Party of European Socialists

The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a social-democratic European political party.[5]

The PES comprises national-level political parties from all member states of the European Union (EU) plus Norway. This includes major parties such as the Italian Democratic Party, the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. Parties from a number of other European countries are also admitted to the PES as associate or observer parties.[6] Most member, associate and observer parties are members of the wider Progressive Alliance or Socialist International.[3][4]

The PES is currently led by its president Sergei Stanishev, a former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Its political group in the European Parliament is the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D). The PES also operates in the Committee of the Regions (in the PES Group in the Committee of the Regions) and the European Council.

Party of European Socialists
PresidentSergei Stanishev (BG)
Secretary-GeneralAchim Post (DE)
Founded1973 (Confederation)
9–10 November 1992 (Party)
HeadquartersRue Guimard 10, 1040 Brussels, Belgium
Think tankFoundation for European Progressive Studies
Youth wingYoung European Socialists
Women's wingPES Women
IdeologySocial democracy[1][2]
Political positionCentre-left[2]
International affiliationProgressive Alliance[3]
Socialist International[4]
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
European Parliament
191 / 751
European Council
5 / 28
European Commission
8 / 28
European Lower Houses
2,327 / 9,874
European Upper Houses
645 / 2,714


The party's English name is "Party of European Socialists". In addition, the following names are used in other languages:

  • Albanian: Partia e Socialistëve Europianë
  • Bosnian: Partija evropskih socijalista/Партија европских социјалиста
  • Bulgarian: Партия на европейските социалисти
  • Croatian: Stranka europskih socijalista
  • Czech: Strana evropských socialistů
  • Danish: De Europæiske Socialdemokrater
  • Dutch: Partij van Europese Socialisten
  • Estonian: Euroopa Sotsialistlik Partei
  • Finnish: Euroopan sosialidemokraattinen puolue
  • French: Parti socialiste européen
  • German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Europas
  • Greek: Ευρωπαϊκό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα
  • Hungarian: Európai Szocialisták Pártja
  • Icelandic: Flokkur evrópskra sósíalista
  • Irish: Páirtí na Sóisialaithe Eorpach
  • Italian: Partito del Socialismo Europeo
  • Latvian: Eiropas Sociāldemokrātiskā partija
  • Lithuanian: Europos socialistų partija
  • Luxembourgish: Partei vun den Europäesche Sozialisten
  • Macedonian: Партија на европските социјалисти
  • Maltese: Partit tas-Soċjalisti Ewropej
  • Norwegian: Det europeiske sosialdemokratiske partiet
  • Polish: Partia Europejskich Socjalistów
  • Portuguese: Partido Socialista Europeu
  • Romanian: Partidul Socialiștilor Europeni
  • Serbian: Партија европских социјалиста
  • Slovak: Strana európskych socialistov
  • Slovene: Stranka evropskih socialistov
  • Spanish: Partido de los Socialistas Europeos
  • Swedish: Europeiska socialdemokratiska partiet

In March 2014 following the congress in Rome, the PES added the tagline "Socialists and Democrats" to its name following the admission of Italy's Democratic Party into the organisation.[7]



In 1961, the Socialists in the European Parliament attempted to produce a common 'European Socialist Programme' but this was neglected due to the applications of Britain, Denmark, Ireland and Norway to join the European Community. The Socialists' 1962 congress pushed for greater democratisation and powers for Parliament, though it was only in 1969 that this possibility was examined by the member states.[8]


In 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined the European Community, bringing in new parties from these countries. The enlarged Socialist Congress met in Bonn and inaugurated the Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community. The Congress also passed a resolution on social policy, including the right to decent work, social security, democracy and equality in the European economy.[9] In 1978, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved the first common European election Manifesto. It focused on several goals among which the most important were to ensure a right to decent work, fight pollution, end discrimination, protect the consumer and promote peace, human rights and civil liberties.


At its Luxembourg Congress in 1980, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved its first Statute. The accession of Greece to the EU in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986, brought in more parties.

