Pat Tillman

Patrick Daniel Tillman (November 6, 1976 – April 22, 2004) was an American football player in the National Football League (NFL) who left his sports career and enlisted in the United States Army in June 2002 in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. His service in Iraq and Afghanistan, and subsequent death, were the subject of national attention.[1]

Tillman joined the Army Rangers and served several tours in combat before he was killed in the mountains of Afghanistan. At first, the Army reported that Tillman had been killed by enemy fire. Controversy ensued when a month later, on May 28, 2004, the Pentagon notified the Tillman family that he had been killed by a friendly fire incident; the family and other critics allege that the Department of Defense delayed the disclosure for weeks after Tillman's memorial service out of a desire to protect the image of the U.S. military.

Tillman was the first professional football player to be killed in combat since Bob Kalsu, who died in the Vietnam War in 1970. Tillman was posthumously promoted from specialist to corporal. He also received posthumous Silver Star and Purple Heart medals.

Pat Tillman
Corporal Patrick Tillman
Tillman in 2003, as a specialist
Birth namePatrick Daniel Tillman
Nickname(s)"Pat"
BornNovember 6, 1976
Fremont, California, U.S.
DiedApril 22, 2004 (aged 27)
Spera, Afghanistan
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service2002–2004
RankArmy-USA-OR-04a-2015.svg Corporal (posthumously)
Unit
Battles/warsGlobal War on Terrorism
Awards
Other work
Football career
No. 40
Position:Safety
Personal information
Height:5 ft 11 in (1.80 m)
Weight:202 lb (92 kg)
Career information
High school:Leland (San Jose, CA)
College:Arizona State
NFL Draft:1998 / Round: 7 / Pick: 226
Career history
Career highlights and awards
Career NFL statistics
Tackles:340
Interceptions:3
Sacks:2.5
Forced fumbles:3
Player stats at NFL.com

Early life and education

Tillman was born on November 6, 1976, in Fremont, California, the son of Mary (Spalding) and Patrick Kevin Tillman.[2][3] The oldest of three sons, with Kevin and Richard as the other two, Tillman played competitive football. He went to Bret Harte Middle School and helped lead Leland High School to the Central Coast Division I Football Championship. Tillman then went to Arizona State University on a football scholarship.[4]

Tillman was very close to his family and high school friends. He repeatedly mentioned in his personal journals during wartime service that he drew strength from and deeply valued his closest friendships, parents, wife and family. Tillman was very committed to his high school sweetheart whom he married just prior to enlistment in the Army Rangers, Marie Ugenti Tillman. He also was very close with his brother, Kevin Tillman, who enlisted with and served alongside him.[5]

Football career

He started his college career as a linebacker for Arizona State University in 1994, when he secured the last remaining scholarship for the team. Tillman excelled as a linebacker at Arizona State, despite being relatively small for the position at 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m) tall. As a junior, he helped his team go undefeated that season as well as helping them make it to the Rose Bowl that year. In 1997, he was voted the Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year. Academically, Tillman majored in marketing and graduated in three and a half years with a 3.85 GPA. He also earned many academic awards including: the Clyde B. Smith Academic Award in 1996 and 1997; the Sporting News Honda Scholar-Athlete of the Year in 1997; and the 1998 Sun Angel Student Athlete of Year. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 2010.

Tillman's jersey (6837739893)
Tillman's Arizona Cardinals jersey on display alongside his military jacket and other items at the NFL Experience during Super Bowl XLVI.

In the 1998 National Football League Draft, Tillman was selected as the 226th pick by the Arizona Cardinals. Tillman moved over to play the safety position in the NFL and started ten of sixteen games in his rookie season.

At one point in his NFL career, Tillman turned down a five-year, $9 million contract offer from the St. Louis Rams out of loyalty to the Cardinals.[6]

Sports Illustrated football writer Paul Zimmerman ("Dr. Z") named Tillman to his 2000 NFL All-Pro team after Tillman finished with 155 tackles (120 solo), 1.5 sacks, 2 forced fumbles, 2 fumble recoveries, 9 pass deflections and 1 interception for 30 yards.

Tillman finished his career with totals of 340 tackles, 2.5 sacks, 3 interceptions for 37 yards, 3 forced fumbles, 15 pass deflections, and 3 fumble recoveries in 60 career games. In addition he also had 1 rush attempt for 4 yards and returned 3 kickoffs for 33 yards.[7]

In May 2002, eight months after the September 11 attacks and after completing the fifteen remaining games of the 2001 season which followed the attacks (at a salary of $512,000 per year),[8] Tillman turned down a contract offer of $3.6 million over three years from the Cardinals to enlist in the U.S. Army.[9]

Military career and death

Tillman and his brother Kevin enlisted on May 31, 2002. Kevin gave up the chance of a career in professional baseball as he had already signed to play for the Cleveland Indians. In September 2002, they completed basic training together.[10][11] The two brothers completed the Ranger Assessment and Selection Program in late 2002 and were assigned to the 2nd Ranger Battalion in Fort Lewis, Washington. Tillman resided in University Place with his wife before being deployed to Iraq. After participating in the initial invasion of Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom, in September 2003, they entered Ranger School at Fort Benning, Georgia, and graduated on November 28, 2003.[12]

Tillman was subsequently redeployed to Afghanistan, and based at FOB Salerno.[13] On April 22, 2004, he was initially reported to have been killed by enemy combatants. An Afghan Militia Force allied soldier was also killed in the action. Tillman's platoon leader First Lieutenant David Uthlaut and his radio telephone operator (RTO), 19-year-old Jade Lane, were wounded in the incident. The Army initially claimed that Tillman and his unit were attacked in an apparent ambush on a road outside of the village of Sperah about 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Khost, near the Pakistan border. It was not until after his burial that investigations by the Department of Defense and U.S. Congress were launched, eventually ruling his death as friendly fire.

