Party platform

A political party platform or program is a formal set of principal goals which are supported by a political party or individual candidate, in order to appeal to the general public, for the ultimate purpose of garnering the general public's support and votes about complicated topics or issues. "Plank" is the term often given to the components of the political platform – the opinions and viewpoints about individual topics, as held by a party, person, or organization. The word "plank" depicts a component of an overall political platform, as a metaphorical reference to a basic stage made out of boards or planks of wood. The metaphor can return to its literal origin when public speaking or debates are actually held upon a physical platform.

A party platform is sometimes referred to as a manifesto[1] or a political platform. Across the Western world, political parties are highly likely to fulfill their election promises.[2]

Origins

The first known use of the word platform was in 1535. The word platform comes from Middle French plate-forme, literally meaning "flat form".[3] The political meaning of the word to reflect "statement of party politics" is from 1803, probably originally an image of a literal platform on which politicians gather, stand, and make their appeals.[4]

Fulfilling platforms

A 2017 study in the American Journal of Political Science found that for 12 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, and United States) found that political parties in government fulfill their election promises to voters to a considerable extent.[2] The study determined that:

Parties that hold executive office after elections generally fulfill substantial percentages, sometimes very high percentages, of their election pledges, whereas parties that do not hold executive office generally find that lower percentages of their pledges are fulfilled. The fulfillment of pledges by governing executive parties varies across governments in ways that reflect power-sharing arrangements. The main power-sharing arrangement that impacts pledge fulfillment distinguishes between single-party governments and coalitions, not between governments with and without legislative majorities. We found the highest percentages of pledge fulfillment for governing parties in the United Kingdom, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Canada, most of which governed in single-party executives. We found lower percentages for governing parties in Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, Bulgaria, Ireland, and Italy, most of which governed in coalitions. Pledge fulfillment by U.S. presidential parties lies at the higher end of coalition governments, which suggests that U.S. presidents are more constrained than governing parties in single-party parliamentary systems, but less constrained than most governing parties in multiparty coalitions.

Other research on the United States suggests that Democratic and Republican congresspeople voted in line with their respective party platforms 74% and 89% of the time, respectively.[5]

Famous political platforms

PamphletFrontPageProgressivePartyPlatform1912
Example of a printed platform in pamphlet form: the 1912 U.S. Progressive Party platform

See also

References

  1. ^ "Manifesto". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
  2. ^ a b Thomson, Robert; Royed, Terry; Naurin, Elin; Artés, Joaquín; Costello, Rory; Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz; Ferguson, Mark; Kostadinova, Petia; Moury, Catherine (2017-07-01). "The Fulfillment of Parties' Election Pledges: A Comparative Study on the Impact of Power Sharing". American Journal of Political Science. 61 (3): 527–542. doi:10.1111/ajps.12313. ISSN 1540-5907.
  3. ^ "Platform". Merriam Webster. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  4. ^ "Platform". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
  5. ^ Stein, Jeff (2016-07-12). "We asked 8 political scientists if party platforms matter. Here's what we learned". Vox. Retrieved 2016-07-19.

External links

1864 National Union National Convention

The 1864 National Union National Convention was the United States presidential nominating conventions of the National Union Party, which was a name adopted by the main faction of the Republican Party in a coalition with some War Democrats after some-Republicans nominated John Fremont over Lincoln. During the Convention, the party officially called for the end of The Civil War, the eradication of slavery and the adoption of the Emancipation Proclamation.

2016 Democratic National Convention

The 2016 Democratic National Convention was a presidential nominating convention, held at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July 25 through to July 28, 2016. The convention gathered delegates of the Democratic Party, the majority of them elected through a preceding series of primaries and caucuses, to nominate a candidate for president and vice president in the 2016 United States presidential election. Former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton was chosen as the party's nominee for president by a 54% majority of delegates present at the convention roll call, defeating primary rival Senator Bernie Sanders, who received 46% of votes from delegates, and becoming the first female candidate to be formally nominated for president by a major political party in the United States. Her running mate, Senator Tim Kaine from Virginia, was confirmed by delegates as the party's nominee for vice president by acclamation.

Delegates at the convention also adopted a party platform, through a voice vote, to take to the 2016 elections, touted as the "most progressive" platform in the Democratic Party's history. The progressive shift was often credited to Sanders and the influence of platform-committee members appointed by him. The platform featured a focus on economic issues, such as Wall Street reform, stronger financial regulation, and raising the minimum wage to $15 an hour. Liberal stances on social issues, such as a call for criminal justice reform and an end to private prisons, expansion of Social Security, and the abolition of the death penalty, also feature in the platform. Many have noted, however, that manifestos tend to mean little in the context of American politics and politicians seldom remain faithful to them, leading to the view that the platform was designed to attract Bernie Sanders voters rather than to be seriously implemented by a Clinton administration.

