Parma

Parma (Italian pronunciation: [ˈparma] listen ; Emilian: Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its architecture, music, art, prosciutto (ham), cheese and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma.

The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci (born in a hamlet in the countryside) wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry".

Parma
Comune di Parma
Palazzo del Governatore
Palazzo del Governatore
Flag of Parma

Flag
Coat of arms of Parma

Coat of arms
Location of Parma
Parma is located in Italy
Parma
Parma
Location of Parma in Emilia-Romagna
Parma is located in Emilia-Romagna
Parma
Parma
Parma (Emilia-Romagna)
Coordinates: 44°48′N 10°20′E / 44.800°N 10.333°ECoordinates: 44°48′N 10°20′E / 44.800°N 10.333°E
CountryItaly
RegionEmilia-Romagna
ProvinceParma (PR)
FrazioniSee list
Government
 • MayorFederico Pizzarotti (Independent)
Area
 • Total260.6 km2 (100.6 sq mi)
Elevation
55 m (180 ft)
Population
 (2018-01-01)[2]
 • Total195,687
 • Density750/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Parmigiano
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
43121-43126
Dialing code0521
Patron saintSant'Ilario di Poitiers, Sant'Onorato, San Rocco
Saint dayJanuary 13
WebsiteOfficial website

History

Prehistory

Parma was already a built-up area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare.[4] The "terramare" (marl earth) were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form; constructed on dry land and generally in proximity to the rivers. During this age (between 1500 BC and 800 BC) the first necropolis (on the sites of the present-day Piazza Duomo and Piazzale della Macina) were constructed.

Antiquity

The city was most probably founded and named by the Etruscans, for a parma or palma (circular shield) was a Latin borrowing, as were many Roman terms for particular arms, and the names Parmeal, Parmni and Parmnial appear in Etruscan inscriptions. Diodorus Siculus[5] reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans. Whether the Etruscan encampment acquired its name from its round shape, like a shield, or from its metaphorical function as a shield against the Gauls to the north, remains uncertain.

The Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina (Modena); 2,000 families were settled. Parma had a certain importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia and the Via Claudia. It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square. In 44 BC the city was destroyed; subsequently Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house.

Attila sacked the city in 452,[6] and the Germanic king Odoacer later gifted it to his followers. During the Gothic War, however, Totila destroyed it. It was then part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna (changing its name to Chrysopolis, "Golden City", probably due to the presence of the imperial treasury) and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. During the Middle Ages, Parma became an important stage of the Via Francigena, the main road connecting Rome to Northern Europe; several castles, hospitals and inns were built in the following centuries to host the increasing number of pilgrims who passed by Parma and Fidenza, following the Apennines via Collecchio, Berceto and the Corchia ranges before descending the Passo della Cisa into Tuscany, heading finally south toward Rome.

The city had a medieval Jewish community.[7] The Palatine Library houses the largest collection of Hebrew manuscripts in Italy, and the second-largest in the world after the Bodleian Library in Oxford[8]

Middle Ages

Under Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county (774). Like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus. In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was usually a member of the Imperial party. Two of its bishops became antipopes: Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II; and Guibert, as Clement III. An almost independent commune was created around 1140; a treaty between Parma and Piacenza of 1149 is the earliest document of a comune headed by consuls.[9] After the Peace of Constance (1183) confirmed the Italian communes' rights of self-governance, long-standing quarrels with the neighbouring communes of Reggio Emilia, Piacenza and Cremona became harsher, with the aim of controlling the vital trading line over the Po River.

The struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli. Then, after a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248. The city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, who was however crushed in the battle that ensued.

Modern era

Parma nel XV secolo
Parma in the 15th century

Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341. After a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family (1404–1409), the Sforza imposed their rule (1440–1449) through their associated families of Pallavicino, Rossi, Sanvitale and Da Correggio. These created a kind of new feudalism, building towers and castles throughout the city and the land. These fiefs evolved into truly independent states: the Landi governed the higher Taro's valley from 1257 to 1682. The Pallavicino seignory extended over the eastern part of today's province, with the capital in Busseto. Parma's territories were an exception for Northern Italy, as its feudal subdivision frequently continued until more recent years. For example, Solignano was a Pallavicino family possession until 1805, and San Secondo belonged to the Rossi well into the 19th century.

