Pascal Lamy (born 8 April 1947) is a French political consultant and businessman. He was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) until 1 September 2013. His appointment took effect on 1 September 2005 for a four-year term. In April 2009, WTO members reappointed Lamy for a second four-year term, beginning on 1 September 2009. He was then succeeded by Roberto Azevêdo. Pascal Lamy was also European Commissioner for Trade and is an advisor for the transatlantic think-tank European Horizons, as well as currently serving as the Honorary President of the Paris-based think tank, Notre Europe.
|Director-General of the World Trade Organization|
1 September 2005 – 1 September 2013
|Preceded by||Supachai Panitchpakdi|
|Succeeded by||Roberto Azevêdo|
|European Commissioner for Trade|
13 September 1999 – 22 November 2004
|Preceded by||Leon Brittan|
|Succeeded by||Peter Mandelson|
|Born||8 April 1947|
|Political party||Socialist Party|
|Alma mater||Institute of Political Studies, Paris|
National School of Administration, Strasbourg
Born in Levallois-Perret, Hauts-de-Seine, a suburb of Paris, Lamy studied at Sciences Po Paris, from HEC and ÉNA, graduating second in his year of those specialising in economics. Lamy is also an honorary graduate of the University of Warwick.
Lamy has been a member of the French Socialist Party since 1969.
In 1979 Pascal Lamy was appointed to the post of Secretary General of the “Mayoux Committee”. During 1979-1981 he worked as Deputy Secretary General, then Secretary General of the Interministerial Committee for the Remodelling of Industrial Structures (CIASI) in the Treasury Department. In 1981 Pascal Lamy was technical Adviser, then Deputy Director (June 1982), Office of the Ministers for Economic and Financial Affairs (Mr Jacques Delors). 
Deputy Secretary General, then Secretary General of the Interministerial Committee for the Remodelling of Industrial Structures (CIASI) in the Treasury DepartmentWhen Delors became President of the European Commission in 1984, he took Lamy with him to serve as chef de cabinet, which he did until the end of Delors' term in 1994. During his time there, Lamy became known as the Beast of the Berlaymont, the Gendarme and Exocet due to his habit of ordering civil servants, even Directors-General (head of departments) "precisely what to do – or else." He was seen as ruling Delors' office with a "rod of iron", with no-one able to bypass or manipulate him and those who tried being "banished to one of the less pleasant European postings".
Returning to the European Commission in 1999, Lamy was appointed European Commissioner for Trade by Commission President Romano Prodi. Lamy served to the expiry of the commission's term in 2004. His ability to manage the powerful civil servants in his department was noted. During his time in office, he pushed for a new Doha round of world trade talks and advocated reform within the WTO.
On 13 May 2005, Lamy was chosen as the next director-general of the World Trade Organization, and took office on 1 September 2005 for a four-year term. He had been nominated by the European Union and won over candidates including Carlos Pérez del Castillo of Uruguay and Jaya Krishna Cuttaree of Mauritius.
On 30 April 2009, Lamy was re-elected unanimously by the WTO General Council for a second term of four years, beginning 1 September 2009. He also served as the chairman of the organization's Trade Negotiations Committee. He was the WTO's fifth director-general.
Also in 2009, Lamy served on the High Level Commission on the Modernization of World Bank Group Governance, which – under the leadership of Ernesto Zedillo – conducted an external review of the World Bank Group's governance.
Since 2019, Lamy has been serving as President of the Paris Peace Forum.
Lamy is married and has three sons. His hobbies include running and cycling.
Yves-Thibault de Silguy
| French European Commissioner
Served alongside: Michel Barnier
| European Commissioner for Trade
Served alongside: Danuta Hübner
| Director-General of the World Trade Organization
A referendum on the Maastricht Treaty was held in Denmark on 2 June 1992. It was rejected by 50.7% of voters with a turnout of 83.1%. The rejection was a blow to the process of European integration, although the process continued. The result of the referendum, along with the "petit oui" in the French Maastricht referendum signaled the end of the "permissive consensus" on European integration which had existed in most of continental Europe until then. This was expressed by Pascal Lamy, chef de cabinet for Jacques Delors, the president of the European Commission, who remarked that, “Europe was built in a St. Simonian [i.e., technocratic] way from the beginning, this was Monnet’s approach: The people weren’t ready to agree to integration, so you had to get on without telling them too much about what was happening. Now St. Simonianism is finished. It can’t work when you have to face democratic opinion.” From this point forward issues relating to European integration were subject to much greater scrutiny across much of Europe, and overt euroscepticism gained prominence. Only France, Denmark and Ireland held referendums on Maastricht ratification.
