Saint Paschasius Radbertus (785–865) was a Carolingian theologian and the abbot of Corbie, a monastery in Picardy founded in 657 or 660 by the queen regent Bathilde with a founding community of monks from Luxeuil Abbey. His most well-known and influential work is an exposition on the nature of the Eucharist written around 831, entitled De Corpore et Sanguine Domini. He was canonized in 1073 by Pope Gregory VII. His feast day is April 26. His works are edited in Patrologia Latina vol. 120 (1852).
Paschasius was an orphan left on the steps of the convent of Notre-Dame de Soissons. He was raised by the nuns there, and became very fond of the abbess, Theodrara. Theodrara was sister of Adalard of Corbie and Wala of Corbie, two monks (and both abbots prior to Paschasius) whom he admired greatly. At a fairly young age, Paschasius left the convent to serve as a monk under Abbot Adalard, at Corbie. There he also met Wala, Adalard's brother and successor.
Through the abbotship of both Adalard and Wala, Paschasius focused on the monastic life, spending his time studying and teaching. When Adalard died in 826, Paschasius helped ensure Wala would become Abbot in his place. Wala's death in 836 brought yet another abbot to Corbie, Ratramnus, who held opposing views to Paschasius on a number of ecclesiastical issues. Ratramnus wrote a refutation of Paschasius' treatise on the Eucharist, De Corpore et Sanguine Domini, using the same title. By 844, Paschasius himself became abbot, however he resigned his title ten years later to return to his studies. He left Corbie for the nearby monastery of St. Riquier, where he lived in voluntary exile for some years. Why he resigned is unknown, however it is likely that his actions were motivated by factional disputes within his monastic community; misunderstandings between himself and the younger monks were likely factors in his decision. He returned to Corbie late in life, and resided in his old monastery until his death in 865.
Paschasius' body was first buried at the Church of St. John in Corbie. After numerous reported miracles, the Pope ordered his remains to be removed, and interred in the Church of St. Peter, Corbie.
The most well-known and influential work of St. Paschasius, De Corpore et Sanguine Domini (written between 831 and 833), is an exposition on the nature of the Eucharist. It was originally written as an instructional manual for the monks under his care at Corbie, and is the first lengthy treatise on the sacrament of the Eucharist in the Western world. In it, Paschasius agrees with Ambrose in affirming that the Eucharist contains the true, historical body of Jesus Christ. According to Paschasius, God is truth itself, and therefore, his words and actions must be true. Christ's proclamation at the Last Supper that the bread and wine were his body and blood must be taken literally, since God is truth. He believes that the transubstantiation of the bread and wine to be used at the Eucharist occurs literally. Only if the Eucharist is the actual body and blood of Christ can a Christian know it is salvific. Paschasius believed that the presence of the historical blood and body of Christ allows the partaker a real union with Jesus in a direct, personal, and physical union by joining a person's flesh with Christ's and Christ's flesh with his. To Paschasius, the Eucharist's transformation into the flesh and blood of Christ is possible because of the principle that God is truth; God is able to manipulate nature, as he created it. The book was given to Charles the Bald, the Frankish king, as a present in 844, with the inclusion of a special introduction. The view Paschasius expressed in this work was met with some hostility; Ratramnus, who preceded Paschasius as Abbot of Corbie, wrote a rebuttal by the same name, by order of Charles the Bald, who did not agree with some of the views Paschasius held. Ratramnus believed that the Eucharist was strictly metaphorical; he focused more on the relationship between faith and the newly emerging science. Shortly thereafter, a third monk joined the debate, Rabanus Maurus, which initiated the Carolingian Eucharist Controversy. Ultimately, however, the king accepted Paschasius' assertion, and the physical presence of Christ in the Eucharist became the dominant belief in the Roman Catholic faith.
|"When I begin to think about [Adalard], I am inwardly affected by two contrary emotions, namely, grief, and joy. The Apostle forbids us to mourn in such a situation, but my and our sudden desolation prevents us from rejoicing."|
|Paschasius Radbertus, Vita Adalhardi|
Written in 826 and 836, respectively, Vita Adalhardi and Vita Walae are spiritual biographies of Paschasius' role-models. They are personal tributes, written for the memory of two fathers, and the patterns of life depicted in them are intended to be followed.