Parma, palazzo della pilotta 01
View of Palazzo della Pilotta in the Piazza della Pace. The rebuilt part on the right is where once was the church of St.Peter. The large hole was caused by an Allies bombing.

Between the 14th and the 15th centuries, Parma was at the centre of the Italian Wars. The Battle of Fornovo was fought in its territory. The French held the city in 1500–1521, with a short Papal parenthesis in 1512–1515. After the foreigners were expelled, Parma belonged to the Papal States until 1545.

In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy to his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese, last male of the Farnese line, died. In 1594 a constitution was promulgated, the University enhanced and the Nobles' College founded. The war to reduce the barons' power continued for several years: in 1612 Barbara Sanseverino was executed in the central square of Parma, together with six other nobles charged of plotting against the duke. At the end of the 17th century, after the defeat of Pallavicini (1588) and Landi (1682) the Farnese duke could finally hold with firm hand all Parmense territories. The castle of the Sanseverino in Colorno was turned into a luxurious summer palace by Ferdinando Bibiena.

In the Treaty of London (1718) it was promulgated that the heir to the combined Duchy of Parma and Piacenza would be Elisabeth Farnese's elder son with Philip V of Spain, Don Carlos. In 1731, the fifteen-year-old Don Carlos became Charles I Duke of Parma and Piacenza, at the death of his childless great uncle Antonio Farnese. In 1734, Charles I conquered the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, and was crowned as the King of Naples and Sicily on 3 July 1735, leaving the Duchy of Parma to his brother Philip (Filippo I di Borbone-Parma). All the outstanding art collections of the duke's palaces of Parma, Colorno and Sala Baganza were moved to Naples.

Parma was under French influence after the Peace of Aachen (1748). Parma became a modern state with the energetic action of prime minister Guillaume du Tillot. He created the bases for a modern industry and fought strenuously against the church's privileges. The city lived a period of particular splendour: the Biblioteca Palatina (Palatine Library), the Archaeological Museum, the Picture Gallery and the Botanical Garden were founded, together with the Royal Printing Works directed by Giambattista Bodoni, aided by the Amoretti Brothers as skilled and inspired punchcutters.

Contemporary age

Parma 1832
Parma in 1832

During the Napoleonic Wars (1802–1814), Parma was annexed to France and made capital of the Taro Department. Under its French name Parme, it was also created a duché grand-fief de l'Empire for Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, the Emperor's Arch-Treasurer, on 24 April 1808 (extinguished 1926).

After the restoration of the Duchy of Parma by the 1814–15 Vienna Congress, the Risorgimento's upheavals had no fertile ground in the tranquil duchy. In 1847, after Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma's death, it passed again to the House of Bourbon, the last of whom was stabbed in the city and left it to his widow, Luisa Maria of Berry. On 15 September 1859 the dynasty was declared deposed, and Parma entered the newly formed province of Emilia under Luigi Carlo Farini. With the plebiscite of 1860 the former duchy became part of the unified Kingdom of Italy.

The loss of the capital role provoked an economic and social crisis in Parma. It started to recover its role of industrial prominence after the railway connection with Piacenza and Bologna of 1859, and with Fornovo and Suzzara in 1883. Trade unions were strong in the city, in which a famous General Strike was declared from 1 May to 6 June 1908. The struggle with Fascism had its most dramatic moment in the August 1922, when the regime officer Italo Balbo attempted to enter the popular quarter of Oltretorrente. The citizens organized into the Arditi del Popolo ("People's champions") and pushed back the squadristi. This episode is considered the first example of Resistance in Italy.

During World War II, Parma was a strong centre of partisan resistance. The train station and marshalling yards were targets for high altitude bombing by the Allies in the spring of 1944. Much of the Palazzo della Pilotta — situated not far (half a mile) from the train station — was destroyed. Along with it also Teatro Farnese and part of Biblioteca Palatina were destroyed by Allied bombs. Several other monuments were also damaged: Palazzo del Giardino, Steccata and San Giovanni churches, Palazzo Ducale, Paganini theater and the monument to Verdi. However Parma did not see widespread destruction during the war. Parma was liberated from the German occupation (1943–1945) on 26 April 1945 by the partisan resistance and the Brazilian Expeditionary Force.[10]

Geography

Climate

In Parma, the average annual high temperature is 17 °C (63 °F), the annual low temperature is 9 °C (48 °F), and the annual precipitation is 777 millimetres (30.59 inches).