Senator Elizabeth Warren delivered the keynote address of the convention, with First Lady Michelle Obama and Bernie Sanders serving as headlining speakers on the first day. Former President Bill Clinton served as headlining speaker on the convention's second day, while Vice President Joe Biden and President Barack Obama headlined on day three. Tim Kaine gave his vice presidential nomination acceptance speech on the third day of the convention, while Chelsea Clinton introduced Hillary Clinton to give her presidential nomination acceptance speech on the final day. Clinton's speech was generally well received, and she would go on to have a 7% convention bounce in national polling. Various performers also appeared during the convention, including Demi Lovato, Alicia Keys, Lenny Kravitz and Katy Perry. The live announcer for the four-day event was Sylvia Villagran. Overall attendance at the convention was estimated to be around 50,000, according to Anna Adams-Sarthou, a representative of the DNC Host Committee.The convention was not without controversy, as it was subject to various conflicts between supporters of the presidential campaign of Bernie Sanders and the Democratic Party. In the week prior to the convention, various emails from the Democratic National Committee, the governing body of the Democratic Party, were leaked and published, showing bias against the Sanders' campaign on the part of the Committee and its chair, Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Schultz subsequently resigned as chair of the Committee, and thus as chair of the Democratic National Convention, with Congresswoman Marcia Fudge taking up the role of Convention chair. Some delegates in support of Sanders staged protests both outside and on the floor of the convention, opposing the nomination of Clinton and Kaine as the party's nominees for president and vice president, respectively.

Clinton and Kaine would go on to lose the general election to Republican ticket of Donald Trump and his running mate Mike Pence in the electoral college, despite winning the popular vote.

2016 Republican National Convention

The 2016 Republican National Convention, in which delegates of the United States Republican Party chose the party's nominees for President of the United States and Vice President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, was held July 18–21, 2016, at Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland, Ohio. The event marked the third time Cleveland has hosted the Republican National Convention and the first since 1936. In addition to determining the party's national ticket, the convention ratified the party platform.There were 2,472 delegates to the Republican National Convention, with a simple majority of 1,237 required to win the presidential nomination. Most of those delegates were bound for the first ballot of the convention based on the results of the 2016 Republican presidential primaries. The convention formally nominated Donald Trump for President and Indiana Governor Mike Pence for Vice President. Trump and Pence went on to win the general election with a majority of the electoral votes, although Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton and her running mate Tim Kaine received the largest number of popular votes.

Colorado Republican Party

The Colorado Republican Party is the state affiliate of the Republican Party in the U.S. state of Colorado. The party's headquarters is located in Greenwood Village, Colorado. The state party chair is Jeff Hays.

Crescent Star Party (Indonesia)

The Crescent Star Party (Indonesian: Partai Bulan Bintang) is a political party in Indonesia.

Democratic-Republican Party (1844)

The Democratic-Republican Party was an American political party formed by John Tyler in 1844 to launch a presidential campaign against Henry Clay of the Whig Party and James K. Polk of the Democratic Party. The party merged into Democratic Party during the 1844 Presidential election.

Democratic Party of Arkansas

The Democratic Party of Arkansas is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the state of Arkansas. It is responsible for promoting the ideologies and core values of the national Democratic Party in Arkansas.

Iowa Democratic Party

The Iowa Democratic Party (IDP) is the affiliate of the United States Democratic Party in the state of Iowa.

While existing when Iowa was granted statehood in 1846 it has only had electoral success from the mid-1950s to the present day. Iowa Democrats are in power at both the federal and state level. The party's platform was last updated in 2016. The Iowa Democratic Party organizes the Democratic Iowa Caucuses in presidential elections.

Land Party

The Land Party (Galician: Partido da Terra, pronounced [paɾˈtiðʊ ðɐ ˈtɛrɐ]) is a Galician political party that was established in 2011.

Libertarian Party of Pennsylvania

The Libertarian Party of Pennsylvania is the Pennsylvania affiliate of the Libertarian Party. The state chair is Drew Bingaman of the Susquehanna Valley Libertarian Party.

Maine Democratic Party

The Maine Democratic Party is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the U.S. state of Maine. For much of the time after the Civil War, the Democrats were a minor player in a political scene dominated by the Republican Party. However, during the 1950s, Edmund Muskie led an expansive political insurgency culminating in his election as Governor of Maine and successive Democratic elections to both state and national offices. From 2012 to 2019, despite having a Republican Governor in Paul LePage, the party remained strong, holding key offices in the state government and U.S. Congress and mainting a majority in the Maine House of Representatives for that entire time.

The organizational structure of the party consists of party staff and party officers along with the house and senate. There are also several committees that are also involved in the Maine Democratic Party. The party in Maine has several goals they promote, which are laid out in the Democratic Party Platform.