Vita Adalhardi is rather brief; it is a fairly conventional representation of a saint's life. However, the style that Paschasius uses is unique for the time in which it was written. Written in mourning for the loss of his friend, Paschasius compares Adalard to the painter Zeuxis. As described by Cicero, artists study models to perfect their art; Zeuxis' challenge was to paint the woman, Helen of Troy. Paschasius states that just as Zeuxis studied forms in order to perfect his art, so too does Adalard in trying to reform the image of God in himself. In making this comparison, Paschasius was identified with being a humanistic writer of the Carolingian period, as he compared classic and ancient literature with contemporary literature. Paschasius depicts Adalard as a mirror image of Christ, emphasizing the elements of infinite love and descent into suffering. He also parallels Adalard's role in the Church to that of a mother, which is a concept attributed to Cistercian spirituality in the 12th century, three hundred years after Paschasius' death. The grief felt over the death of Adalard is extremely strong in the book - although Paschasius knows that suffering should give way to joy, as depicted by his forefathers, such as Jerome, Paschasius' grief for the loss of his friend surpassed that of his literary models. This style of writing is also not seen elsewhere prior to the 12th century. Paschasius' justification of excess mourning is his most distinctive contribution to the tradition of consolation literature.
Vita Walae is much longer (about twice as long as Vita Adalhardi), and is structured as a dialogue. In total, there are eight characters represented, presumably monks of Corbie. These characters are given pseudonyms, probably nor with the intention of masking identities. It is more likely that these pseudonyms were employed to further support Paschasius' interpretation of Wala, as the names were taken from classical texts. Phrases and passages from a variety of sources are woven into the text (Acts of St. Sebastien, The Book of Job, various comedies of Terence). Although not displaying information about Wala, these additions reflect Paschasius' own beliefs and his skill at writing. While Vita Adalhardi was written to be in part a funeral eulogy, Vita Walae was written as a (fairly) accurate depiction of Wala. Paschasius used sources in writing this biography, a handbook written by Wala, and treatises of the time, probably to show his own views through his depiction of Wala.
Paschasius has an extensive collection of works, including many exegeses on various books of the Bible. He wrote commentaries on the Gospel of Matthew, Lamentations, and an exposition of Psalm 45, which he dedicated to the nuns at St. Mary at Soissons. De Partu Virginis, written for his friend Emma, Abbess of St. Mary at Soissons and daughter of Theodrara, describes the lifestyle of nuns. He also wrote a treatise, titled De Nativitae Sanctae Mariae, regarding the nature of the Virgin Mary and the birth of Jesus Christ. Paschasius probably wrote much more, but none of it has survived through the centuries. Paschasius wrote a commentary on Revelation
In opposition to other Carolingian authors, Paschasius locates the Imago Dei (the "Image of God") in the whole human being - body as well as soul. This view is in alignment with that of the second-century Church Father Irenaeus. Irenaeus believed that Jesus was the physical embodiment of God; the son is the image of the father. As such, humans represent the image of God not only in soul, but in flesh as well. This view is in opposition to the more accepted view of Origen of Alexandria, who believed that the physical body had no part in the image-relationship. Unlike other theologians of the time, Paschasius does not equate the sanctification process with a metaphysical detachment of the body and the soul. Instead, he believes that the human condition (existing in a physical form) can contribute positively to achieving sanctification. However, he did believe in a form of mitigated dualism, in which the soul plays a larger part in the process than the body. Paschasius believes that life is an opportunity to practice for death; however, the concept that the body is a prison for the soul is practically non-existent in his work, and probably only occurs due to pressure from his peers. Even though he believed that the body has a role in one's sanctification process, he also acknowledged that flesh struggles against God, and thus has the ability to be corrupted.