The following data comes from the weather station located at the University in the city center. It is affected by the urban heat island phenomenon. Parma has a four-season humid subtropical climate with heavy continental influences due to the city's inland position. Relatively nearby coastal areas like Genoa have far milder climates with cooler summers and milder winters, with the mountains separating Parma from the mediterranean acting as a barrier to the sea air.

Main sights

San Giovanni Evangelista
Late Mannerist façade of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista, by Simone Moschino (1604), with sculpture by Giambattista Carra da Bissone[12]
Parma-sanfrancesco01
Façade of the church of San Francesco. It was the city's jail.

Churches

Palaces

  • Palazzo della Pilotta (1583): It houses the Academy of Fine Arts with artists of the School of Parma, the Palatine Library, the National Gallery, the Archaeological Museum, the Bodoni Museum[13] and the Farnese Theatre.
  • Palazzo del Giardino, built from 1561 for Duke Ottavio Farnese on a design by Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola. Built on the former Sforza castle area, it was enlarged in the 17th–18th centuries. It includes the Palazzo Eucherio Sanvitale, with interesting decorations dating from the 16th centuries and attributed to Gianfrancesco d'Agrate, and a fresco by Parmigianino. Annexed is the Ducal Park also by Vignola. It was turned into a French-style garden in 1749.
  • Palazzo del Comune, built in 1627.
  • Palazzo del Governatore ("Governor's Palace"), dating from the 13th century.
  • Bishop's Palace (1055).
  • Ospedale Vecchio ("Old Hospital"), created in 1250 and later renovated in Renaissance times.

Other sites of interest

Demographics

ISTAT 1 January 2016[14][15]
Parma Italy
18 years old and under 16.46% 17.45%
65 years old and over 22.64% 22.04%
Foreign Population 15.91% 8.29%
Births/1,000 people 8.62 b 8.01 b
Largest resident foreign-born groups
(1/1/2016)[15]
Country of birth Population
Moldova Moldova 4,967
Romania Romania 3,513
Albania Albania 2,661
Philippines Philippines 2,570
Tunisia Tunisia 1,561
Nigeria Nigeria 1,450
Ukraine Ukraine 1,292
Morocco Morocco 1,264
Ghana Ghana 1,104
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast 938
China China 819

On 1 January 2016 there were 192,836 resident citizens in Parma, of whom 47.64% were male and 52.36% were female.[3] Minors (children aged 18 and younger) totalled 16.46% of the population compared to pensioners who numbered 22.64%. This compares with the Italian average of 17.45% and 22.04% respectively.[14] In the fourteen years between 2002 and 2016, the population of Parma experienced 17.72% growth, while Italy as a whole grew by 6.45%. In the same period foreign born residents in Parma experienced +385.02% growth, while in Italy growth was of +274.75%. [16] The current birth rate of Parma is 8.62 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 8.01 births.

As of 1 January 2016, 84.09% of the population was Italian. The largest foreign group came from other parts of Europe (namely Moldova, Romania, Albania, and Ukraine: 6.45%), followed by Sub-Saharan Africa (namely Ghana, Nigeria and Ivory Coast: 1.81%), North Africa (namely Morocco and Tunisia: 1.46%) and the Philippines: 1.33.[15]

Culture

Food and cuisine

09 Parma night, Italy - イタリアのカフェ
Caffè Teatro Regio in front of the theatre

Parma is famous for its food and rich gastronomical tradition: Parmigiano Reggiano cheese (also produced in Reggio Emilia), Prosciutto di Parma (Parma ham). Parma also claims several stuffed pasta dishes like "tortelli d'erbetta" and "anolini in brodo".

In 2004 Parma was appointed the seat of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Parma also has two food multinationals, Barilla and Parmalat and a food tourism sector represented by Parma Golosa and Food Valley.