The Army Special Operations Command initially claimed that there was an exchange with hostile forces. After a lengthy investigation conducted by Brigadier General Gary M. Jones, the U.S. Department of Defense concluded that both the Afghan militia soldier's and Tillman's deaths were due to friendly fire aggravated by the intensity of the firefight.

An investigation by the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID) concluded that Tillman and the Afghan militia soldier were killed by friendly fire when one allied group fired upon another in confusion after nearby gunfire was mistakenly believed to be from enemy combatants. The CID Report summary, dated March 19, 2007, stated that:

... during their movement through the canyon road, Serial 2 [Tillman's platoon had to split up because of a broken Humvee; the parts were called Serial 1 and 2] was ambushed and became engaged in a running gun battle with enemy combatants. Serial 1 [Tillman's portion of the platoon] had just passed through the same canyon without incident and were approximately one kilometer ahead of Serial 2. Upon hearing explosions, gunfire, and sporadic radio communication from Serial 2, Serial 1 dismounted their vehicles and moved on foot, to a more advantageous position to provide overwatch and fire support for Serial 2's movement out of the ambush. Upon exiting the gorge, and despite attempts by Serial 1 to signal a "friendly position", occupants of the lead vehicle of Serial 2 opened fire on Tillman's position, where he was fatally shot.[14]

Awards and decorations

Silver Star Medal ribbon Silver Star
Purple Heart ribbon Purple Heart
Meritorious Service Medal ribbon Meritorious Service Medal
Army Achievement Medal ribbon Army Achievement Medal
National Defense Service Medal ribbon National Defense Service Medal
Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal ribbon Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Medal
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal ribbon Global War on Terrorism Service Medal
Army Service Ribbon Army Service Ribbon
U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force Presidential Unit Citation ribbon Presidential Unit Citation
Joint Meritorious Unit Award ribbon Joint Meritorious Unit Award
Army Superior Unit Award ribbon Army Superior Unit Award
US Army Airborne basic parachutist badge Parachutist Badge
Ranger Tab Ranger Tab
Combat Infantry Badge Combat Infantryman Badge

In addition to his military awards, Pat Tillman received the Arthur Ashe Courage Award from ESPN in 2003, as part of that year's ESPY Awards ceremony.[15]

Aftermath and legacy

Surrounding Tillman's death

Tillman
Tribute to Cpl Tillman at the National Infantry Museum. The plaque inaccurately says he was killed in an enemy ambush.

A report described in The Washington Post on May 4, 2005, prepared at the request of Tillman's family by Brigadier General Gary M. Jones, revealed that in the days immediately following Tillman's death, Army investigators were aware that Tillman had been killed by friendly fire, shot three times in the head.[16][17] Jones reported that senior Army commanders, including General John Abizaid, knew of this fact within days of the shooting, but nevertheless approved the awarding of the Silver Star, Purple Heart, and a posthumous promotion to the rank of Corporal.[18]

Lieutenant General Stanley McChrystal approved the Silver Star citation on April 28, 2004, which gave a detailed account of Tillman's death including the phrase "in the line of devastating enemy fire," but the next day he sent a P4 confidential memo warning senior government members that Tillman might actually have been killed by friendly fire.[19] Senior commanders within the U.S. Central Command, including former Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM) General John Abizaid, were notified by the P4 memo,[20] which described Tillman's "highly possible" fratricide, four days before Tillman's nationally televised memorial service during which he was lauded as a war hero for dying while engaging the enemy.[21][22]

Jones reported that members of Tillman's unit burned his body armor and uniform in an apparent attempt to hide the fact that he was killed by friendly fire.[23] His notebook, in which, according to author Jon Krakauer, Tillman had recorded some of his thoughts on Afghanistan, was also burned; "a blatant violation of protocol."[24] Several soldiers were subsequently punished for their actions by being removed from the United States Army Rangers. Jones believed that Tillman should retain his medals and promotion, since, according to Jones, he intended to engage the enemy and behaved heroically.[23]

Tillman's family was not informed of the finding that he was killed by friendly fire until weeks after his memorial service, although at least some senior Army officers knew of that fact prior to the service.[23] According to Krakauer in his book Where Men Win Glory, the extensive coverup that followed Tillman's death included the military's order to Tillman's comrades to lie to his family at the funeral.[24] Tillman's parents have sharply criticized the Army's handling of the incident; Tillman's father charges that the Army "purposely interfered in the investigation" because of the effect it could have on their recruiting efforts, while Tillman's mother charges that "this lie was to cover their image."[25]

