Passerea

Passerea is a clade of neoavian birds that was proposed by Jarvis et al. (2014).[1] Their genomic analyis recovered two major clades within Neoaves, Passerea and Columbea, and concluded that both clades appear to have many ecologically driven convergent traits.

According to Jarvis (2014), these convergences include the footpropelled diving trait of grebes in Columbea with loons and cormorants in Passerea; the wading-feeding trait of flamingos in Columbea with ibises and egrets in Passerea; and pigeons and sandgrouse in Columbea with shorebirds (killdeer) in Passerea. For Jarvis (2014), these long-known trait and morphological alliances suggest that some of the traditional nongenomic trait classifications are based on polyphyletic assemblages.

Passerea was not recovered in other studies.[2]

Passerea
Temporal range:
Late Cretaceous - Holocene, 75–0 Ma
Stagonopleura bella male - Melaleuca
Beautiful firetail (Stagonopleura bella)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Infraclass: Neognathae
Clade: Neoaves
Clade: Passerea
Jarvis et al., 2014
Clades

Phylogeny

Cladogram of Passerea relationships based on Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014)[1] with some clade names after Yury, T. et al. (2013)[3] and Kimball et al. 2013.[4]

Passerea
Otidae

Cypselomorphae (hummingbirds, swifts)White-eared Hummingbird (Basilinna leucotis) white background.jpg

Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos)Common Cuckoo by Mike McKenzie white background.jpg

Otidiformes (bustards)Eupodotis afraoides -Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa-8 white background.jpg

Musophagiformes (turacos)Red-crested Turaco RWD white background.jpg

Gruae

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Hoatzin white background.jpg

Gruimorphae

Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) (6852440498) white background.jpg

Charadriiformes (shorebirds)Chroicocephalus ridibundus (summer) white background.jpg

Ardeae

Aequornithes (loons, penguins, herons, pelicans, storks, etc)Chinstrap Penguin white background.jpgWeißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg

Eurypygimorphae

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu)Sunbittern RWD white background.jpg

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Red-billed Tropicbird JCB white background.jpg

Telluraves

Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

CathartiformesBlack Vulture RWD2013A white background.jpg

AccipitriformesGyps fulvus -Basque Country-8 white background.jpg

Strigiformes (owls)Tyto alba -British Wildlife Centre, Surrey, England-8a (1) white background.jpg

Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)

Cavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)

Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)Trogon surrucura brazil white background.jpg

Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)Nordlig hornkorp white background.jpg

Picodynastornithes

CoraciformesHalcyon smyrnensis in India (8277355382) white background.jpg

PiciformesDendrocopos major -Durham, England -female-8 white background.jpgRamphastos toco -Stadtgärtnerei Zürich - 20100919 white background.jpg

Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriamas, terror birds etc.)Seriema (Cariama cristata) white background.jpgPhorusrhacid skeleton white background.jpg

Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)Male Peregrine Falcon (7172188034) white background.jpg

Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Cockatiel Parakeet (Nymphicus hollandicus)9 white background.jpg

Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)Gorrion alfeizar Habana white background.jpg

References

  1. ^ a b Jarvis, E. D.; Mirarab, S.; Aberer, A. J.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904. PMID 25504713.
  2. ^ Prum, R.O. et al. (2015) A comprehensive phylogeny of birds (Aves) using targeted next-generation DNA sequencing. Nature 526, 569–573.
  3. ^ Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology. 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. PMC 4009869. PMID 24832669.
  4. ^ Kimball, R.T. et al. (2013) Identifying localized biases in large datasets: A case study using the Avian Tree of Life. Mol Phylogenet Evol. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.05.029
American tree sparrow

The American tree sparrow (Spizelloides arborea), also known as the winter sparrow, is a medium-sized sparrow.

It had been classified under the genus Spizella, but multilocus molecular evidence suggested placement in its own genus.