Parmigiano reggiano piece

Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, the true "parmesan"

Prosciutto di Parma - affettato2

Prosciutto di Parma (cured ham)

Tortelli d'erbetta

Tortelli d'erbetta

Anolini in brodo

Anolini in brodo (broth)

Frazioni

Parma Opera e Biciclette
Opera house programme near Teatro Regio

The comune (municipality) of Parma is subdivided into a number of frazioni: Alberi, Baganzola, Bedonia, Beneceto, Borgo Val di Taro, Botteghino, Ca'Terzi, Calestano, Carignano, Carpaneto, Cartiera, Casalbaroncolo, Casalora di Ravadese, Casaltone, Case Capelli, Case Cocconi, Case Crostolo, Case Nuove, Case Rosse, Case Vecchie, Casino dalla Rosa, Casagnola, Castelletto, Castelnovo, Cervara, Chiozzola, Coloreto, Corcagnano, Eia, Fontanini, Fontanellato, Gaione, Ghiaiata Nuova, Il Moro, La Catena, La Palazzina, Malandriano, Marano, Marore, Martorano, Molino di Malandriano, Osteria San Martino, Panocchia, Paradigna, Pedrignano, Pilastrello, Pizzolese, Ponte, Porporano, Pozzetto Piccolo, Quercioli, Ravadese, Ronco Pascolo, Rosa, San Pancrazio, San Prospero, San Ruffino, San Secondo, Sissa, Soragna, Tizzano Val Parma, Valera, Viarolo, Viazza, Vicofertile, Vicomero, Vigatto, Vigheffio, Vigolante.

People

Correggio 010
Detail of Correggio's frescoes in the Camera di San Paolo.

Painters and sculptors

Others

Sport

Stadio Ennio Tardini 5
Parma F.C. fans at the Stadio Ennio Tardini, one of the oldest stadiums in Italy.

Parma Calcio 1913, founded in 2015, is a Serie A (first division) football club. It replaced Parma F.C., which went bankrupt in 2015. It plays in the city's Stadio Ennio Tardini, which opened in 1923 and seats up to 23,000.

Parma's other sport team is the rugby union club Zebre which competes in Pro14, one of the top rugby competitions in the world. Parma also is home to two rugby union teams in the top national division, Overmach Rugby Parma and SKG Gran Rugby.

Parma Panthers is the Parma American football team which provided the basis for John Grisham's book Playing for Pizza. Stadio Sergio Lanfranchi is the ground of rugby and American football teams.

Pallavolo Parma and Parma Baseball are also popular teams in the city.

Economy and infrastructure

Transport

Parma railway station is on the Milan–Bologna railway.

The Parma trolleybus system has been in operation since 1953. It replaced an earlier tramway network, and presently comprises four trolleybus routes.

Aeroporto Internazionale di Parma, Parma's airport, offers commercial flights to cities in a number of European countries.

International relations

Parma is twinned with:[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Superficie di Comuni Province e Regioni italiane al 9 ottobre 2011". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Popolazione Residente al 1° Gennaio 2018". Istat. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Popolazione residente Anno 2016". GeoDemo - ISTAT (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  4. ^ Archaeology in Emilia Romagna page.
  5. ^ XXII, 2,2; XXVIII, 2,1
  6. ^ Domenico, Roy Palmer (2002). "Parma". The Regions of Italy: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Westport, Connecticur: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 93. ISBN 9780313307331. Retrieved 5 May 2019. Atila the Hun put Parma to the torch in 452, as did Totila the Ostrogoth in the mid-500s. It was rebuilt a number of times as a Lombard capital, the site of a Byzantine treasury, and, from the ninth century, a bishopric.
  7. ^ Italy's poetic Parma region - "Italy has one of the oldest European Diaspora communities and a Jewish presence has been documented in Rome for more than 2,200 years. However, Jews only arrived in the Emilia-Romagna region during the 13th century."
  8. ^ Parma - "The Palatine Library is as well home to the largest Italian collection of Hebrew manuscripts, and the second largest in the world after the Bodleian Library in Oxford. The documents were a gift of Maria Luigia Duchess."
  9. ^ G. Drei, Le Carte degli archivi parmensi del secolo XII (Parma, 1950) doc. no. 194; the genesis of the Parmesan commune is studied by R. Schumann, "Authority and the commune: Parma, 833–1033", (Parma: Deputazione di storia patria, series 2.2, VIII) 1973.
  10. ^ "Mapa da рrea de operaушes". Pitoresco.com. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  11. ^ "Archivio climatico Enea-Casaccia". clisun.casaccia.enea.it. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014.
  12. ^ "Monastero di San Giovanni, la chiesa".(in Italian)
  13. ^ "Bodoni Museum". briar press official website. briar press. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
  14. ^ a b "Popolazione residente - Bilancio demografico Anno 2015". GeoDemo - Istat (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  15. ^ a b c "Cittadini stranieri - Bilancio demografico Anno 2015". GeoDemo - Istat (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  16. ^ "Bilancio demografico intercensuario Anno 2002". GeoDemo - Istat (in Italian). Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  17. ^ http://www.comune.parma.it/comune/Pages/pagina_generica.aspx?ID=246f624f-e095-4bc0-8762-01e3aa0574f0
  18. ^ "Medmestno in mednarodno sodelovanje". Mestna občina Ljubljana (Ljubljana City) (in Slovenian). Archived from the original on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  19. ^ "Year in Review 2005" (PDF). City of Moncton. 13 March 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 25 July 2007.