In 1984, a common Socialist election manifesto proposed a socialist remedy for the economic crisis of the time by establishing a link between industrial production, protection of fundamental social benefits, and the fight for an improved quality of life.[9]


In 1992, with the European Community becoming the European Union and with the Treaty of Maastricht establishing the framework for political parties at a European level, the Confederation of Socialist Parties voted to transform itself into the Party of European Socialists. The party's first programme concentrated on job creation, democracy, gender equality, environmental and consumer protection, peace and security, regulation of immigration, discouragement of racism and fighting organised crime.[9]

Along with the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, the founding members of the PES were:[10]


In 2004 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen defeated Giuliano Amato to be elected President of the PES, succeeding Robin Cook in the post. He was re-elected for a further 2.5 years at the PES Congress in Porto on 8 December 2006 and again at the Prague Congress in 2009.


In 2010, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies was founded as the political foundation (think tank) of the PES.

Mr Rasmussen stood down at the PES Progressive Convention in Brussels on 24 November 2011. He was replaced as interim president by Sergei Stanishev, chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) and former prime minister of Bulgaria.

On 28-29 September 2012, the PES Congress in Brussels[11] Congress elected interim president Sergei Stanishev as full President, as well as four deputies: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis (1st Vice-President – PS), Elena Valenciano (PSOE), Jan Royall (Labour) and Katarína Neveďalová (Smer-SD). The same Congress elected Achim Post (SPD) as its new secretary general, and adopted a process which it described as "democratic and transparent" for electing its next candidate for Commission President in 2014.[12] The PES had already agreed in 2011 to use a PES presidential primary for the election.


Member parties

The PES has thirty-four full member parties from each of the twenty-eight EU member states and Norway. There are a further thirteen associate and twelve observer parties from other European countries.[13]

State Name abbr. MEPs National MPs
 Austria Social Democratic Party of Austria SPÖ
5 / 18
52 / 183
20 / 62
 Belgium Socialist Party PS
3 / 8
[. 1]
23 / 63
9 / 24
[. 1]
Socialist Party – Differently sp.a
1 / 13
[. 2]
13 / 87
5 / 35
[. 2]
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party BSP
4 / 17
80 / 240
 Croatia Social Democratic Party of Croatia SDP
2 / 11
36 / 151
 Cyprus Movement for Social Democracy EDEK
2 / 6
3 / 56
 Czech Republic Czech Social Democratic Party ČSSD
4 / 21
15 / 200
 Denmark Social Democrats A
3 / 13
47 / 179
 Estonia Social Democratic Party SDE
1 / 6
15 / 101
 Finland Social Democratic Party of Finland SDP
2 / 13
35 / 200
 France Socialist Party PS
10 / 74
86 / 348
27 / 577
 Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD
27 / 96
153 / 709
 Greece Panhellenic Socialist Movement PASOK
2 / 21
18 / 300
 Hungary Hungarian Socialist Party MSZP
4 / 21
28 / 199
Hungarian Social Democratic Party MSZDP
0 / 21
0 / 199
 Ireland Labour Party Lab
0 / 11
5 / 60
7 / 158
 Italy Democratic Party PD
26 / 73
54 / 315
112 / 630
Italian Socialist Party PSI
0 / 73
1 / 315
1 / 630
 Latvia Social Democratic Party "Harmony"[14] SDPS
0 / 8
22 / 100
 Lithuania Social Democratic Party of Lithuania LSDP
2 / 11
17 / 141
 Luxembourg Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party LSAP
1 / 6
13 / 60
 Malta Labour Party PL
3 / 6
37 / 69
 Netherlands Labour Party PvdA
3 / 26
8 / 75
9 / 150
 Norway Labour Party AP Not in EU
49 / 169
 Poland Democratic Left Alliance SLD
4 / 51
0 / 100
0 / 460
Labour United UP
1 / 51
0 / 100
0 / 460
 Portugal Socialist Party PS
8 / 21
86 / 230
 Romania Social Democratic Party PSD
16 / 32
67 / 168
154 / 398
 Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy Smer-SD
4 / 13
49 / 150
 Slovenia Social Democrats SD
1 / 8
6 / 90
 Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party PSOE
14 / 54
62 / 266
84 / 350
 Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party SAP
5 / 20
100 / 349
 United Kingdom Labour Party Lab (GB)
20 / 70
202 / 793
262 / 632
Social Democratic and Labour Party SDLP (NI)
0 / 3
0 / 793
0 / 18
Associated parties
State Name abbr. European MPs National MPs
 Albania Socialist Party of Albania PSS
74 / 140
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina SDP
0 / 15
3 / 42
 Bulgaria Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats PBS
0 / 8
1 / 240
 Iceland Social Democratic Alliance Samf.
7 / 63
 Moldova Democratic Party of Moldova PDM
19 / 101
 Montenegro Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro DPS
31 / 81
Social Democratic Party of Montenegro SDP
6 / 81
 North Macedonia Social Democratic Union of Macedonia SDSM
49 / 120
 Serbia Democratic Party DS
12 / 250
  Switzerland Social Democratic Party of Switzerland SP/PS
46 / 200
 Turkey Republican People's Party CHP
131 / 550
Peoples' Democratic Party HDP
50 / 550
Observer parties
State Name abbr. European MPs National MPs
 Andorra Social Democratic Party PS
3 / 28
 Armenia Armenian Revolutionary Federation ARF
0 / 131
 Egypt Egyptian Social Democratic Party ESDP
4 / 596
 Georgia Georgian Dream
115 / 150
 Israel Israeli Labor Party עבודה
19 / 120
Meretz מרצ
5 / 120
 Lebanon Armenian Revolutionary Federation ARF
2 / 128
 Latvia Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party LSDSP
0 / 9
0 / 100
 Morocco Socialist Union of Popular Forces USFP
24 / 270
20 / 395
 Nagorno Karabakh Armenian Revolutionary Federation ARF
7 / 33
 Northern Cyprus Republican Turkish Party CTP
20 / 50
 Palestine Fatah فتح
45 / 132
 San Marino Party of Socialists and Democrats PSD
3 / 60
 Tunisia Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties FDTL
0 / 217
  1. ^ a b French-speaking seats
  2. ^ a b Flemish seats