Paschasius believes in a distinction between veritas (truth) and figura (form, or appearance). Christ's descent from Heaven to Earth was a declension from truth to appearance, from the realm of perfection to the realm of imperfection. This would imply that Jesus in flesh is false, and imperfect; however, Paschasius asserted that not every figure is false. Christ is simultaneously both truth and figure because his external, physical self is the figure of the truth, the physical manifestation of the truth that exists in the soul. The person that was Jesus was subject to human needs, just like the rest of humanity. He required to eat, to sleep, and to be in company with others. In addition to this, however, he also performed miracles. These behaviours which Jesus exhibited imply a duality in the concept of "Word made flesh". Miracles, until then only performed by God, the non-physical Truth or Word, were suddenly performed by a physical human being. The relationship between Jesus' humanity and his divinity is rather convoluted; however, it is analogous to the relation of figures (written letters) of words to their spoken counterparts. Therefore, Jesus in physical form is the visual representation, T-R-U-T-H, while his divinity is the spoken sound of those written letters together as a word.
Year 785 (DCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The article denomination 785 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. It is still used today in this manner.April 26
April 26 is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 249 days remain until the end of the year.Berengar of Tours
Berengar of Tours (c. 999 – 6 January 1088), in Latin Berengarius Turonensis, was an 11th-century French Christian theologian and archdeacon of Angers, a scholar whose leadership of the cathedral school at Chartres set an example of intellectual inquiry through the revived tools of dialectic that was soon followed at cathedral schools of Laon and Paris. He came into conflict with Church authorities over the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Eucharist.Catena (biblical commentary)
A catena (from Latin catena, a chain) is a form of biblical commentary, verse by verse, made up entirely of excerpts from earlier Biblical commentators, each introduced with the name of the author, and with such minor adjustments of words to allow the whole to form a continuous commentary.
The texts are mainly compiled from mainstream authors, but they often contain fragments of certain patristic writings now otherwise lost. It has been asserted by Faulhaber that half of all the commentaries on scripture composed by the church Fathers are now extant only in this form.Catholic moral theology
Catholic moral theology is a major category of doctrine in the Catholic Church, equivalent to a religious ethics. Moral theology encompasses Roman Catholic social teaching, Catholic medical ethics, sexual ethics, and various doctrines on individual moral virtue and moral theory. It can be distinguished as dealing with "how one is to act", in contrast to dogmatic theology which proposes "what one is to believe".Emmanuel Mounier
Emmanuel Mounier (; French: [munje]; 1 April 1905 – 22 March 1950) was a French philosopher, theologian, teacher and essayist.Gilbert Universalis
Gilbert Universalis or Gilbertus Universalis (died 1134) was a medieval Bishop of London.Johann Baptist Metz
Johann Baptist Metz (born 5 August 1928) is a German Catholic theologian. He is Ordinary Professor of Fundamental Theology, Emeritus, at Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster, Germany.Klaus Zechiel-Eckes
Klaus Zechiel-Eckes (12 May 1959 in Pforzheim – 23 February 2010 in Cologne) was a German historian and medievalist.
Klaus Zechiel-Eckes graduated high school in 1978. From 1979 to 1990 he studied history and Romance and Middle Latin philology in Saarland University and the University of Freiburg. At Freiburg he was a student of Hubert Mordek's. In 1985 he sat the State Examination. In 1990 he received his doctorate in Freiburg in Medieval history with a thesis on the Concordia canonum of Cresconius. In 1998 he completed his habilitation in Freiburg in the fields of Medieval History and the historical sciences, with a focus on Florus of Lyon. He followed this with professorships at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (1999/2000) and the University of Zurich (2002/3). In the winter of 2003/4 he succeeded Tilman Struve as professor of History of the Early and High Middle Ages at the University of Cologne.