Adults have a rusty cap and grey underparts with a small dark spot on the breast. They have a rusty back with lighter stripes, brown wings with white bars and a slim tail. Their face is grey with a rusty line through the eye. Their flanks are splashed with light brown. They are similar in appearance to the chipping sparrow.

Their breeding habitat is tundra or the northern limits of the boreal forest in Alaska and northern Canada. They nest on the ground.

These birds migrate into southern Canada and the United States to spend the winter. Usually, chipping sparrows are moving south around the same time as these birds arrive.

These birds forage on the ground or in low bushes, often in flocks when not nesting. They mainly eat seeds and insects, but also eat some berries. They are commonly seen near feeders with dark-eyed juncos.

This bird's song is a sweet high warble descending in pitch and becoming buzzy near the finish.

Bluebird

The bluebirds are a group of medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the order of Passerines in the genus Sialia of the thrush family (Turdidae). Bluebirds are one of the few thrush genera in the Americas. They have blue, or blue and rose beige, plumage. Female birds are less brightly colored than males, although color patterns are similar and there is no noticeable difference in size between the two sexes.

Columbea

Columbea is a clade suggested by genome analysis that contains Columbiformes (pigeons and doves), Pteroclididae (sandgrouses), Mesitornithidae (mesites) and Mirandornithes (flamingos and grebes). Until their recent placement as the sister taxon to Passerea, in the last decade various genetic analysis found them to be in (the almost obsolete) clade Metaves.

Eastern bluebird

The eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) is a small thrush found in open woodlands, farmlands, and orchards. It is the state bird of Missouri and New York.

This species measures 16–21 cm (6.3–8.3 in) long, spans 25–32 cm (9.8–12.6 in) across the wings, and weighs 27–34 g (0.95–1.20 oz). Eastern bluebirds are found east of the Rockies, southern Canada to the Gulf states, and southeastern Arizona to Nicaragua. The increase in trees throughout the Great Plains during the past century due to fire suppression and tree planting facilitated the western range expansion of the eastern bluebird as well as range expansions of many other species of birds. From 1966-2015 the eastern bluebird experienced a greater than 1.5% annual population increase throughout most of its breeding and year-round ranges, with exceptions including southern Florida and the Ohio River valley.The bright-blue breeding plumage of the male, easily observed on a wire or open perch, makes this species a favorite of birders. The male's call includes sometimes soft warbles of 'jeew' or 'chir-wi' or the melodious song 'chiti WEEW wewidoo'.

Grassland sparrow

The grassland sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis) is a species of bird in the family Passerellidae. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are dry savannah, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, and pastureland.

Grey-crowned flatbill

The grey-crowned flatbill or grey-crowned flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae.

It is found in humid forest in the Amazon and Atlantic Forest in South America. It closely resembles the yellow-margined and yellow-olive flatbills, but its lower mandible is dark with a pale base. It is a fairly common bird with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as "least concern".

Gruae

Gruae is a clade of birds that contains the order Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin) and Gruimorphae (shorebirds and rails) identified in 2014 by genome analysis. Previous studies have placed the Hoatzin in different parts of the bird family tree; however, despite its unusual and primitive morphology, genetic studies have shown the hoatzin is not as primitive or as ancient as once thought, and that it could be a very derived bird that reverted to or retains some plesiomorphic traits.According to Suh et al. (2016), one of the problems with the conclusions about this novel clade is that independent studies (like Jarvis et al. 2014 and Prum et al. 2015) found very dissimilar phylogenetic relationships (like Inopinaves) using the same probabilistic support, such bootstrap scores and Bayesian posterior probabilities.

Gruimorphae

Gruimorphae is a clade of birds that contains the orders Charadriiformes (plovers, gulls, and allies) and Gruiformes (cranes and rails) identified in 2014 by genome analysis. This grouping has had historical support, as various charadriiform families such as the families Pedionomidae and Turnicidae were classified as gruiforms. The relationship between these birds is due similar anatomical and behavioral characteristics. A morphological study went further to suggest that the gruiforms might be paraphyletic in respect to the shorebirds, with the rails being closely related to the buttonquails.