External links

1999 UEFA Cup Final

The 1999 UEFA Cup Final was a football match between Parma of Italy and Marseille of France on 12 May 1999 at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow. Parma won the match 3–0. In doing so, Parma won their second UEFA Cup title and fourth European trophy, having previously won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and the UEFA Super Cup on one occasion each.

2018–19 Serie A

The 2018–19 Serie A is the 117th season of top-tier Italian football, the 87th in a round-robin tournament, and the 9th since its organization under a league committee separate from Serie B. Juventus were the seven-time defending champions and defended their title after winning against Fiorentina on 20 April 2019. The season is scheduled to run from 18 August 2018 to 26 May 2019.

Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese (Italian: Alessandro Farnese, Spanish: Alejandro Farnesio) (27 August 1545 – 3 December 1592) was an Italian noble and condottiero who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south (now Belgium) and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics. His talents as a field commander, strategist and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age.

Carlo Ancelotti

Carlo Ancelotti OSI (Italian pronunciation: [ˈkarlo antʃeˈlɔtti]; born 10 June 1959) is an Italian former professional footballer and current football manager of Napoli.

Ancelotti is one of only three managers to have won the UEFA Champions League three times (twice with Milan and once with Real Madrid), and one of only two to have managed teams in four finals. He has won the FIFA Club World Cup twice, managing Milan and Real Madrid. Ancelotti is also one of seven people to have won the European Cup or Champions League as both a player and a manager. He is regarded as one of the best and most successful managers of all time.Nicknamed Carletto, Ancelotti played as a midfielder and began his career with Italian club Parma, helping the club to Serie B promotion in 1979. He moved to Roma the following season, where he won a Serie A title and four Coppa Italia titles, and also played for the late 1980s Milan team, with which he won two league titles and two European Cups, among other titles. At international level he played for the Italian national team on 26 occasions, scoring once, and appeared in two FIFA World Cups, finishing in third-place in the 1990 edition of the tournament, as well as UEFA Euro 1988, where he helped his nation to reach the semi-finals.

As a manager, he has worked for Reggiana, Parma, Juventus, Milan, Chelsea, Paris Saint-Germain, Real Madrid and Bayern Munich, and has won domestic titles in Italy, England, France, and Germany.

Charles III of Spain

Charles III (Spanish: Carlos; Italian: Carlo; 20 January 1716 – 14 December 1788) was King of Spain (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759). He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs.

In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Augustus III of Poland and an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years.

As King of Spain, Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, and modernising agriculture. He also tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars. His previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable. He did not achieve complete control over Spain's finances, and was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses, but most of his reforms proved to be successful and his legacy lives on to this day.Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was probably the most successful European ruler of his generation. He had provided firm, consistent, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers....[his] personal life had won the respect of the people."

Duchy of Parma

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512. These territories, centered on the city of Parma, were given as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese.

In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (Italian: Ducato di Parma e Piacenza).

The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, when the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Don Charles, whose mother Elizabeth Farnese was the Farnese heiress. He ruled until 1735 during the War of the Polish Succession, when Parma was ceded to Emperor Charles VI in exchange for the Two Sicilies.