Constituent organisations

The youth organisation of the PES is the Young European Socialists. PES Women is the party's women's organisation, led by Zita Gurmai. The LGBTI campaign organisation is Rainbow Rose.[15]

International memberships

PES is an associated organisation of Socialist International and the Progressive Alliance.

President and Presidency

The President (currently former Prime Minister of Bulgaria Sergei Stanishev) represents the party on a daily basis and chairs the Presidency, which also consists of the Secretary General, President of the S&D group in Parliament and one representative per full/associate member party and organisation. They may also be joined by the President of the European Parliament (if a PES member), a PES European Commissioner and a representative from associate parties and organisations.[15]

The list below shows PES Presidents and the presidents of its predecessors.[16]

President State National party Term
1. Wilhelm Dröscher  Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany April 1974 January 1979
2. Robert Pontillon  France Socialist Party January 1979 March 1980
3. Joop den Uyl  Netherlands Labour Party March 1980 May 1987
4. Vítor Constâncio  Portugal Socialist Party May 1987 January 1989
5. Guy Spitaels  Belgium Socialist Party February 1989 May 1992
6. Willy Claes  Belgium Socialist Party November 1992 October 1994
7. Rudolf Scharping  Germany Social Democratic Party of Germany March 1995 May 2001
8. Robin Cook  United Kingdom Labour Party May 2001 24 April 2004
9. Poul Nyrup Rasmussen  Denmark Social Democrats 24 April 2004 24 November 2011
10. Sergei Stanishev  Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party 24 November 2011


The parties meet at the party Congress twice every five years to decide on political orientation, such as adopting manifestos ahead of elections. Every year that the Congress does not meet, the Council (a smaller version of the Congress) shapes PES policy. The Congress also elects the party's President, Vice Presidents and the Presidency.[15]

The Leader's Conference brings together Prime Ministers and Party Leaders from PES parties three to four times a year to agree strategies and resolutions.[15]

European election primaries

In December 2009, the PES decided to put forward a candidate for Commission President at all subsequent elections.[17] On 1 March 2014, the PES organised for the first time a European election Congress where a Common Manifesto [18] was adopted and the Common Candidate designate for the post of Commission President, Martin Schulz, was elected by over a thousand participants in Rome, Italy. PES member parties across Europe joined forces to campaign for the European elections, and a mass grassroots movement sprang up in support of Martin Schulz, aiming to ‘knock the vote’ in support of his candidacy.