His research focused on the political, church and canonical history of the early and high Middle Ages. He also studied intellectual and book history, especially of the Carolingian period, and specialized in the historical sciences, especially codicology. His research, grounded in source and manuscript studies, led to revolutionary discoveries about the origin of the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, namely that they were assembled at the monastery of Corbie under the direction of Paschasius Radbertus in the later 830s.From 2007, Zechiel-Eckes was a regular member of the executive board of the Monumenta Germaniae Historica and member of the North Rhine-Westphalian Academy of Sciences, Humanities and the Arts.List of Catholic philosophers and theologians
This is a list of Catholic philosophers and theologians whose Catholicism is important to their works. The names are ordered by date of birth in order to give a rough sense of influence between thinkers.Luigi Taparelli
Luigi Taparelli (born Prospero Taparelli d'Azeglio; 1793–1862) was an Italian Catholic scholar of the Society of Jesus who coined the term social justice.Matthias Joseph Scheeben
Matthias Joseph Scheeben (Meckenheim, Rhine Province, 1 March 1835 – Cologne, 21 July 1888) was a German Catholic theological writer and mystic.Notre-Dame de Soissons
Notre-Dame de Soissons was a nunnery dedicated to the Virgin Mary (Our Lady) in Soissons. It was founded during the Merovingian era, between 658 and 666, but the community was dissolved and the building partially demolished during the French Revolution (1789–99).The convent was founded by Ebroin, the mayor of the palace under the Merovingian kings, who appointe Aetheria, a nun from Jouarre, as its first abbess. Jouarre had been founded by Ado, a disciple of the Irish missionary Columban, and Notre-Dame therefore stood in the Columbanian tradition of monasticism. In the 660s the nunnery received a monastic rule from the bishop of Soissons, Drauscius. It was a mixta regula, a mixed rule, combining elements of the Benedictine rule and the rule of Columban. The text of this unique rule has not been preserved. During the 660s, the nuns also adopted the practice of the laus perennis (perennial praise), whereby the Psalms were sung constantly, day and night, by alternating groups of singers. This custom was pioneered at the monastery of Saint-Maurice d'Agaune.During the Carolingian era, the nunnery came under royal control. Charlemagne's daughter Rotrude (died 810) became a nun there, and his sister Gisela became abbess. In 816–17 it adopted the reforms of Benedict of Aniane propounded at the synods of Aix-la-Chapelle. According to the record of monasteries made around that time, the Monasterium sanctae Mariae Suessionis owed the state dona et militia, a monetary gift and military contribution (in the case of a nunnery, paid soldiers). In 858, an inventory (descriptio) of the monastery's possessions was made before the king's leading men (optimates) and signed by fifteen bishops and abbots. The document is preserved. Such inventories were made and confirmed by the king or other leading men to serve as proof and confirmation of possession.The writer and theologian Paschasius Radbertus was raised at Notre-Dame de Soissons—prior to 803/4, when Charlemagne made illegal the education of boys at nunneries. He dedicated his treatises De assumptione sanctae Mariae virginis to the Abbess Theodrada (abbess 810, died 846), a cousin of Charlemagne, and her daughter, Irma. After Irma succeeded her mother as abbess, Radbertus wrote the Expositio in Psalmum XLIV for the nuns of Soissons. It is an exposition of Psalm 44 as an epithalamium.Odo I of Beauvais
Odo I (or Eudes I) was a West Frankish prelate who served as abbot of Corbie in the 850s and as bishop of Beauvais from around 860 until his death in 881. He was a courtier and a diplomat, going on missions to East Francia and the Holy See.
He wrote a lost treatise on Easter against the Greek practice. He also wrote a passion of Saint Lucian, modelled on the hagiographical work of Hilduin, and was the first to portray Lucian as the founding bishop of Beauvais.Our Lady, Star of the Sea
Our Lady, Star of the Sea is an ancient title for the Virgin Mary. The words Star of the Sea are a translation of the Latin title Stella Maris.