Mountain Party

The Mountain Party is a state-level political party in West Virginia. It is the West Virginia affiliate of the Green Party of the United States. The party was headed by Jesse Johnson, State Chairman.

It is a progressive and environmentalist party whose party platform primarily focuses on "Grassroots Democracy", "Social Justice & Equal Opportunity", "Ecological Wisdom" and "Non-Violence".

National Socialist Program

The National Socialist Program, also known as the 25-point Program or the 25-point Plan (German: 25-Punkte-Programm), was the party program of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). Originally the name of the party was the German Workers' Party (DAP), but on the same day as the announced party program it was renamed the NSDAP, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. Adolf Hitler announced the party's program on 24 February 1920 before approximately 2,000 people in the Munich Festival of the Hofbräuhaus. The National Socialist Program originated at a DAP congress in Vienna, then was taken to Munich, by the civil engineer and theoretician Rudolf Jung, who having explicitly supported Hitler had been expelled from Czechoslovakia because of his political agitation.Historian Karl Dietrich Bracher summarizes the program by saying that its components were "hardly new" and that "German, Austrian, and Bohemian proponents of anti-capitalist, nationalist-imperialist, anti-Semitic movements were resorted to in its compilation," but that a call to "breaking the shackles of finance capital" was added in deference to the idee fixe of Gottfried Feder, one of the party's founding members, and Hitler provided the militancy of the stance against the Treaty of Versailles, and the insistence that the points could not be changed, and were to be the permanent foundation of the party. Bracher characterizes the points as being "phrased like slogans; they lent themselves to the concise sensational dissemination of the 'anti' position on which the party thrived. ... Ideologically speaking, [the program] was a wooly, eclectic mixture of political, social, racist, national-imperialist wishful thinking..."According to the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, the 25-point program "remained the party's official statement of goals, though in later years many points were ignored."

New Jersey Democratic State Committee

The New Jersey Democratic State Committee (NJDSC) is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the state of New Jersey.

John Currie is the chairman and Lizette Delgado-Polanco is the vice-chairwoman.

Republican National Convention

The Republican National Convention (RNC) is a series of presidential nominating conventions of the United States Republican Party since 1856. Administered by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U.S. presidential election, and to adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle.

Like the Democratic National Convention, it signifies the end of a presidential primary season and the start of campaigning for a general election. In recent years, the nominee has been known well before the convention.

Some 2,472 delegates have attended the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, July 18–21 to select the presidential nominee. The winner must carry 1,237—half of the total, plus one. If no single candidate has secured a majority of delegates after the first ballot, a brokered convention results. It has not happened since the 1976 Republican National Convention.

Historically, the convention was the final determinant of the nomination, and often contentious as various factions of party insiders maneuvered to advance their candidates. Since the almost universal adoption of the primary election for selecting delegates in the last quarter of the 20th century, however, the convention's significance has diminished. The national party focuses on the convention as a unity point to bring together a party platform and state parties by having delegates vote on issues, which the nominee can then incorporate into his presidential campaign.

In case of a brokered convention, Rule 40(b) of the 2016 convention rules states that a candidate must have the support of a majority of the delegates of at least eight delegations in order to get the nomination. On the first ballot, delegates from all states and territories except Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and a few from Louisiana must vote for the candidate who won their support on the day of their state's primary or caucus. On the second ballot, 55 percent of the delegates are free to vote for whomever they want. By the third ballot, 85 percent of the delegates are free.

Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands or SPD; [ˌzɔtsi̯alˈdeːmɔkʁaːtɪʃə paʁˈtaɪ̯ ˈdɔʏtʃlants]) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

Led by Andrea Nahles since 2018, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). The Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union (CSU) since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 14 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents.

The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and initiated the founding of the Progressive Alliance international for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013 after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.

Utah Democratic Party

The Utah Democratic Party works to elect Democrats to office in the state of Utah. The Utah Democratic Party, like other national, state, and county parties, maintains a party platform that lists general principles or issues of importance to members of the Party and maintains a party organization at the state level.

Vermont Democratic Party

The Vermont Democratic Party is the affiliate branch of the United States Democratic Party in the state of Vermont. The party advocates progressivism and American liberalism.

Through most of its history, at least from the time of the American Civil War until the 1960s, Vermont was an almost exclusively Republican state, with Republicans dominating Vermont politics, especially the Governorship, from 1854-1960. However, perhaps inspired by the election of John F. Kennedy as US President in 1960, Vermont's Democrats since that time have staged an impressive resurgence in Vermont's politics.Today the Democrats have the dominant political party organization in the Green Mountain State, holding every major office at both the federal and state level except for Governor.

West Virginia Republican Party

The West Virginia Republican Party is the affiliate of the United States Republican Party in West Virginia. In 2018, Melody Potter was elected as state chairwoman to fill the unexpired term of Conrad Lucas, who resigned to run for office.

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