Pasture

Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is a concrete spatial area where farmers keep livestock for grazing.[1]

Pasture lands in the narrow sense are enclosed tracts of farmland, grazed by domesticated livestock, such as horses, cattle, sheep, or swine. The vegetation of tended pasture, forage, consists mainly of grasses, with an interspersion of legumes and other forbs (non-grass herbaceous plants). Pasture is typically grazed throughout the summer, in contrast to meadow which is ungrazed or used for grazing only after being mown to make hay for animal fodder.[2] Pasture in a wider sense additionally includes rangelands, other unenclosed pastoral systems, and land types used by wild animals for grazing or browsing.

Red Hill Farm and fields - geograph.org.uk - 955276
Red Hill Farm and fields sheep pasture at Bredenbury, Herefordshire, England

Pasture lands in the narrow sense are distinguished from rangelands by being managed through more intensive agricultural practices of seeding, irrigation, and the use of fertilizers, while rangelands grow primarily native vegetation, managed with extensive practices like controlled burning and regulated intensity of grazing.

Soil type, minimum annual temperature, and rainfall are important factors in pasture management. Sheepwalk is an area of grassland where sheep can roam freely. The productivity of sheepwalk is measured by the number of sheep per area. This is dependent, among other things, on the underlying rock.[3] Sheepwalk is also the name of townlands in County Roscommon, Ireland and County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland.

Unless factory farming, which entails in its most intensive form entirely trough-feeding, managed or unmanaged pasture is the main food source for ruminants. Pasture feeding dominates livestock farming where the land makes crop sowing and/or harvesting difficult, such as in arid or mountainous regions, where types of camel, goat, antelope, yak and other ruminants live which are well suited to the more hostile terrain and very rarely factory farmed. In more humid regions, pasture grazing is managed across a large global area for free range and organic farming. Certain types of pasture suit the diet, evolution and metabolism of particular animals, and their fertilising and tending of the land may over generations result in the pasture combined with the ruminants in question being integral to a particular ecosystem.[4]

Beverley Minster from West Pasture
A pasture in the East Riding of Yorkshire in England

Examples of pasture habitats

Bosco Chiesanuova (Grietz Dossetti Tinazzo) Lessinia VR Italy 2013-04-01 photo CTG ACA LESSINIA Paolo Villa 0055sp 04
Snowy pasture at Bosco Chiesanuova in Italy
Grazing cattle on a pasture near Hradec nad Moravicí in the Czech Republic
Grazing cattle on a pasture near Hradec nad Moravicí in the Czech Republic

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Schoof, Nicolas; Luick, Rainer (2018-11-29). "Pastures and Pastoralism". doi:10.1093/obo/9780199830060-0207.
  2. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1905). "Pasture" . New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
  3. ^ R. Elfyn Hughes, "Sheep Population and Environment in Snowdonia (North Wales)", Journal of Ecology Vol. 46, No. 1, March 1958, 169-189
  4. ^ "Agricultural biodiversity’s contribution to ecosystem functions" Archived 2015-01-08 at the Wayback Machine Dr. Devra I. Jarvis, CGIAR. Retrieved 2014-12-01
Agricultural land

Agricultural land is typically land devoted to agriculture, the systematic and controlled use of other forms of life—particularly the rearing of livestock and production of crops—to produce food for humans. It is thus generally synonymous with both farmland or cropland, as well as pasture or rangeland.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and others following its definitions, however, also use agricultural land or agricultural area as a term of art, where it means the collection of:

"arable land" (a.k.a. cropland): here redefined to refer to land producing crops requiring annual replanting or fallowland or pasture used for such crops within any five-year period

"permanent cropland": land producing crops which do not require annual replanting

permanent pastures: natural or artificial grasslands and shrublands able to be used for grazing livestockThis sense of "agricultural land" thus includes a great deal of land not devoted to agricultural use. The land actually under annually-replanted crops in any given year is instead said to constitute "sown land" or "cropped land". "Permanent cropland" includes forested plantations used to harvest coffee, rubber, or fruit but not tree farms or proper forests used for wood or timber. Land able to be used for farming is called "cultivable land". Farmland, meanwhile, is used variously in reference to all agricultural land, to all cultivable land, or just to the newly restricted sense of "arable land". Depending upon its use of artificial irrigation, the FAO's "agricultural land" may be divided into irrigated and non-irrigated land.

