
  9. ^ a b Greeka.com – Patmos history. Retrieved on 4 September 2008.
  10. ^ Lieb, Michael (1998). Children of Ezekiel: Aliens, UFOs, the Crisis of Race, and the Advent of End Time. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. p. 140-142. ISBN 0822322684.
  11. ^ WHC-UNESCO-942, UNESCO, World Heritage Site #942.
  12. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Patmos" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  13. ^ Nylou Editorial
  14. ^ Interpress Agency: Refugees Kept At Sea Archived 15 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ Forbes, webpage:[1].
  16. ^ Hope, Jonathan (12 September 1994). "Obituary: Teddy Millington-Drake". The Independent. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  17. ^ "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved 2013-08-25.

Further reading

  • Tom Stone: The Summer of My Greek Taverna: A Memoir, Simon & Schuster, New York NY 2003, ISBN 0-7432-4771-X (Stone brings readers into the tiny Greek island world of Patmos.)

External links

Arkoi

Arkoi (Greek: Αρκοί; also Arkioi (Αρκιοί)) is a small Greek island which is part of the Dodecanese archipelago. It is situated in the eastern Aegean Sea, close to the Turkish Aegean Coast. The island belongs to the municipality of Patmos, and has a population of 54 inhabitants at the 2001 census.

The small population means that there is no real capital, but most inhabitants live close to the main harbour with the rest living scattered around the island on higher ground. The majority of the population find employment in fishing, goat herding or running one of the island's four tavernas.

Book of Revelation

The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation, the Revelation of Jesus Christ (from its opening words) or the Apocalypse, is the final book of the New Testament, and therefore also the final book of the Christian Bible. It occupies a central place in Christian eschatology. Its title is derived from the first word of the text, written in Koine Greek: apokalypsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation" (before title pages and titles, books were commonly known by the incipit, their first words, as is also the case of the Hebrew Five Books of Moses (Torah)). The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic document in the New Testament canon (although there are short apocalyptic passages in various places in the Gospels and the Epistles).The author names himself in the text as "John", but his precise identity remains a point of academic debate. Second-century Christian writers such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Melito the bishop of Sardis, and Clement of Alexandria and the author of the Muratorian fragment identify John the Apostle as the "John" of Revelation. Modern scholarship generally takes a different view, and many consider that nothing can be known about the author except that he was a Christian prophet. Some modern scholars characterise Revelation's author as a putative figure whom they call "John of Patmos". The bulk of traditional sources date the book to the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian (AD 81–96), and the evidence tends to confirm this.The book spans three literary genres: the epistolary, the apocalyptic, and the prophetic. It begins with John, on the island of Patmos in the Aegean Sea, addressing a letter to the "Seven Churches of Asia". He then describes a series of prophetic visions, including figures such as the Seven Headed Dragon, The Serpent and the Beast, culminating in the Second Coming of Jesus.

The obscure and extravagant imagery has led to a wide variety of Christian interpretations: historicist interpretations see in Revelation a broad view of history; preterist interpretations treat Revelation as mostly referring to the events of the apostolic era (1st century), or, at the latest, the fall of the Roman Empire; futurists believe that Revelation describes future events, the seven churches growing into the body/believers throughout the age, and a reemergence or continuous rule of a Roman/Graeco system with modern capabilities described by John in ways familiar to him; and idealist or symbolic interpretations consider that Revelation does not refer to actual people or events, but is an allegory of the spiritual path and the ongoing struggle between good and evil.

Cave of the Apocalypse

The Cave of the Apocalypse is situated about halfway up the mountain on the Aegean island of Patmos, along the road between the villages of Chora and Skala. This grotto is believed to mark the spot where John of Patmos received his visions that he recorded in the Book of Revelation. In 1999, UNESCO declared the cave a joint World Heritage Site together with the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian.

Dodecanese

The Dodecanese (UK: , US: ; Greek: Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa [ðoðeˈkanisa], literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited. Τhis island group generally defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the wider Southern Sporades island group.