PES in the European institutions

Overview of the European institutions

Organisation Institution Number of seats
 European Union European Parliament
191 / 751
 European Union Committee of the Regions
131 / 350
 European Union European Commission
8 / 28
 European Union European Council
(Heads of Government)
5 / 28
 European Union Council of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
12 / 28
 Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
69 / 318

European Commission

European Commissioners are meant to remain independent, however there has been an increasing degree of politicisation within the Commission.[19] In the current European Commission, eight of the Commissioners belong to the PES family.

Portfolio Commissioner State Political party Photo
Frans Timmermans
PvdA Frans Timmermans 2013
High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Federica Mogherini
PD Federica Mogherini Official
Energy Union
Maroš Šefčovič
SMER-SD Maroš Šefčovič
Regional Policy Corina Crețu
PSD Corina Cretu
Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs Pierre Moscovici
PS Pierre Moscovici en mai 2010
Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Karmenu Vella
LP KarmenuVellaPolitician
International Cooperation and Development Neven Mimica
SDP N mimica
Health and Food Safety Vytenis Andriukaitis
SDP Vytenis Povilas Andriukaitis

European Council

Of the 28 heads of state and government that are members of the European Council, five are from the PES, and therefore regularly attend PES summits to prepare for European Council meetings.

Member State Representative Title Political party Member of the Council since Photo
 Malta Joseph Muscat Prime Minister Labour Party 22 March 2018 Joseph Muscat, cropped
 Portugal António Costa Prime Minister Socialist Party 26 November 2015 António Costa 2014 (cropped)
 Slovakia Peter Pellegrini Prime Minister Direction – Social Democracy 22 March 2018 Peter Pellegrini - 2015
 Spain Pedro Sánchez Prime Minister Spanish Socialist Workers' Party 2 June 2018 100x
 Sweden Stefan Löfven Prime Minister Social Democratic Party 3 October 2014 Stefan Löfven 2014-09-13

Although the prime minister of Romania, Mihai Tudose, is also a member of the PES (and his Social Democratic Party is a PES member party), Romania instead sends its president to the European Council.

European Council and Council of Ministers

Party affiliations in the European Council (1 July 2018)
The states of the European Union by the European party affiliations of their leaders, as of 21 March 2019
Does not account for coalitions. Key to colours is as follows;
  Party of European Socialists

Party-alignment at the European Council is often loose, but has been the basis of some intergovernmental cooperation. At present five countries are led by a PES-affiliated leader, who represents that state at the European Council: Spain (Pedro Sánchez), Portugal (Antonio Costa), Malta (Joseph Muscat), Slovakia (Peter Pellegrini), and Sweden (Stefan Löfven).

The makeup of national delegations to the Council of Ministers is at some times subject to coalitions: for the above governments led by a PES party, that party may not be present in all Council configurations; in other governments led by non-PES parties a PES minister may be its representative for certain portfolios. PES is in coalition in a further seven countries: Estonia, France, Germany, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Romania and Slovenia.


State Governing parties Affiliated EU party Population
 Germany Christian Democratic Union
Social Democratic Party
Christian Social Union
80,585,700 29
 France La République En Marche!
Democratic Movement
The Republicans
Socialist Party
Radical Party of the Left
66,661,621 29
 Spain Spanish Socialist Workers' Party PES 46,354,321 27
 Romania Social Democratic Party
Alliance of Liberals and Democrats
21,355,800 14
 Portugal Socialist Party PES 10,341,330 12
 Sweden Swedish Social Democratic Party
Green Party
9,658,301 10
 Slovakia Direction – Social Democracy PES 5,404,300 7
 Lithuania Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union
Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
3,007,800 7
 Slovenia Positive Slovenia
Social Democrats
Civic List
Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia
2,055,500 4
 Estonia Estonian Centre Party
Social Democratic Party
Pro Patria and Res Publica Union
ALDE Party
1,315,944 4
 Luxembourg Democratic Party
Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
The Greens
524,900 4
 Malta Labour Party PES 416,100 3

Committee of the Regions

PES has 122 members in the Committee of the Regions as of 2014.[20]