In the context of zoning, agricultural land or agriculturally-zoned land refers to plots that are permitted to be used for agricultural activities, without regard to its present use or even suitability. In some areas, agricultural land is protected so that it can be farmed without any threat of development. The Agricultural Land Reserve in British Columbia in Canada, for instance, requires approval from its Agricultural Land Commission before its lands can be removed or subdivided.

Alpine transhumance

Alpine transhumance is transhumance as practiced in the Alps, that is, a seasonal droving of grazing livestock between the valleys in winter and the high mountain pastures in summer (German Alpwirtschaft, Almwirtschaft from the term for "seasonal mountain pasture", Alp, Alm). Transhumance is a traditional practice that has shaped much of the landscape in the Alps, as without it, most areas below 2,000 m (6,600 ft) would be forests.

While tourism and industry contribute today much to Alpine economy, seasonal migration to high pastures is still practiced in Bavaria, Austria, Slovenia, Italy and Switzerland, except in their most frequented tourist centers. In some places, cattle are taken care of by local farmer families who move to higher places. In others, this job is for herdsmen who are employees of the cooperative owning the pastures.Most Alpine pastures are below 2,400 m (7,900 ft); all are below 2,800 m (9,200 ft).

The higher regions not suitable for transhumance are known as the High Alps.

Big Pasture Plateau

The Big Pasture Plateau (Slovene: Velika planina pronunciation ) is a karstified mountain plateau in the Kamnik–Savinja Alps northeast of Kamnik, Slovenia. It measures 5.8 square kilometres (2.2 square miles) and has an average elevation of 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level. Its highest point is Mount Gradišče, at 1,666 m (5,466 ft). There are numerous herders' dwellings that comprise several settlement areas: Velika Planina 'Big Pasture', Mala Planina 'Little Pasture', Gojška Planina 'Gozd Pasture' (named for the village of Gozd), Tiha Dolina 'Quiet Valley', and others. The Big Pasture Plateau is a tourist destination both in winter as a ski resort and in summer as a place for relaxation.

Cattle feeding

Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages. Most cattle in the US have a diet that is composed of at least some forage (grass, legumes, or silage). In fact, most beef cattle are raised on pasture from birth in the spring until autumn (7 to 9 months). Then for pasture-fed animals, grass is the forage that composes all or at least the great majority of their diet. Cattle fattened in feedlots are fed small amounts of hay supplemented with grain, soy and other ingredients in order to increase the energy density of the diet. The debate is whether cattle should be raised on diets primarily composed of pasture (grass) or a concentrated diet of grain, soy, corn and other supplements. The issue is often complicated by the political interests and confusion between labels such as "free range", "organic", or "natural". Cattle raised on a primarily forage diet are termed grass-fed or pasture-raised; for example meat or milk may be called grass-fed beef or pasture-raised dairy. However, the term "pasture-raised" can lead to confusion with the term "free range", which does not describe exactly what the animals eat.

Council of Ministers of Somalia

The Council of Ministers of the Federal Government of Somalia consists of Ministers appointed by the Prime Minister.

The Prime Minister may dismiss members of the Council, and new appointees must again be approved by the Parliament. The Council meets weekly on Thursdays in Mogadishu. There may be additional meetings if circumstances require it. The Prime Minister chairs the meetings.