The most historically important and well-known island, Rhodes, has been the area's dominant island since antiquity. Of the others, Kos and Patmos are historically the more important; the remaining twelve are Agathonisi, Astypalaia, Chalki, Kalymnos, Karpathos, Kasos, Leipsoi, Leros, Nisyros, Symi, Tilos, and Kastellorizo. Other islands in the chain include Alimia, Arkoi, Chalki, Farmakonisi, Gyali, Kinaros, Levitha, Marathos, Nimos, Pserimos, Saria, Strongyli, Syrna and Telendos.

Jeremias III of Constantinople

Jeremias III (Greek: Ιερεμίας Γ΄, (c. 1650/1660 – 1735) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople two times, in 1716–1726 and 1732–1733.

John of Patmos

John of Patmos (also called John the Revelator, John the Divine or John the Theologian; Greek: Ἰωάννης ὁ Θεολόγος; Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ) is the author named as John in the Book of Revelation, the apocalyptic text forming the final book of the New Testament. The text of Revelation states that John was on Patmos, a Greek island where, by most biblical historians, he is considered to be in exile as a result of anti-Christian persecution under the Roman emperor Domitian.Since the Roman era, Christians and historians have considered the Book of Revelation's writer to be John the Apostle (John the Evangelist), professed author of the Gospel of John. However, a minority of senior clerics and scholars, such as Eusebius (d. 339/340), recognise at least one further John as a companion of Jesus Christ, John the Presbyter "after an interval, placing him among others outside of the number of the apostles". Some Christian scholars since medieval times separate the disciple(s) from Revelation's writer, John the Divine.

John the Apostle

John the Apostle (Aramaic: יוחנן שליחא‎ Yohanān Shliḥā; Hebrew: יוחנן בן זבדי Yohanan ben Zavdi; Koine Greek: Ἰωάννης; Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ; Latin: Ioannes; c. AD 6 – c. 100) was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament, which refers to him as Ἰωάννης. Generally listed as the youngest apostle, he was the son of Zebedee and Salome or Joanna. His brother was James, who was another of the Twelve Apostles. The Church Fathers identify him as John the Evangelist, John of Patmos, John the Elder and the Beloved Disciple, and testify that he outlived the remaining apostles and that he was the only one to die of natural causes. The traditions of most Christian denominations have held that John the Apostle is the author of several books of the New Testament.

John the Evangelist

John the Evangelist (Greek: Ἰωάννης, translit. Iōánnēs; Coptic: ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ) is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, or John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by modern scholars.

Kalymnos (regional unit)

Kalymnos (Greek: Περιφερειακή ενότητα Καλύμνου) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of South Aegean. The regional unit covers the islands of Kalymnos, Agathonisi, Astypalaia, Leipsoi, Leros, Patmos and several smaller islands in the Aegean Sea.

Leipsoi

Leipsoi (Greek: Λειψοί, also: Lipsi; anciently, Lepsia, Ancient Greek: Λέψια) is an island south of Samos and to the north of Leros in Greece. It is well serviced with ferries passing between Patmos and Leros and on the main route for ferries from Piraeus. Leipsoi is a small group of islets at the northern part of the Dodecanese near to Patmos island and Leros. The larger Leipsi-Arkoi archipelago consists of some 37 islands and islets of which only three are larger than 1 square kilometre (247 acres): Leipsoi (15.95 square kilometres (6.16 sq mi)), Arkoi (6.7 square kilometres (2.59 sq mi), part of Patmos municipality) and Agreloussa (1.32 square kilometres (0.51 sq mi), part of Patmos municipality). Only Leipsoi, Arkoi and Marathos are inhabited. Leipsoi is a municipality, part of the Kalymnos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean region. The municipality has an area of 17.350 square kilometres (6.699 sq mi). In ancient times, it contained a town named Lepsia.

Leontius II of Jerusalem

Leontius II of Jerusalem was the Patriarch of Jerusalem of the Church of Jerusalem from 1170 to 1190. Little is known about his activities while he was patriarch.

Leontius was born in Tiberioupolis, on the Balkan frontier of the empire. He was tonsured a monk in Constantinople, where he lived until he traveled through Patmos, Cyprus, to Crete. He became the hegumen of the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian in Patmos.

He was elected Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1170, succeeding Patriarch Nikiphoros II. Patriarch Leontius reposed in 1190.