The title has been in use since at least the early medieval period. Originally arising from a scribal error in a supposed etymology of the name Mary, it came to be seen as allegorical of Mary's role as "guiding star" on the way to Christ. Under this name, the Virgin Mary is believed to intercede as a guide and protector of seafarers in particular, the Apostleship of the Sea, and many coastal churches are named Stella Maris or Star of the Sea.Pascal (given name)
Pascal is a common masculine Francophone given name, cognate of Italian name Pasquale, Spanish name Pascual, Catalan name Pasqual.
Pascal is common in French-speaking countries, Germany, Austria, and the Netherlands. Derived feminine forms include Pascale, Pascalle or Pascalina. Pascal is also common as a surname in France, and in Italy (in Piedmont, Aosta Valley and, as De Pascal, in Friuli-Venezia Giulia).
Pascal derives from the Latin paschalis or pashalis, which means "relating to Easter", from the Latin term for "Easter", pascha, Greek Πάσχα, from the Aramaic pasḥā (Hebrew pesach) "Passover" (since the Hebrew holiday Passover coincides closely with the later Christian holiday of Easter, the Latin word came to be used for both occasions).
The Christian given name is in origin from the meaning "one born on Easter day", or "born on Pentecost" (see below).
Variations of the given name include: Paschal, Pasqual, Pasquale, Paskal, Pascoal, Pascale, Pascha, Paschalis, Pascual, Pascoe, and Pasco.
The name arises in the early medieval period, in Latin spelled Paschalis. An early bearer is Antipope Paschal (fl. 687), and Pope Paschal I (d. 824).
A variant Latin form of the name is Paschasius; this is the name of the 9th-century Frankish saint Paschasius Radbertus. Peter Pascual (Petrus Paschasius, d. 1299) was a bishop and martyr of medieval Andalusia.
Saint Pascal (or San Pasqual) refers to Paschal Baylon (1540–1592), a Spanish friar and mystic.
Baylon was born on 24 May 1540 to Aragonese peasants. His parents named him Pasqual because he was born on the day of the feast of Pentecost (not Easter), because Pentecost in Spain was known as "the Pasch (or Passover) of the Holy Ghost" at the time.
After Pascual Baylon's beatification (1618) and canonization (1690), it became common to give the name Pascal to children born on the feast day of Saint Pascal (17 May) rather than on Easter or Pentecost, or independently of the child's date of birth.Ratramnus
Ratramnus (died c. 868) a Frankish monk of the monastery of Corbie, near Amiens in northern France, was a Carolingian theologian known best for his writings on the Eucharist and predestination. His Eucharistic treatise, De corpore et sanguine Domini (On the Body and Blood of the Lord), was a counterpoint to his abbot Paschasius Radbertus’s realist Eucharistic theology. Ratramnus was also known for his defense of the monk Gottschalk, whose theology of double predestination was the center of much controversy in 9th-century France and Germany. In his own time, Ratramnus was perhaps best known for his Against the Objections of the Greeks who Slandered the Roman Church, a response to the Photian schism and defense of the filioque addition to the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed.Wala of Corbie
Wala (c. 755 – 31 August 836) was a son of Bernard, son of Charles Martel, and one of the principal advisers of his cousin Charlemagne, of Charlemagne's son Louis the Pious, and of Louis's son Lothair I. He succeeded his brother Adalard as abbot of Corbie and its new daughter foundation, Corvey, in 826 or 827.
Originally a count (comes) attached to the palace under Charlemagne (811), Wala was forced to enter the monastery of Corbie in 814 as part of a purging of palace rivals and hangers-on by Louis the Pious. In 816 he and Adalard were given the responsibility of organising the government of the convent of Herford, recently passed into Louis's hands at the Council of Aachen. In the 820s Wala became a strong opponent of royal/imperial control of church benefices. He was back at court in 822 as a concillor (councillor). According to Paschasius Radbertus, Wala alleged on one occasion that the "army of clerics" (i.e. chaplains) resident at the Palace of Aachen (and perhaps itinerant with the emperor) served only for personal gain and did not form a legitimate ecclesiastical institution. In 831 Wala left Corbie; in 834 he was abbot of Bobbio. His feast day is Aug. 31.