As the Maastricht Treaty could only come into effect if all members of the European Union ratified it, the Edinburgh Agreement, negotiated in the months following the referendum, provided Denmark with four exceptions which eventually led to Denmark ratifying the Maastricht Treaty in a 1993 referendum.Arancha Gonzalez
Arancha González Laya (born 22 May 1969) is a Spanish economist and currently the Executive Director of the International Trade Centre, the joint agency of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Trade Organization. She was appointed to this position in August 2013.Danuta Hübner
Danuta Maria Hübner, née Młynarska (Polish: [daˈnuta ˈxʲybnɛr] or [ˈxʲibnɛr]; born 8 April 1948) is a Polish politician and Diplomat and Economist and Member of the European Parliament. She has served as European Commissioner for Regional Policy from 22 November 2004 until 4 July 2009, when she resigned to become a Member of European Parliament for the Civic Platform. In 2012, Professor Hübner became a member of the International Honorary Council of the European Academy of Diplomacy.Director-General of the World Trade Organization
The Director-General of the World Trade Organization is responsible for supervising the administrative functions of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Because World Trade Organizations' decisions are made by member states (through either a Ministerial Conference or through the General Council), the Director-General has little power over matters of policy - the role is primarily advisory and managerial. The Director-General supervises the WTO secretariat of about 700 staff and is appointed by WTO members for a term of four years.The current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo of Brazil, since 1 September 2013.Before the creation of the WTO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade had a series of Directors-General. Peter Sutherland was the last DG of GATT and the first of the WTO.Doha Development Round
The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which commenced in November 2001 under then director-general Mike Moore. Its objective was to lower trade barriers around the world, and thus facilitate increased global trade.
The Doha Round began with a ministerial-level meeting in Doha, Qatar in 2001. The aim was to put less developed countries' priorities at heart. The needs of the developing countries were the core reasons for the meeting. The major factors discussed include trade facilitation, services, rules of origin and dispute settlement. Special and differential treatment for the developing countries were also discussed as a major concern. Subsequent ministerial meetings took place in Cancún, Mexico (2003), and Hong Kong (2005). Related negotiations took place in Paris, France (2005), Potsdam, Germany (2007), and Geneva, Switzerland (2004, 2006, 2008);
Progress in negotiations stalled after the breakdown of the July 2008 negotiations. The most significant differences are between developed nations led by the European Union (EU), the United States (US), Canada, and Japan and the major developing countries led and represented mainly by India, Brazil, China, and South Africa. There is also considerable contention against and between the EU and the US over their maintenance of agricultural subsidies—seen to operate effectively as trade barriers.Since the breakdown of negotiations in 2008, there have been repeated attempts to revive the talks, so far without success. Intense negotiations, mostly between the US, China, and India, were held at the end of 2008 seeking agreement on negotiation modalities, an impasse which was not resolved. In April 2011, then director-general Pascal Lamy "asked members to think hard about 'the consequences of throwing away ten years of solid multilateral work'." A report to the WTO General Council by Lamy in May 2012 advocated "small steps, gradually moving forward the parts of the Doha Round which were mature, and re-thinking those where greater differences remained." Adoption of the Bali Ministerial Declaration on 7 December 2013 for the first time successfully addressed bureaucratic barriers to commerce—a small part of the Doha Round agenda. However, as of January 2014, the future of the Doha Round remains uncertain.Friends of Europe
Friends of Europe is a Brussels-based, not-for-profit think-tank for European Union policy analysis and debate. The organisation, established in 1999, has no political or national allegiance and is independent of the EU institutions. Its declared goal is to foster open discussion and to stimulate new thinking on the issues facing Europe and its citizens. It is located in the Bibliothèque Solvay in Leopold Park.
The organisation's activities focus in particular on six thematic areas:
Energy and the environment
The future of Europe
The EU and its neighbours
Social challengesFriends of Europe's board of trustees is composed of people who hold, or have held, positions of responsibility in European affairs. Its President is Etienne Davignon, a politician, businessman and former vice-president of the European Commission. Other members of the Praesidium are:
Pat Cox, President of the European Movement International and former President of the European Parliament
Jean-Luc Dehaene, former Prime Minister of Belgium and vice-president of the Convention on the Future of Europe
Daniel Janssen, former Director of Fortis
Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and former European Commissioner for Trade
Guy Verhofstadt, former Prime Minister of Belgium
António Vitorino, former European Commissioner for Justice and Home Affairs and former Portuguese Defence Minister and Deputy Prime MinisterFriends of Europe's Secretary-General is Giles Merritt, a former Brussels correspondent of the Financial Times.HARDtalk
Hardtalk (styled as HARDtalk) is a BBC television and radio programme broadcast on the BBC News Channel, on BBC World News, and on BBC World Service.