Cow dung

Cow dung, also known as cow pats, cow pies or cow manure, is the waste product of bovine animal species. These species include domestic cattle ("cows"), bison ("buffalo"), yak, and water buffalo. Cow dung is the undigested residue of plant matter which has passed through the animal's gut. The resultant faecal matter is rich in minerals. Color ranges from greenish to blackish, often darkening soon after exposure to air.

Glapthorn Cow Pasture

Glapthorn Cow Pasture is a 28.2 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest north-west of Oundle in Northamptonshire. It is managed by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire.This site has ash and maple woodland, and dense blackthorn scrub. It is described by Natural England as one of the most important sites in Britain for the black hairstreak butterfly, which requires a habitat of prunus species such as blackthorn. The scrub also provides nesting sites for nightingales.There is an entrance to the site at the south-east corner.

Goodpasture syndrome

Goodpasture syndrome (GPS), also known as anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, is a rare autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the basement membrane in lungs and kidneys, leading to bleeding from the lungs and kidney failure. It is thought to attack the alpha-3 subunit of type IV collagen, which has therefore been referred to as Goodpasture's antigen. Goodpasture syndrome may quickly result in permanent lung and kidney damage, often leading to death. It is treated with medications that suppress the immune system such as corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and with plasmapheresis, in which the antibodies are removed from the blood.

The disease was first described by an American pathologist Ernest Goodpasture of Vanderbilt University in 1919 and was later named in his honor.

Hay

Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut and dried to be stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for large grazing animals raised as livestock, such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. However, it is also fed to smaller domesticated animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs. Even pigs may be fed hay, but they do not digest it as efficiently as herbivores.

Hay can be used as animal fodder when or where there is not enough pasture or rangeland on which to graze an animal, when grazing is not feasible due to weather (such as during the winter), or when lush pasture by itself would be too rich for the health of the animal. It is also fed when an animal is unable to access pasture, e.g. the animal is being kept in a stable or barn.

High Pasture Cave

High Pasture Cave (Gaelic: Uamh An Ard-Achaidh) is an archaeological site on the island of Skye, Scotland. Human presence is documented since the Mesolithic, and remains, including Iron Age structures, point to ritual veneration of either the landscape or deities associated with the place. The cave system extends to about 320 metres (1,050 ft) of accessible passages

Meadow

A meadow is an open habitat, or field, vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants. They attract a multitude of wildlife and support flora and fauna that could not thrive in other conditions. They provide areas for courtship displays, nesting, food gathering, pollinating insects, and sometimes sheltering, if the vegetation is high enough, making them ecologically important. There are multiple types of meadows, such as agricultural, transitional, and perpetual, each important to the ecosystem. Meadows may be naturally occurring or artificially created from cleared shrub or woodland.

Menina Pasture Plateau

The Menina Pasture Plateau (Slovene: Menina planina) is a pre-Alpine karst plateau in Slovenia.

Nook Pasture railway station

Nook Pasture railway station is a railway station that served the village of Canonbie, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, from 1864 to 1873 on the Waverley Line.

Overgrazing

Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, game reserves, or nature reserves. It can also be caused by immobile, travel restricted populations of native or non-native wild animals. However, "overgrazing" is a controversial concept, based on equilibrium system theory.

It reduces the usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land and is one cause of desertification and erosion. Overgrazing is also seen as a cause of the spread of invasive species of non-native plants and of weeds. It is caused by nomadic grazers in huge populations of travel herds, such as the American bison of the Great Plains, or migratory Wildebeests of the African savannas, or by holistic planned grazing.

River Lerryn

The River Lerryn is a river in east Cornwall, England, UK, a tributary of the River Fowey. The Lerryn is the largest of the tributaries which enter the estuary of the Fowey. The river is tidal up to the village of Lerryn. The landscape of the Lerryn catchment is rural and includes heathland, moorland and rough pasture in the upper reaches and broadleaf, coniferous and mixed plantation woodland in the lower. This catchment includes four SSSIs, including Redlake Meadows & Hoggs Moor. The Lerryn rises at Fairy Cross (Grid ref. SX1262) on the southern slopes of Bodmin Moor and flows south-southwest until it enters the Fowey estuary (Grid ref. SX1255).The name of the river is Cornish; the earliest record of it is as "Leryan" and "Lerion" in 1289. In modern Cornish its name would be Dowr Leryon, meaning "river of floods". The village of Lerryn is named after the river.