List of birds

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that.

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

Malaysian plover

The Malaysian plover (Charadrius peronii) is a small (c. 35–42 g) wader that nests on beaches and salt flats in Southeast Asia.

Mountain bluebird

The mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is a medium-sized bird weighing about 30 g (1.1 oz) with a length from 16–20 cm (6.3–7.9 in). They have light underbellies and black eyes. Adult males have thin bills and are bright turquoise-blue and somewhat lighter underneath. Adult females have duller blue wings and tail, grey breast, grey crown, throat and back. In fresh fall plumage, the female's throat and breast are tinged with red-orange, brownish near the flank contrasting with white tail underparts. Their call is a thin 'few'; while their song is warbled high 'chur chur'. It is the state bird of Idaho and Nevada. It is an omnivore and it can live 6 to 10 years in the wild. It eats spiders, grasshoppers, flies and other insects, and small fruits. The mountain bluebird is a relative of the eastern and western bluebirds.

Olive-sided flycatcher

The olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi) is a passerine bird. It is a medium-sized tyrant flycatcher.

Otidae

Otidae is a clade that includes the superorders Otidimorphae (bustards, turacos, and cuckoos) and Cypselomorphae (nightbirds, swifts, and hummingbirds). It was identified in 2014 by genome analysis. Before it was thought that Cypselomorphae was closely related to birds such as pigeons, flamingos, tropicbirds, and the kagu in the possibly polyphyletic taxon Metaves. They occupy a basal branch of the clade Passerea.

Rallus

Rallus is a genus of wetland birds of the rail family. Sometimes, the genera Lewinia and Gallirallus are included in it. Six of the species are found in the Americas, and the three species found in Eurasia, Africa and Madagascar are very closely related to each other, suggesting they are descended from a single invasion of a New World ancestor.These are slim, long-billed rails with slender legs. Their laterally flattened bodies are an adaptation to life in wet reedbeds and marshes, enabling them to slip easily through the dense semi-aquatic vegetation. Typically these birds have streaked brown upperparts, blue-grey on the face or breast, and barred flanks. Only the African rail has a plain back, and the plain-flanked rail lacks any blue-grey in its plumage and has no flank bars.Three endemic South American species are endangered by habitat loss, and the Madagascan rail is becoming rare.

Red-kneed dotterel

The red-kneed dotterel (Erythrogonys cinctus) is a species of plover in a monotypic genus in the subfamily Vanellinae. It is often gregarious and will associate with other waders of its own and different species, even when nesting. It is nomadic and sometimes irruptive.

Streaked spiderhunter

The streaked spiderhunter (Arachnothera magna) is a species of bird in the family Nectariniidae.

Tadorninae

The Tadorninae is the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.

This group is largely tropical or Southern Hemisphere in distribution, with only two species, the common shelduck and the ruddy shelduck breeding in northern temperate regions, though the crested shelduck (presumed extinct) was also a northern species.

Most of these species have a distinctive plumage, but there is no pattern as to whether the sexes are alike, even within a single genus.

Western wood pewee

The western wood pewee (Contopus sordidulus) is a small tyrant flycatcher. Adults are gray-olive on the upperparts with light underparts, washed with olive on the breast. They have two wing bars and a dark bill with yellow at the base of the lower mandible. This bird is very similar in appearance to the eastern wood pewee; the two birds were formerly considered to be one species. The call of C. sordidulus is a loud buzzy peeer; the song consists of three rapid descending tsees ending with a descending peeer.

Whimbrel

The whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across much of subarctic North America, Asia and Europe as far south as Scotland.

The whimbrel is a migratory bird wintering on coasts in Africa, southern North America, South America, and South Asia into Australasia. It is also a coastal bird during migration. It is fairly gregarious outside the breeding season.

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