After it happened, all the people in positions of authority went out of their way to script this. They purposely interfered with the investigation; they covered it up. I think they thought they could control it, and they realized that their recruiting efforts were going to go to hell in a handbasket if the truth about his death got out. They blew up their poster boy.[25]

He also blamed high-ranking Army officers for presenting "outright lies" to the family and to the public.[25]

On March 4, 2006, the U.S. Defense Department Inspector General directed the Army to open a criminal investigation of Tillman's death. The Army's Criminal Investigative Division was to determine whether Tillman's death was the result of negligent homicide.[26]

On March 26, 2007, the Pentagon released their report on the events surrounding Tillman's death and coverup. The report reads in part:

... we emphasize that all investigators established the basic facts of CPL Tillman's death – that it was caused by friendly fire, that the occupants of one vehicle in CPL Tillman's platoon were responsible, and that circumstances on the ground caused those occupants to misidentify friendly forces as hostile. None of the investigations suggested that CPL Tillman's death was anything other than accidental. Our review, as well as the investigation recently completed by Army CID, obtained no evidence contrary to those key findings.[27]

Tillman's brother Kevin Tillman testified before the United States House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform that:

The deception surrounding this [Tillman] case was an insult to the family: but more importantly, its primary purpose was to deceive a whole nation. We say these things with disappointment and sadness for our country. Once again, we have been used as props in a Pentagon public relations exercise.[28]

After Kevin's testimony Pete Geren, acting secretary of the Army stated to reporters, "We as an Army failed in our duty to the Tillman family, the duty we owe to all the families of our fallen soldiers: give them the truth, the best we know it, as fast as we can."[28]

Tillman's diary was never returned to his family, and its whereabouts are not publicly known.[29]

One investigation of the autopsy report and photographs by two forensic pathologists in November 2006 concluded that Tillman was most likely killed as a result of fire from a M249 light machine gun. The M249 uses the same ammunition as the M16 rifle and M4 carbine, but is capable of greater accuracy during higher rates of fire. This would allow a competent user to place three bullets within a several-inch target from forty or fifty yards away more easily, even from a moving vehicle.[5]

On July 26, 2007, Chris Matthews reported on Hardball that Tillman's death may have been a case of deliberate murder by Tillman's fellow soldiers – specifically that the bullet holes were tight and neat, suggesting a shot at close range. Matthews based his speculation on a report from the doctors who examined Tillman's body. The following day the Associated Press reported that a doctor who examined Tillman's body after his death wrote, "The medical evidence did not match up with the scenario as described",[30] also noting that the wound entrances appeared as though he had been shot with an M16 rifle from fewer than 10 yards (9.1 m) away. A possible motive was not identified. When officers and soldiers were asked during a criminal investigation, they said they were certain the shooting was accidental. According to one of his fellow soldiers, Tillman "was popular among his fellow soldiers and had no enemies."[30][31]

In addition, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request filed by the Associated Press, the Defense Department released 2,300 pages of documents which were reported to indicate:[30]

  • There has never been evidence of enemy fire found on the scene, and no members of Tillman's group had been hit by enemy fire.
  • The three-star general who withheld details of Tillman's death from his parents for a number of months told investigators approximately 70 times that he had a bad memory and couldn't recall details of his actions.
  • Army attorneys sent each other congratulatory e-mails for keeping criminal investigators at bay as the Army conducted an internal friendly-fire investigation that resulted in administrative, or non-criminal, punishments.
  • Army doctors told the investigators that Tillman's wounds suggested murder because "the medical evidence did not match-up with the scenario as described."[30]

Despite his fame, Tillman did not want to be used for propaganda purposes. He spoke to friends about his opposition to President Bush and the Iraq War, and he had made an appointment with notable government critic Noam Chomsky for after his return from the military. The destruction of evidence linked to Tillman's death, including his personal journal, led his mother to speculate that he was murdered.[32] General Wesley Clark agreed that it was "very possible."[32][33]

According to Prof. Michael I. Niman:[34]

As both wars droned on, Tillman, the picture perfect recruiting poster boy, evolved into somewhat of a wild card. With a Chomsky meeting on the horizon, there existed a very real possibility that Tillman might go public with his anti-war anti-Bush stance in the weeks leading up to the 2004 presidential election, dealing a fatal blow to the very foundation of the Bush administration's propaganda pyramid. That day, however, never came. On April 22nd, 2004, Tillman was killed on patrol in Afghanistan by three American bullets to the head.