Broadcast times and days vary, depending on your broadcasting platform and your geographic location. HARDtalk is also available on BBC iPlayer.Lycée Carnot
The Lycée Carnot is a public secondary and higher education school located at 145 Boulevard Malesherbes in the 17th arrondissement, Paris, France. Recognized as one of the most prestigious high schools in France, it is also ranked as one of the best classe préparatoire aux écoles de commerce. Some of its former students have been among the most influential personalities in the country, including Jacques Chirac, the former French President, and Pascal Lamy, the former president of the World Trade Organization since (2005–2013). Daft Punk musicians Thomas Bangalter and Guy-Manuel de Homem-Christo met there in 1987. The poet Louis Aragon also attended Carnot.
The school has a long tradition of excellence, and has been regularly sending its graduates to the best schools in France and abroad:
- Sciences Po Paris
- EM Lyon
- McGill UniversityMake Trade Fair
Make Trade Fair is a campaign organized by Oxfam International to promote trade justice and fair trade among governments, institutions, and multinational corporations.Mari Elka Pangestu
Mari Elka Pangestu (traditional Chinese: 馮慧蘭; simplified Chinese: 冯慧兰; pinyin: Féng Huìlán; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Phang Hoei Lan; born 23 October 1956) was the Minister of Trade of Indonesia from October 2004 to October 2011. In a cabinet reshuffle in October 2011 she was appointed to the newly created position of minister of Tourism and Creative Economy, a post she held until the term of the administration of president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono finished on 20 October 2014.In late December 2012 the Indonesian Government nominated Mari Pangestu as a candidate for the position of Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to succeed the incumbent Director-General, Pascal Lamy, whose term ends in 2013. The General Council of the WTO considered nominations from various countries in early 2013. The selection process went through various rounds and in late April 2013 eliminated all three candidates from the Asia-Pacific region. Mari Pangestu issued a gracious statement accepting the outcome of the process.Milena Žic-Fuchs
Milena Žic-Fuchs (Croatian pronunciation: [milena ʒit͡s fuks]; born 10 August 1954) is a Croatian linguist and full member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. She formerly served as the Croatian Minister of Science and Technology in the cabinet of Zlatko Mateša from February 1999 to January 2000.
Žic Fuchs graduated from the University of Zagreb's Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (FFZG) in 1977, majoring in English language and literature and ethnology. In 1982 she received an MA in linguistics and in 1989 a PhD, also in linguistics. She worked at the faculty since the late 1970s in various lecturing roles and from 2002 holds position of Chair of Linguistics at the Department of English.
In May 2002 she became associate member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts (HAZU) and in May 2010 she was made full member of HAZU.In January 2009 she was appointed to a 3-year term as Chair of the Standing Committee for the Humanities with the European Science Foundation.She is credited with introducing cognitive linguistics into the Croatian linguistic community with her 1991 book Knowledge of Language and Knowledge of the World (Croatian: Znanje o jeziku i znanje o svijetu).In 2013 Milena Žic Fuchs was elected member of Academia Europaea.From 2014 she is an active member of the HERCULES Group (Higher Education Research and Culture in European Society) within Academia Europaea. In 2016 Milena Žic Fuchs was a member of the EC High Level Group for the Interim Evaluation of H2020 on European Research Infrastructures, including e-Infrastructures.
Also, in 2016 she was appointed member of the EC High Level Group on Maximising Impact of EU Research and Innovation Programmes, chaired by Professor Emeritus Pascal Lamy.Purple economy
The purple economy is that part of the economy which contributes to sustainable development by promoting the cultural potential of goods and services.
“The purple economy refers to taking account of cultural aspects in economics. It designates an economy that adapts to the human diversity in globalization and that relies on the cultural dimension to give value to goods and services.” These two trends, one vertical and one horizontal, feed one another. In fact the growth in the cultural component attached to products is linked to each territory’s cultural vitality.Roberto Azevêdo
Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁoˈbɛʁtu kaʁˈvaʎu dʒi azeˈvedu]; born 3 October 1957) is a Brazilian career diplomat and the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization. Azevêdo was elected to succeed Pascal Lamy as Director-General of the World Trade Organization in May 2013. He assumed office on 1 September 2013. He is paid a salary of 300,000 Swiss francs and an allowance of 200,000.Sophie Meunier
Sophie Meunier (born c. 1967 in France) is a Research Scholar in Public and International Affairs at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School and the Co-Director of the European Union Program at Princeton. A Franco-American political scientist, she is an expert in European integration, the politics of European trade policy, and the politics of anti-Americanism.Her first book, The French Challenge: Adapting to Globalization (Brookings Institution Press, 2001), co-written with Philip Gordon, won the 2002 France-Ameriques Book Award. Paul Krugman called it "a terrific book, especially for those of us who were wondering how France manages to thrive in the very global economy it denounces". Her second book, Trading Voices: The European Union in International Commercial Negotiations (Princeton University Press, 2005), has been praised by Pascal Lamy as "the first authoritative study of the trade policy of the European Union".She has published many articles in academic journals, as well as in magazines and newspapers such as Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, Le Monde, Le Figaro, and The Huffington Post.She is an elected member of the Executive Committee of the Council for European Studies, the leading academic organization for the study of Europe, with a membership of more than 100 institutions and 1,000 individuals. She was the co-Chair of the 2010 Conference Program Committee of the Council for European Studies in Montreal, April 15–17, 2010. She was also elected on the board of the European Union Studies Association (2003–2007) and was secretary of this association (2005–2007).