Man and His Symbols

Man and His Symbols is the last work undertaken by Carl Jung before his death in 1961. First published in 1964, it is divided into five parts, four of which were written by associates of Jung: Marie-Louise von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Aniela Jaffé, and Jolande Jacobi. The book, which contains numerous illustrations, seeks to provide a clear explanation of Jung's complex theories for a wide non-specialist readership.

Jung wrote Part 1, "Approaching the Unconscious," of the book in English.

The last year of his life was devoted almost entirely to this book, and when he died in June 1961, his own section was complete (he finished it, in fact, only some 10 days before his final illness) and his colleagues' chapters had all been approved by him in draft. . . . The chapter that bears his name is his work and (apart from some fairly extensive editing to improve its intelligibility to the general reader) nobody else's. It was written, incidentally, in English. The remaining chapters were written by the various authors to Jung's direction and under his supervision.

John Freeman, editor, page viii of the Introduction, Dell Publishing, 1968

A German-language edition of the book, Der Mensch und seine Symbole, has been published by Patmos Verlag. The illustrations included in this edition are in color.

Monastery of Saint John the Theologian

The Monastery of Saint John the Theologian (also called Monastery of Saint John the Divine) is a Greek Orthodox monastery founded in 1088 in Chora on the island of Patmos. UNESCO has declared it a World Heritage site. It is named after St. John of Patmos.

Neophytus VI of Constantinople

Neophytus VI (Greek: Νεόφυτος ΣΤ΄), (? – 1747) was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople for two terms, from 1734 to 1740 and from 1743 to 1744.

Patmos, Arkansas

Patmos is a town in Hempstead County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 64 at the 2010 census. It bears the same name as the Greek island of Patmos, where the Book of Revelation was written.

Patmos is part of the Hope Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Patmos, Ohio

Patmos is an unincorporated community in Mahoning County, in the U.S. state of Ohio.

St. John the Evangelist on Patmos

St. John on Patmos is a painting by Hieronymus Bosch. The painting is currently in the Gemäldegalerie, in Berlin, Germany.

The reverse is also painted, the title of that picture is Scenes from the Passion of Christ and the Pelican with Her Young.

Vision of St. John on Patmos

The Vision of St. John the Evangelist at Patmos (1520-1522) is a series of frescoes by the Italian late Renaissance artist Antonio Allegri da Correggio. It occupies the interior of the dome, and the relative pendentives, of the Benedictine church of San Giovanni Evangelista of Parma, Italy.

The centre of the cupola is occupied by an illusionistic space based on series of concentric planes indicated by the clouds, from which the apostles stretch out. Starting from the border of the dome, the clouds thin out and open to a shiny light Christ descending towards the floor of the nave. The scene is a faithful rendering of John's Book of Revelation (I,7). The figure of St. John leans from the drum of the dome. This part of the fresco was hidden to the people present in the church, but visible to the monks in the choir and under the dome.

In the four pendentives Correggio painted, coupled, the Four Evangelists and the Four Doctors of the Church. These are:

St. Matthew with an angel;

St. Mark with a winged lion;

St. Luke with an ox;

St. John with an eagleand, respectively,

St. Jerome with the white beard and red garments;

St. Ambrose with a staff;

St. Gregory with the Papal tiara;

St. Augustine portrayed counting together with St. John.

Yakub (Nation of Islam)

In the beliefs of the Nation of Islam (NOI), Yakub (sometimes spelled Yacub or Yaqub) was a black scientist who lived "6,600 years ago" and began the creation of the white race. He is said to have done this through a form of selective breeding referred to as "grafting", while living on the island of Patmos. Scientific consensus rejects the historicity of this figure.The Nation of Islam theology states that Yakub is the biblical Jacob. All other branches of Islam, as well as Christianity and Judaism, reject these assertions. The story has caused disputes within the NOI during its history. Under its current leader Louis Farrakhan, the NOI continues to assert that the story of Yakub is true, claiming that modern science is consistent with it.

The 12 major islands
Minor islands
North
Central
Attica
South
Aegean Islands
Regional unit of Andros
Regional unit of Kalymnos
Regional unit of Karpathos
Regional unit of Kea-Kythnos
Regional unit of Kos
Regional unit of Milos
Regional unit of Mykonos
Regional unit of Naxos
Regional unit of Paros
Regional unit of Rhodes
Regional unit of Syros
Regional unit of Thira
Regional unit of Tinos

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