Congressional inquiries

On April 24, 2007, Specialist Bryan O'Neal, the last soldier known to see Pat Tillman alive, testified before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform that he was warned by superiors not to divulge information that a fellow soldier killed Tillman, especially to the Tillman family. Later, Pat Tillman's brother Kevin Tillman, who was also in the convoy traveling behind his brother at the time of the 2004 incident in Afghanistan but did not witness it, testified that the military tried to spin his brother's death to deflect attention from emerging failings in the Afghan war.[35]

On July 13, 2007, Henry Waxman and Tom Davis, the leading members of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, revealed that the Bush administration and the Pentagon had withheld key documents relating to Tillman's death and denied any new document release request from Congress citing executive privilege.[36][37][38]

On August 13, 2007, the Associated Press reported that on behalf of VoteVets, twenty U.S. military veterans who fought in Iraq and Afghanistan asked the NFL commissioner, Roger Goodell, to help secure the release of all documents relating to the death of Pat Tillman.[39][40]

On July 14, 2008, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform released a proposed report titled "Misleading Information from the Battlefield: The Tillman and Lynch Episodes".[41][42] The committee stated that its "investigation was frustrated by a near universal lack of recall" among "senior officials at the White House" and the military. It concluded:

The pervasive lack of recollection and absence of specific information makes it impossible for the Committee to assign responsibility for the misinformation in Specialist Tillman's and Private Lynch's cases. It is clear, however, that the Defense Department did not meet its most basic obligations in sharing accurate information with the families and with the American public.

Memorials and tributes

Tillman - portrait
Tillman's portrait – Faces of the Fallen gallery – Arlington National Cemetery

After his death, the Pat Tillman Foundation was established to carry forward its view of Tillman's legacy by inspiring and supporting those striving for positive change in themselves and the world.

A highway bypass around the Hoover Dam has a bridge bearing Tillman's name. Completed in October 2010, the Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge spans the Colorado River between Nevada and Arizona.

Lincoln Law School of San Jose has established the Pat Tillman Scholarship in honor of Tillman. Tillman's father earned his Juris Doctor from Lincoln in 1983.

On Sunday, September 19, 2004, all teams of the NFL wore a memorial decal on their helmets in honor of Tillman. The Arizona Cardinals continued to wear this decal throughout the 2004 season. Former Cardinals quarterback Jake Plummer requested to also wear the decal for the entire season, but the NFL turned him down, saying his helmet would not be uniform with the rest of the Denver Broncos. Plummer later grew a full beard and his hair long in honor of Tillman, who had such a style in the NFL before cutting his hair and shaving his beard off to fit military uniform guidelines.

Tillman Memorial Outside Sun Devil Stadium
A memorial to Tillman was created at Sun Devil Stadium, where he played football for the Sun Devils and the Cardinals.

The Cardinals retired his number 40, and Arizona State did the same for the number 42 he wore with the Sun Devils. The Cardinals have named the plaza surrounding their University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale Pat Tillman Freedom Plaza. Later, on November 12, 2006, during a Cardinals game versus the Cowboys, a bronze statue was revealed in his honor. ASU also named the football locker room entryway to Sun Devil Stadium the "Pat Tillman Memorial Tunnel" and made a "PT-42" patch that they place on the neck of their uniforms as a permanent feature. In 2011, Pat Tillman Veteran's Center in the lower level of the Memorial Union opened on the Tempe campus.[43] Before the 2013 season, the Tillman Tunnel was renovated with graphics, signage, double doors separate the locker room from the tunnel, and television replaying Tillman's career highlights, sound system and a gate opens up to the field featuring an image of him looking as if he's leading the team out.[44]

On Saturday, April 15, 2005, 5,000 participants turned out for the inaugural Pat's Run (which has become the annual fundraising event for the Pat Tillman Foundation) in Tempe, Arizona. The racers traveled along the 4.2-mile (6.8 km) course around Tempe Town Lake to the finish line, on the 42-yard line of Sun Devil Stadium in order to commemorate the number which Tillman wore as a Sun Devil and which was later retired in his honor. A second race took place in San Jose, California. Sponsored by the Pat Tillman Foundation, Pat's Run has continued to grow every year, with more than 28,000 attendees in April 2010. Various "shadow runs", in locations such as Austin, Texas, take place around the country at the same time as Pat's Run.

In 2004, the NFL donated $250,000 to the United Service Organizations to build a USO center in memory of Tillman. The Pat Tillman USO Center, the first USO center in Afghanistan, opened on Bagram Air Base on April 1, 2005.[45]

The Pacific-10 Conference renamed its annual defensive player-of-the-year award in football to the Pat Tillman Defensive Player of the Year.[46]

Forward Operating Base Tillman was close to the Pakistan border, near the village of Lwara in Paktika Province, Afghanistan.[47][48]

Tillman's high school, Leland High School in San Jose, renamed its football field after him. In New Almaden, an unincorporated community adjacent to San Jose, California, where Tillman grew up, a memorial was constructed near the Almaden Quicksilver County Park. This memorial was dedicated in September 2007 during the annual New Almaden Day celebration.[49][50]

The skateboarding bulldog featured on YouTube and in an Apple iPhone commercial was named after Tillman.[51]

Two books about Tillman were published in 2009. Jon Krakauer, author of Into Thin Air and Into the Wild, chronicles Tillman's story in Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman, published by Doubleday on September 15. Meanwhile, Tillman's mother, Mary Tillman, also wrote a book about her son, Boots on the Ground by Dusk, which was released in April 2008.