She received her BA in Political Science from Sciences Po Paris and her Ph.D. in Political Science from M.I.T. She was named Chevalier de l'Ordre des Palmes Academiques by the French government in 2011 and currently resides in Princeton, New Jersey.Supachai Panitchpakdi
Supachai Panitchpakdi (Thai: ศุภชัย พานิชภักดิ์, RTGS: Supphachai Phanitchaphak, pronounced [sùp.pʰā.t͡ɕʰāj pʰāː.nít.t͡ɕʰā.pʰák]; born 30 May 1946 in Bangkok, Thailand) is a Thai politician and professor. He was Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) from 1 September 2005 to 31 August 2013. Prior to this, he was the Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) from 1 September 2002 to 1 September 2005. He was succeeded by Pascal Lamy.In 1986 Supachai Panitchpakdi was appointed as Thailand's Deputy Minister of Finance, but when parliament was dissolved in 1988 he left politics and became president of Thai Military Bank. In 1992 he returned to politics and became deputy prime minister until 1995, responsible for trade and economics. During the Asian financial crisis in November 1997 he returned to be deputy prime minister and also became minister of commerce.
In September 1999 he was elected to become Director-General of the World Trade Organization, sharing the post with Mike Moore when a decision could not be reached. Taking the second half of the six-year term, he entered office on 1 September 2002.
In March 2005 he was appointed Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) following his term at the WTO, a post he took up in late-2005. He was appointed for a second four-year term in September 2009. Keen to reform and revitalise the organisation, he has established a Panel of Eminent Persons to oversee the start of reform of UNCTAD.Supachai received his master's degree in economics, development planning and his PhD in economic planning and development at the Netherlands School of Economics (now known as Erasmus University) in Rotterdam. In 1973, he completed his doctoral dissertation under supervision of Professor Jan Tinbergen, the first Nobel laureate in economics. In the same year, he went to Cambridge University as a visiting fellow to conduct research on development models.
He published numerous books, including Educational Growth in Developing Countries (1974), Globalization and Trade in the New Millennium (2001) and China and the WTO: Changing China, Changing World Trade (2002, co-authored with Mark Clifford).Timeline of the World Trade Organization
This is a timeline of the World Trade Organization (WTO).Trade agreement
A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide-ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees. It exists when two or more countries agree on terms that helps them trade with each other. The most common trade agreements are of the preferential and free trade types are concluded in order to reduce (or eliminate) tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions on items traded between the signatories.
The logic of formal trade agreements is that they outline what is agreed upon and the punishments for deviation from the rules set in the agreement. Trade agreements therefore make misunderstandings less likely, and create confidence on both sides that cheating will be punished; this increases the likelihood of long-term cooperation. An international organization, such as the IMF, can further incentivize cooperation by monitoring compliance with agreements and reporting third countries of the violations. Monitoring by international agencies may be needed to detect non-tariff barriers, which are disguised attempts at creating trade barriers.Trade pacts are frequently politically contentious since they may change economic customs and deepen interdependence with trade partners. Increasing efficiency through "free trade" is a common goal. For the most part, governments are supportive of further trade agreements.
There have been however some concerns expressed by the WTO. According to Pascal Lamy, Director-General of the WTO, the proliferation of RTA “...is breeding concern — concern about incoherence, confusion, exponential increase of costs for business, unpredictability and even unfairness in trade relations.” The position of the WTO is that while the typical trade agreements (called preferential or regional by the WTO) are useful to a degree, it is much more beneficial to focus on global agreements in the WTO framework such as the negotiations of the current Doha round.
The anti-globalization movement opposes such agreements almost by definition, but some groups normally allied within that movement, e.g. green parties, seek fair trade or safe trade provisions that moderate what they perceive to be the ill effects of globalization.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1998
The Second Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization was held in Geneva, Switzerland between 18 and 20 May 1998.World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 2011
The WTO General Council held an eighth WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 15–3 December 2011.
Membership agreement where made for Russia, Samoa, and Montenegro, dependent on the ratification of those countries. The consent of Russia`s membership was seen as important, since the country had been the largest major economy outside the organization since the accession of China in 2001.