  1. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2015). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 2017-06-08. Retrieved 2018-09-22.
  2. ^ a b Richard Dunphy (2004). Contesting Capitalism?: Left Parties and European Integration. Manchester University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7190-6804-1.
  3. ^ a b "Member parties of the Progressive Alliance". 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  4. ^ a b "Member parties of Socialist International". 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  5. ^ Robert Thomson (2011). Resolving Controversy in the European Union: Legislative Decision-Making Before and After Enlargement. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-139-50517-8. Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  6. ^ "Member parties of the PES". 2017-02-01. Retrieved 2017-08-08.
  7. ^ "Il PSE "omaggia "il PD cambiando ufficialmente nome: PSE - Socialists&Democrats" (in Italian). 2014-03-02. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
  8. ^ "Northern European Social Democracy and European Integration, 1960-1972. Moving towards a New Consensus?". Retrieved 23 May 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "History". Socialist Group website. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 11 November 2007.
  10. ^ Skrzypek, Ania (2013). "Europe, Our Common Future" Celebrating 20 years of the Party of European Socialists (PDF). Belgium: FEPS – Foundation for European Progressive Studies. ISBN 978-3-85464-037-0.
  11. ^ "Together for the Europe we need!". Zita Gurmai, President of PES Women. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  12. ^ "Ethics in politics : For strong moral conduct through a strong moral code" (PDF). PES Presidency declaration. 14 April 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  13. ^ "About the PES?". PES website. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  14. ^ "Saskaņa joins Party of European Socialists". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. LETA. November 27, 2017. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d "How does PES work?". PES website. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  16. ^ "Former PES Presidents". PES website. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2008.
  17. ^ "A New Direction for Progressive Societies. Resolution N. 2 A new way forward. Adopted by the 8th PES Congress" (PDF). PES. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
  18. ^ "PES Manifesto Towards a New Europe. Adopted by Election Congress 2014 in Rome" (PDF). PES. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  19. ^ Mahony, Honor (7 May 2007). "Brussels struggles with communication policy". EU Observer. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
  20. ^ "PES Group Members". Archived from the original on 6 January 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2015.

External links

2004 European Parliament election in France

Elections to the European Parliament were held in France on 13 June 2004. The opposition Socialist Party made substantial gains, although this was mainly at the expense of minor parties. The governing Union for a Popular Movement and Union for French Democracy also made gains.

Bulgarian Socialist Party

The Bulgarian Socialist Party (Bulgarian: Българска социалистическа партия, БСП; Bulgarska sotsialisticheska partiya, BSP), known as the Centenarian (Столетницата, Stoletnitsata), is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria and the successor to the Bulgarian Communist Party. It is a member of the Party of European Socialists with a pro-EU stance, although it has taken some eurosceptic positions and called for an end to EU sanctions against Russia. BSP is also a member of the Socialist International. It is Bulgaria's largest political party by membership.

Direction – Social Democracy

Direction – Social Democracy (Slovak: Smer – sociálna demokracia, Smer – SD) is a social-democratic political party in Slovakia. It is led by former Prime Minister of Slovakia Robert Fico. Smer-SD is the largest party in the National Council, with a plurality of 49 seats (out of 150) following the parliamentary Election held on 5 March 2016.

European Parliament Committee on Budgets

The Committee on Budgets (BUDG) is a committee of the European Parliament. It has 41 members plus 39 substitute members. The committee's current chair is Jean Arthuis, who has held this position since 7 July 2014.

European Parliamentary Labour Party

The European Parliamentary Labour Party (EPLP) is the parliamentary party of the British Labour Party in the European Parliament. The EPLP is part of the Socialist and Democrats (S&D) Group.

Italian Democratic Socialists

The Italian Democratic Socialists (Italian: Socialisti Democratici Italiani, SDI) were a social-democratic political party in Italy. The party was the direct continuation of the Italian Socialists, the legal successor of the historical Italian Socialist Party. Also the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, the other long-time Italian social-democratic party, was merged into it.

The party's long-time leader was Enrico Boselli, a former President of Emilia-Romagna (1990–1993).

In 2007 the SDI were merged with other descendants of the PSI to form the modern-day Italian Socialist Party.

Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party

The Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Aarbechterpartei, French: Parti Ouvrier Socialiste Luxembourgeois, German: Luxemburger Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei), abbreviated to LSAP or POSL, is a social-democratic political party in Luxembourg. The LSAP is the second-largest party in the Chamber of Deputies, having won 13 of 60 seats at the 2013 general election, and has one seat in the European Parliament. The LSAP is currently part of the Bettel-Schneider government, with Etienne Schneider of the LSAP serving as Deputy Prime Minister. Since March 2014 the party's President has been Claude Haagen.Primarily social-democratic, but with a democratic socialist faction, the party has a strong working class identity. It is close to the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions, the country's largest trade union centre, but they have no formal links. The LSAP is particularly strong in the south of the country, controlling most of the mayoralties in the large towns of the Red Lands. It is affiliated to the Socialist International, Progressive Alliance and Party of European Socialists.

Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats

The Party of Bulgarian Social Democrats (Bulgarian: партия Български социалдемократи, Partiya Balgarski Sotsialdemokrati, PBSD) is a social-democratic political party in Bulgaria. It is a member of the Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists.

Poul Nyrup Rasmussen

Poul Oluf Nyrup Rasmussen (Danish pronunciation: [pɒwl ˈnyːˀɔb ˈʁɑsmusn̩], informally Poul Nyrup, born 15 June 1943), was Prime Minister of Denmark from 25 January 1993 to 27 November 2001 and President of the Party of European Socialists (PES) from 2004 to 2011. He was the leader of the governing Social Democrats from 1992 to 2002. He was a member of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2009.

President of the European Council

The President of the European Council is the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council, as well as a principal representative of the European Union (EU) on the world stage. This institution comprises the college of heads of state or government of EU member states as well as the President of the European Commission, and provides political direction to the European Union (EU).

From 1975 to 2009, the head of the European Council was an unofficial position (often referred to as the President-in-Office) held by the head of state or government of the member state holding the semiannually rotating Presidency of the Council of the European Union at any given time. However, since the 2007 Treaty of Lisbon, article 15 of Treaty on European Union states that the European Council appoints a full-time president for a two-and-a-half-year term, with the possibility of renewal once. Appointments, as well as the removal of incumbents, require a double majority support in the European Council.

On 19 November 2009, the European Council agreed that its first president under the Lisbon Treaty would be Herman Van Rompuy (European People's Party, Belgium). Van Rompuy took office when the Lisbon Treaty came into force on 1 December 2009 with a term stretching until 31 May 2012. His term was later extended with a second period ending on 30 November 2014.

The second and current president is former Polish prime minister Donald Tusk. He was originally elected to serve a term from 1 December 2014 to 31 May 2017 and subsequently reelected on 9 March 2017 to a second term running from 1 June 2017 until 30 November 2019.

Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats

The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES). The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was officially founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953 which makes it the second oldest political group in the European Parliament after ALDE. It adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009. Centre-left in orientation, the group mostly comprises social-democratic parties and is affiliated with the Progressive Alliance.

Until the 1999 European Parliament elections, it was the largest group in the Parliament, but since those elections it has constantly been the second-largest group. During the 8th EU Parliament Assembly, the S&D is the only Parliament group with representation from all 28 EU member states.

In the European Council, 8 out of 28 Heads of State and Government belong to the S&D Group and in the European Commission, 8 out of 28 Commissioners come from PES parties.

Sergei Stanishev

Sergei Dmitrievich Stanishev (Bulgarian: Сергей Дмитриевич Станишев; born 5 May 1966) is a Bulgarian politician who has served as President of the Party of European Socialists since November 2011 and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from Bulgaria. He previously served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2005 to 2009, Leader of the Socialist Party from 2001 to 2014 and Member of the National Assembly from 1997 to 2014.

Social Democratic Party "Harmony"

The Social Democratic Party "Harmony" (Latvian: Sociāldemokrātiskā Partija "Saskaņa", SDPS, Russian: Социал-демократическая партия «Согласие»), also commonly referred to as Harmony (Saskaņa), is a social-democratic political party in Latvia. It is the main catch-all party of the centre-left in Latvian politics. The party was founded in 2010 as the merger of the National Harmony Party (TSP) with New Centre (JC) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a breakaway from the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (LSDSP). At that time, all three were members of the former electoral alliance Harmony Centre. The alliance also included the communist Socialist Party of Latvia. The Daugavpils City Party merged into the party in 2011.The chairman of the party, Nils Ušakovs is the current Mayor of Riga and was the "Harmony" candidate for the office of Prime Minister of Latvia in 2014. In the Saeima the party has 24 out of 100 seats after polling 23% of the vote at the 2014 parliamentary election. Its parliamentary group is therefore the largest among the six groups in the Latvian Parliament, and the leading opposition group. Internationally, "Harmony" is a member of the Progressive Alliance and the Party of European Socialists. Formerly, its sole MEP Andrejs Mamikins sat in the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) group in the European Parliament. In 2018 after disagreements with Ušakovs he defected to the Latvian Russian Union and the party is since then unrepresented in the European Parliament.