Following Tillman's death, the Ohio State Linebackers Corp consisting of A. J. Hawk, Bobby Carpenter and Anthony Schlegel, as well as center Nick Mangold, grew their hair in tribute to Tillman, imitating Tillman's trademark locks.[52]

In September 2008, Rory Fanning, a fellow Army Ranger who was stationed with Tillman in Fort Lewis, Washington, began his "Walk for Pat", a walk across the United States in an effort to raise money and awareness for the Pat Tillman Foundation. The stated fundraising goal is $3.6 million, the value of the contract Tillman turned down when he decided to enlist in the military.

The Arizona State University Sun Devils football team wore special uniforms made by Adidas to honor Tillman and his career on October 29, 2015, when they faced the Oregon Ducks. All proceeds from the uniforms went to the Pat Tillman Foundation.[53]

Controversial criticisms

After reports of Tillman's anti-war views became public, Ted Rall, who had previously written a comic calling Tillman a "fool" and "idiot", said that he was wrong to have assumed Tillman to be a "right wing poster child" when Tillman regarded the invasion of Iraq as illegal.[54][31]

Then-Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Kauzlarich, Regimental Executive Officer at Forward Operating Base Salerno on Khost, Afghanistan, under which Tillman was serving at the time of his death, and who led the second investigation into Tillman's death, made statements about the Tillman family's search for the truth based on Tillman's atheism. In comments to ESPN, Kauzlarich said: "These people have a hard time letting it go. It may be because of their religious beliefs" and "When you die, I mean, there is supposedly a better life, right? Well, if you are an atheist and you don't believe in anything, if you die, what is there to go to? Nothing. You are worm dirt. So for their son to die for nothing and now he is no more ... I do not know how an atheist thinks, I can only imagine that would be pretty tough."[55]

Kauzlarich conducted the second investigation into Tillman's death which lasted a week, from May 8 to 15, 2004.[56] Brigadier General Rodney Johnson, the Commanding General of the United States Army Criminal Investigations Command, testified before Congress that he found these statements "totally unacceptable". Acting Department of Defense Inspector General Thomas Gimble also testified that he was "shocked" that Lieutenant Colonel Kauzlarich would make these statements.[57] According to AP analysis, there are three lower-level officers expected to be punished, and Kauzlarich may be one of the three. Tillman's mother continues to reject the Pentagon's characterization of the officers' offenses as "errors" in reporting Tillman's death, because several officers have said they made conscious decisions not to tell the Tillman family that friendly fire was suspected.[58]

Media analyses

Reviews by The New York Times reporter Dexter Filkins of Jon Krakauer's book Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman noted that the book did well to compile the facts and "nauseating" details regarding the coverup of Tillman's death. "After Tillman's death, Army commanders violated many of their own rules, not to mention elementary standards of decency, to turn the killing into a propaganda coup for the American side", Filkins wrote.[59]

A documentary film, The Tillman Story, was shown at the Sundance Film Festival on January 23, 2010, and was released in August 2010.[60]

On October 19, 2006, Kevin Tillman broke his silence about his brother's death, lashing out at the Iraq War in a 660-word essay published on Truthdig, a progressive online journal of news and opinion.[61] The essay was widely distributed and was cited in The New York Times and Associated Press.[62]

Personal life

Tillman was an atheist.[63][64][65][66] According to speakers at his funeral, he was very well-read, having read a number of religious texts including the Bible, Quran and the Book of Mormon as well as transcendentalist authors such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. However, responding to religious overtones at the funeral by Maria Shriver and John McCain, his youngest brother, Richard, asserted that "Just make no mistake, he'd want me to say this: He's not with God, he's fucking dead, he's not religious." Richard added, "Thanks for your thoughts, but he's fuckin' dead."[67] Another article quotes Tillman as having told then-general manager of the Seattle Seahawks Bob Ferguson in December 2003, "You know I'm not religious."[68]

The September 25, 2005, edition of the San Francisco Chronicle newspaper reported that Tillman held views which were critical of the Iraq War. According to Tillman's mother, a friend of Tillman had arranged a meeting for Tillman with author Noam Chomsky, a prominent critic of the U.S. and American foreign and military policy, to take place after his return from Afghanistan.[31]