Rogier van der Weyden

Rogier van der Weyden (Dutch: [roːˈɣiːr vɑn dɛr ˈʋɛi̯də(n)]) or Roger de la Pasture (1399 or 1400 – 18 June 1464) was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs, altarpieces and commissioned single and diptych portraits. He was highly successful and internationally famous in his lifetime; his paintings were exported – or taken – to Italy and Spain, and he received commissions from, amongst others, Philip the Good, Netherlandish nobility, and foreign princes. By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity. However his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid-18th century. His reputation was slowly rebuilt during the following 200 years; today he is known, with Robert Campin and van Eyck, as the third (by birth date) of the three great Early Flemish artists (Vlaamse Primitieven or "Flemish Primitives"), and widely as the most influential Northern painter of the 15th century.Very few details of van der Weyden's life are known. The few facts we know come from fragmentary civic records. Yet the attribution of paintings now associated to him is widely accepted, partly on the basis of circumstantial evidence, but primarily on the stylistic evidence of a number of by paintings by an innovative master.

Van der Weyden worked from life models, and his observations were closely observed. Yet he often idealised certain elements of his models' facial features, who were typically statuesque, especially in his triptychs. All of his forms are rendered with rich, warm colourisation and a sympathetic expression, while he is known for his expressive pathos and naturalism. His portraits tend to be half length and half profile, and he is as sympathetic here as in his religious triptychs. Van der Weyden used an unusually broad range of colours and varied tones; in his finest work the same tone is not repeated in any other area of the canvas, so even the whites are varied.

Tonyrevan

Tonyrevan (from Irish: either Tonnaigh Riabhain, meaning 'The Pasture of the Grey Hill' or Tonnaigh Craobhach, meaning 'The Bushy Pasture' or Tonnaigh Riabháin, meaning "Revan's Pasture") is a townland in the civil parish of Templeport, County Cavan, Ireland. It lies in the Roman Catholic parish of Templeport and barony of Tullyhaw.

University of Wyoming

The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains. It is known as UW (often pronounced "U-Dub") to people close to the university. The university was founded in March 1886, four years before the territory was admitted as the 44th state, and opened in September 1887. The University of Wyoming is unusual in that its location within the state is written into the state's constitution. The university also offers outreach education in communities throughout Wyoming and online.

The University of Wyoming consists of seven colleges: agriculture and natural resources, arts and sciences, business, education, engineering and applied sciences, health sciences, and law. The university offers over 120 undergraduate, graduate and certificate programs including Doctor of Pharmacy and Juris Doctor. The University of Wyoming was featured in the 2011 Princeton Review Best 373 Colleges.In addition to on-campus classes in Laramie, the university's Outreach School offers more than 41 degree, certificate and endorsement programs to distance learners across the state and beyond. These programs are delivered through the use of technology, such as online and video conferencing classes. The Outreach School has nine regional centers in the state, with several on community college campuses, to give Wyoming residents access to a university education without relocating to Laramie.

Wansford Pasture

Wansford Pasture is a 3.1 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Wansford in Cambridgeshire. It is part of the 7.3 hectare Wansford Pasture & Standen's Pasture, a nature reserve managed by the Wildlife Trust for Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire and Northamptonshire (WTBCN).This is a south-facing slope, with Jurassic limestone grassland and a flush lower down which has a wide variety of wet-loving plants, including some which are rare in the county. The ecology is maintained by avoiding the use of fertilisers and herbicides, and by grazing. The WTBCN was enlarged by the donation of Standen's Pasture in 2007.There is access to the site from Old Leicester Road.

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