"Harmony" is currently the governing party on the Riga City Council in coalition with Honor to serve Riga, the successor to the centre-right Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way which dissolved in 2011. "Harmony" is the largest party seeking to represent the Russian-speaking population of Latvia.

On social policy, the party contains strong conservative elements in line with its voter base and setting it apart from the contemporary European social-democratic mainstream. The parliamentary membership is not uniformly socially conservative.

Social Democratic Party (Andorra)

The Social Democratic Party (Catalan: Partit Socialdemòcrata, PS) is a social-democratic political party in Andorra.

Social Democratic Party (Estonia)

The Social Democratic Party (Estonian: Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond, SDE) is a social-democratic political party in Estonia, currently led by Jevgeni Ossinovski.The party was formerly known as the Moderate People's Party (Estonian: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad). The SDE has been a member of the Party of European Socialists since 16 May 2003 and a member of the Socialist International since November 1990. In spite of its nominal ideology, it has normally governed with the right-wing parties.The party has served as a junior coalition partner in the Ratas cabinet since 23 November 2016.

Social Democratic Party of Germany

The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands or SPD; [ˌzɔtsi̯alˈdeːmɔkʁaːtɪʃə paʁˈtaɪ̯ ˈdɔʏtʃlants]) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.

Led by Andrea Nahles since 2018, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). The Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union (CSU) since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 14 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents.

The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and initiated the founding of the Progressive Alliance international for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013 after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.

Social Democratic Party of Montenegro

Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Социјалдемократска партија Црне Горе, Socijaldemokratska partija Crne Gore), or just the Social Democratic Party (Montenegrin: Социјалдемократска партија, Socijaldemokratska partija, SDP) is a centre-left political party in Montenegro. It is the only party in Montenegro to have full membership in the Socialist International.

Social Democratic Union of Macedonia

The Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалдемократски сојуз на Македонија–СДСМ, Socijaldemokratski Sojuz na Makedonija–SDSM) is a social-democratic and the main centre-left political party in North Macedonia. The Social Democratic Union of Macedonia was founded on 20 April 1991 at the 11th Congress of SKM-PDP (UCM – Party for Democratic Changes). Branko Crvenkovski was elected as the party's first president. Its current leader is Zoran Zaev. The Social Democratic Union of Macedonia is a member of the Progressive Alliance and an associate affiliate of the Party of European Socialists (PES). SDSM is a centre-left positioned political party with social democratic ideology. The party supported a practical solution to the Macedonian naming dispute with Greece, which succeeded under the Prespa agreement.

From September 1992 to 1998 and from 2002 to 2006 the SDSM was the largest party in the parliament and the main party in the government, and has shown a moderate and re-conciliatory attitude towards ethnic minorities in North Macedonia. On the first parliamentary elections in 1990, the party finished second behind VMRO-DPMNE and was part of the national unity government from 1991 to 1992. From 1992 to 1994 SDSM was in a coalition government with the Liberal Party and the Socialist Party. SDSM won the parliamentary elections in 1994 and 2002 and won the most municipalities at the local elections in 1996, 2000 and 2005. From September 2006 to December 2016 SDSM was the biggest opposition party in the parliament. On early parliamentary elections in late 2016, SDSM lead the center to left-wing coalition "For life in Macedonia" and won 440,000 votes and 49/120 MPs in the Macedonian assembly, the second best result in the party's history, after the win at the parliament elections in 2002; SDSM lost the popular vote to VMRO-DPMNE who won 460,000 votes and gained 51 parliamentary seats. However, SDSM managed to form Government via coalitions with various minority parties.

Socialist Union of Popular Forces

The Socialist Union of Popular Forces, USFP, (Arabic: الاتحاد الاشتراكي للقوات الشعبية Al-Ittihad Al-Ishtirakiy Lilqawat Al-Sha'abiyah, French: Union Socialiste des Forces Populaires) is a social-democratic political party in Morocco.

Party of European Socialists (PES)
Leaders in the
European Parliament
European Commissioners
Heads of government
European Union Pan-European political organisations
Political parties not
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