See also

References

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  2. ^ California Births, 1905 - 1995, Alameda County
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  38. ^ "Seeking the Truth About Pat Tillman". The New York Times. July 27, 2007. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  39. ^ "Iraq war vets suggests NFL, union get involved in Tillman probe". ESPN.com. Associated Press. August 13, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  40. ^ "Veterans Letter to the NFL and NFL Players Association". VoteVets. Archived from the original on August 14, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  41. ^ House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform (July 14, 2008). "Misleading Information from the Battlefield: The Tillman and Lynch Episodes" (PDF). United States Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2007.
  42. ^ Seibel, Mark (July 14, 2008). "Bush officials' 'lack of recall' thwarted Tillman, Lynch probes". McClatchy Newspapers. Archived from the original on July 17, 2008.
  43. ^ Kharli Mandeville (August 16, 2011). "Pat Tillman Veterans Center opens in Memorial Union | ASU News | The State Press | Arizona State University". The State Press. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  44. ^ "Tillman Tunnel Undergoes Improvements". Arizona State Sun Devils. April 3, 2014. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  45. ^ Landers, Jim, "Tillman's Legacy Lives On At Center", The Dallas Morning News, January 18, 2009, p. 22.
  46. ^ "Pac-10 Names Award for Pat Tillman" (Press release). Pac-10. June 8, 2004. Archived from the original on April 1, 2012. The Pac-10 has renamed its annual defensive player of the year award in football the Pat Tillman Defensive Player of the Year Award, Commissioner Tom Hansen announced today.
  47. ^ "The Last Outpost". Archived from the original on April 5, 2008.
  48. ^ CNN, By Douglas Wissing, Special for. "U.S. withdrawal is 'tough love' for disbelieving Afghans - CNN.com". CNN. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  49. ^ "Memorial to honor Pat Tillman, a kid New Almaden knew well". San Jose Mercury News. August 4, 2007.
  50. ^ Horii, Ronald (September 8, 2007). "Pat Tillman Memorial Dedication". New Almaden Day. Newalmaden.org. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
  51. ^ "Tillman the Skateboarding Bulldog". YouTube. Archived from the original on July 15, 2015.
  52. ^ Corbett, Jim (March 7, 2006). "Lot of bang from the Buckeyes". USA Today. Retrieved May 21, 2010.
  53. ^ "Arizona State uniforms will honor former Sun Devil Pat Tillman". ESPN. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  54. ^ Ted Rall (October 8, 2005). "Pat Tillman Redux". Archived from the original on September 18, 2007. Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  55. ^ Stan Goff (July 28, 2006). "Playing the Atheism Card Against Pat Tillman's Family". Retrieved July 28, 2007.
  56. ^ Mike Fish (Spring 2006). "Pat Tillman Timeline". Retrieved July 31, 2007.
  57. ^ Henry Waxman; Tom Davis (May 16, 2007). "Letter to General Ham" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 30, 2007.
  58. ^ "Report: General faces demotion in Tillman case". USA Today. Associated Press. July 26, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2007.
  59. ^ Filkins, Dexter (September 8, 2009). "The Good Soldier". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2010.
  60. ^ The Tillman Story on IMDb
  61. ^ Tillman, Kevin (October 19, 2006). "After Pat's Birthday". Truthdig.com. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  62. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (October 24, 2006). "Brother of N.F.L. Star Posts Antiwar Essay". The New York Times. Retrieved October 23, 2012.
  63. ^ Holden, Stephen (August 20, 2010). "When Heroism Means Finding Truth". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011.
  64. ^ Ordoňa, Michael (August 18, 2010). "Shadowy Truth: Getting to the truth of Pat Tillman's death". Los Angeles Times. p. D-6. Archived from the original on August 25, 2010.
  65. ^ Mondello, Bob (August 19, 2010). "'The Tillman Story': One Family's Quest For The Truth". NPR. Archived from the original on August 20, 2010.
  66. ^ "Pat Tillman's Atheism". MichaelShermer.com.
  67. ^ "Bill Maher interviews brother of Afghanistan 'hero' Pat Tillman". The Guardian. London. September 27, 2010. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
  68. ^ Bickley, Dan (April 16, 2005). "Fallen Ranger Tillman turned down NFL overtures for 2004 season". The Arizona Republic. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2010.

Books

  • Krakauer, Jon (2009). Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman. Doubleday (September 15, 2009). ISBN 978-0-385-52226-7.
  • Tillman, Mary; Narda Zacchino (2008). Boots on the Ground by Dusk: My Tribute to Pat Tillman. Modern Times. ISBN 1-59486-880-8.
  • Tillman, Mary; Narda Zacchino (2010). Boots On The Ground By Dusk: Searching for Answers in the Death of Pat Tillman. Blurb, Inc.
  • Towle, Mike (2004). I've got things to do with my life: the making of an American hero. Triumph Books. ISBN 978-1-572-43708-1.

External links

2002 Arizona Cardinals season

The 2002 Arizona Cardinals season was the franchise’s 83rd year with the National Football League and 15th season in Arizona. It was their first season in the NFC West. It was Jake Plummer’s final season with the Cardinals as he went to the Denver Broncos in the 2003 off-season.

2004 Arizona Cardinals season

The 2004 Arizona Cardinals season was the franchise's 106th season, 85th season in the National Football League and the 17th in Arizona. The team managed to improve upon their previous output of 4–12. However, the team failed to make the playoffs for the sixth straight season. Season lows for the Cardinals included losing two games to the San Francisco 49ers, the only two games the 49ers won in 2004.

The season was notable for drafting wide receiver Larry Fitzgerald with the 3rd pick in the first round of the 2004 NFL Draft. Following the season, Emmitt Smith retired after 15 seasons.

2005 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team

The 2005 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pacific-10 Conference teams for the 2005 college football season. The USC Trojans won the conference, posting an undefeated 8–0 conference record (though this was later vacated).. USC then lost to the Texas Longhorns in the Rose Bowl BCS National Championship Game 41 to 38. USC running back Reggie Bush was voted Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Year. Oregon defensive tackle Haloti Ngata and Arizona State linebacker Dale Robinson were voted Pat Tillman Pac-10 Co-Defensive Players of the Year.

2006 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team

The 2006 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pacific-10 Conference teams for the 2006 college football season. The USC Trojans and California Golden Bears won the conference, posting 7–2 conference records. USC then beat the Michigan Wolverines in the Rose Bowl 32 to 18. California running back Marshawn Lynch was voted Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Year. California cornerback Daymeion Hughes was voted Pat Tillman Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year.

2007 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team

The 2007 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pacific-10 Conference teams for the 2007 college football season. The USC Trojans won the conference, posting a 7–2 conference record. USC then beat the Illinois Fighting Illini in the Rose Bowl 49 to 17. Oregon quarterback Dennis Dixon was unanimously voted Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Year. USC defensive tackle Sedrick Ellis was voted Pat Tillman Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year.

2009 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team

The 2009 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pacific-10 Conference teams for the 2009 Pacific-10 Conference football season. The Oregon Ducks won the conference, posting an 8–1 conference record. Oregon then lost to the Big Ten champion Ohio State Buckeyes in the Rose Bowl 26 to 17. Stanford running back Toby Gerhart was voted Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Year. UCLA defensive tackle Brian Price was voted Pat Tillman Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year.

2010 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team

The 2010 All-Pacific-10 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pacific-10 Conference teams for the 2010 Pacific-10 Conference football season. The Oregon Ducks won the conference, posting a 9–0 conference record. Oregon then lost to SEC champion Auburn Tigers in the BCS National Championship game 22 to 19. Stanford quarterback Andrew Luck was voted Pac-10 Offensive Player of the Year. Oregon State defensive tackle Stephen Paea was voted Pat Tillman Pac-10 Defensive Player of the Year.

2011 All-Pac-12 Conference football team

The 2011 All-Pac-12 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pac-12 Conference teams for the 2011 Pac-12 Conference football season. The Oregon Ducks won the conference, defeating the UCLA Bruins 49–31 in the Pac-12 Championship game. Oregon then beat the Big Ten champion Wisconsin Badgers in the Rose Bowl 45 to 38. Stanford quarterback Andrew Luck was voted Pac-12 Offensive Player of the Year. Cal linebacker Mychal Kendricks was voted Pat Tillman Pac-12 Defensive Player of the Year.

2011 East–West Shrine Game

The 2011 Asset Protect East–West Shrine Game was the 86th staging of the all-star college football exhibition game featuring NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision players. The game featured over 100 players from the 2010 college football season, and prospects for the 2011 Draft of the professional National Football League (NFL). In the week prior to the game, scouts from all 32 NFL teams attended. The proceeds from the East-West Shrine Game benefit Shriners Hospitals for Children.

This oldest all-star game was played on January 22, 2011, at 4 p.m. ET at the Florida Citrus Bowl. The Pat Tillman Award was presented to Josh McNary (LB, Army), who "best exemplifies character, intelligence, sportsmanship and service".

2013 All-Pac-12 Conference football team

The 2013 All-Pac-12 Conference football team consists of American football players chosen by various organizations for All-Pac-12 honors for the 2013 Pac-12 season. The Stanford Cardinal won the conference, defeating the Arizona State Sun Devils 38 to 14 in the Pac-12 Championship game. Stanford then lost to the Big Ten champion Michigan State Spartans in the Rose Bowl 20 to 14. Arizona running back Ka'Deem Carey was voted Pac-12 Offensive Player of the Year. Arizona State defensive tackle Will Sutton was voted Pat Tillman Pac-12 Defensive Player of the Year.

A. J. Hawk

Aaron James "A. J." Hawk (born January 6, 1984) is a former American football linebacker who played 11 seasons in the National Football League (NFL). He was drafted by the Green Bay Packers fifth overall in the 2006 NFL Draft and he would later win Super Bowl XLV with the team over the Pittsburgh Steelers. He was also a member of the Cincinnati Bengals and Atlanta Falcons. He played college football at Ohio State, where he earned All-American honors twice and won the Lombardi Award as a senior.

East–West Shrine Game

The East–West Shrine Game is a postseason college football all-star game that has been played annually since 1925. The game is sponsored by the fraternal group Shriners International, and the net proceeds are earmarked to some of the Shrine's charitable works, most notably the Shriners Hospitals for Children. The game's slogan is "Strong Legs Run That Weak Legs May Walk".

Teams consist of players from colleges in the Eastern United States vs. the Western United States. Players must be college seniors who are eligible to play for their school. The game and the practice sessions leading up to it attract dozens of scouts from professional teams. Since 1985, Canadian players playing in Canadian university football have also been invited (even though the CIS and NCAA play by different football codes). As such, this is the only bowl or all-star game in either the Canadian or American college football schedules to include players from both Canadian and American universities.

Since 1979, the game has been played in January, and has been played on January 10 or later since 1986. The later game dates allow players from teams whose schools were involved in bowl games to participate, which is important, as these teams often have some of the very best players.

Jon Krakauer

Jon Krakauer (born April 12, 1954) is an American writer and mountaineer. He is the author of best-selling non-fiction books—Into the Wild; Into Thin Air; Under the Banner of Heaven; and Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman—as well as numerous magazine articles. He was a member of an ill-fated expedition to summit Mount Everest in 1996, one of the deadliest disasters in the history of climbing Everest.

Kevin Tillman

Kevin Tillman (born January 24, 1978) is a former U.S. Army soldier, an American anti–Iraq War activist, and former Minor League Baseball second baseman. In 2002, Tillman left the Cleveland Indians organization after the September 11 attacks to enlist in the United States Army. With his older brother, former National Football League player Pat Tillman, he completed the Ranger Indoctrination Program in 2002, and they were both assigned to 2nd Battalion—75th Ranger Regiment. Kevin and Pat Tillman were deployed to the Middle East together as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. In 2004, Pat was killed in combat while in Spera, Afghanistan by friendly fire.

Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge

The Mike O'Callaghan–Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge is an arch bridge in the United States that spans the Colorado River between the states of Arizona and Nevada. The bridge is located within the Lake Mead National Recreation Area approximately 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Las Vegas, and carries U.S. Route 93 over the Colorado River. Opened in 2010, it was the key component of the Hoover Dam Bypass project, which rerouted US 93 from its previous routing along the top of Hoover Dam and removed several hairpin turns and blind curves from the route. It is jointly named for Mike O'Callaghan, Governor of Nevada from 1971–1979, and Pat Tillman, an American football player who left his career with the Arizona Cardinals to enlist in the United States Army and was later killed in Afghanistan by friendly fire.

As early as the 1960s, officials identified the US 93 route over Hoover Dam to be dangerous and inadequate for projected traffic volumes. From 1998–2001, officials from Arizona, Nevada, and several federal government agencies collaborated to determine the best routing for an alternative river crossing. In March 2001, the Federal Highway Administration selected the route, which crosses the Colorado River approximately 1,500 feet (460 m) downstream of Hoover Dam. Construction of the bridge approaches began in 2003, and construction of the bridge itself began in February 2005. The bridge was completed in 2010 and the entire bypass route opened to vehicle traffic on October 19, 2010. The Hoover Dam Bypass project was completed within budget at a cost of $240 million; the bridge portion cost $114 million.The bridge was the first concrete-steel composite arch bridge built in the United States, and incorporates the widest concrete arch in the Western Hemisphere. At 890 feet (270 m) above the Colorado River, it is the second highest bridge in the United States after the Royal Gorge Bridge, and is the world's highest concrete arch bridge.Upon the completion of the Boulder City Bypass, the bridge has become a part of Interstate 11, concurrent with US 93.

New Almaden, California

New Almaden is an unincorporated community in Santa Clara County, California, United States. New Almaden is 11 miles (18 km) south-southeast of downtown San Jose. New Almaden has a post office with ZIP code 95042, which first opened in 1861. The community is named after the New Almaden mine, which opened in the area in 1848. New Almaden was the childhood home of former Arizona Cardinals All-Pro safety Pat Tillman and also the childhood home of long time professional Equestrian Clayton Jackson a noted trainer of Hunters, Jumpers and Equitation horses.

Pac-12 Conference football individual awards

Coaches of the Pac-12 Conference bestow the following awards at the end of each football season. The conference was founded in its current form as the Athletic Association of Western Universities in 1959, but traces its roots to the Pacific Coast Conference, founded in 1915. The conference name changed to Pacific-8 Conference (Pac-8) in 1968 and Pacific-10 Conference (Pac-10) in 1978. The conference's 2011 expansion to 12 members saw the conference formally renamed as the Pac-12 Conference.

The Tillman Story

The Tillman Story is a 2010 American documentary film directed by Amir Bar-Lev. The film is about the death of football player turned U.S. Army Ranger Pat Tillman in the war in Afghanistan, the coverup of the true circumstances of his death, and his family's struggle to unearth the truth. It was nominated for the Grand Jury Prize at the 2010 Sundance Film Festival. It was named 2010 Best Documentary by the San Francisco Film Critics Circle, the St. Louis Gateway Film Critics Association, and the Florida Film Critics Circle. The film is narrated by Josh Brolin.Pat Tillman was a defensive back with the Arizona Cardinals, but decided to walk away from a multimillion-dollar contract to go to Afghanistan in 2002. After Tillman was killed, an investigation showed that he died by friendly fire. Tillman's family says they learned weeks later that the inspiring story the military had publicized was false. The film shows a paper trail — including a leaked top-secret document known as a P4 Memo, sent to the White House by Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal. Bar-Lev follows Pat’s mother, Mary (also known as "Dannie"), as she goes through 3,000 pages of redacted documents trying to uncover the facts.Bar-Lev began work on the documentary in 2007 during the congressional hearings on the incident. He asked the family for their cooperation for seven months until they agreed to participate.

Where Men Win Glory

Where Men Win Glory: The Odyssey of Pat Tillman, a 2009 book written by Jon Krakauer, is a biography of Pat Tillman, an American football player who left his professional career and enlisted in the United States Army after the September 11 attacks. He subsequently got killed in 2004 in Afghanistan. To write the book, Krakauer drew heavily upon Tillman's journals, interviews with the Tillman family, Boots On the Ground by Dusk: My Tribute to Pat Tillman by Mary Tillman, and extensive research on the ground in Afghanistan.

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