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Don Philip, Don Charles's younger brother, who received also the little Duchy of Guastalla. As Duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma reigning over the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (Italian: Ducato di Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla).

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte, and the political situation of the State became extremely confused. Duke Ferdinand maintained his throne under French military governors until the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, when a general agreement between the House of Bourbon and Napoleon formally decided the cession of the duchy to France in exchange for Tuscany, but the Duke lasted in Parma until he died in 1802. Napoleon was undecided about the future of the duchy, aspiring to a total engagement of the Bourbons in the European wars as his allies. Even as French laws and administration were gradually introduced, the formal annexation to the French Empire was declared only in 1808 after the outbreak of the conflict against Bourbonic Spain. The duchy was reformed as the département of Taro.

In 1814, the duchies were given to Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie-Louise, styled Maria-Luigia, who ruled them for the rest of her life. After Maria-Luigia's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny Duchy of Lucca. Guastalla was ceded to Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the French and Sardinian victory in the war against Austria (called Austrian War in France and Second War of Independence in Italy).

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and merged with the Kingdom of Sardinia into the Kingdom of Italy in March 1860 after holding a referendum.

The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of duke of Parma to this day. Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Parma has held the title since 2010.

Elisabeth Farnese

Elisabeth Farnese (Italian: Elisabetta Farnese, Spanish: Isabel de Farnesio; 25 October 1692 – 11 July 1766) was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent.

Hernán Crespo

Hernán Jorge Crespo (Spanish pronunciation: [eɾˈnaŋ ˈxoɾxe ˈkɾespo]; born 5 July 1975) is an Argentine professional football coach and former player who is the manager of Argentine Primera División club Banfield. A prolific striker, he has scored over 300 goals in a career spanning 19 years. At international level, Crespo scored 35 goals and is Argentina's fourth highest goalscorer behind only Sergio Agüero, Gabriel Batistuta and Lionel Messi. He played in three FIFA World Cups: 1998, 2002, 2006. At club level, Crespo was the world's most expensive player, when he was bought by Lazio from Parma in 2000 for €56 million (£35.5 million). He was top scorer in the 2000–01 Serie A with 26 goals, playing for Lazio.

Crespo's awards include three Serie A scudetti, a Copa Libertadores, a Premier League title and an Olympic Games silver medal. In 2004, he was named by Pelé in the FIFA 100 list of the world's greatest living players. Crespo never received a red card during his career.

House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon (English: , also UK: ; French: [buʁbɔ̃]; Spanish: Borbón) is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings.

The senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon. In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line. Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV. Bourbon monarchs then united to France the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored briefly in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was finally overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans, then ruled for 18 years (1830–1848), until it too was overthrown.

The Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, and the Princes de Conti were a cadet line of the Condé branch. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs, even during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814.

In 1700, at the death of Charles II of Spain, the Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in the male line. Under the will of the childless Charles II, the second grandson of Louis XIV of France was named as his successor, to preclude the union of the thrones of France and Spain. The prince, then Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain. Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, and similar arrangements later kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma. The Spanish House of Bourbon (rendered in Spanish as Borbón [boɾˈβon]) has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, and since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734 to 1806 and in Sicily from 1734 to 1816, and in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 to 1860. They also ruled in Parma from 1731 to 1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859.

Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have also been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.

All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France.

House of Bourbon-Parma

The House of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Casa di Borbone di Parma) is a cadet branch of the Spanish royal family, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Guastalla, and Lucca. The House descended from the French Capetian dynasty in male line. Its name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma.

The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons as the founder was the great-grandson of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.

List of foreign Serie A players

This is a list of foreign players (i.e. non-Italian players) in Serie A. The following players:

have played at least one Serie A game for the respective club (seasons in which and teams for, a player, did not collected any caps in Serie A , have NOT to be listed).

have not been capped for the Italian national team on any level, independently from the birthplace, except for players born in San Marino and active in the Italian national team before the first official match of the Sammarinese national team played on 14 November 1990 and players of Italian formation born abroad from Italian parents (so called 'Oriundi').

have been born in Italy and were capped by a foreign national team. This includes players who have dual citizenship with Italy.Players are sorted by the State:

they played for in a national team on any level. For footballers that played for two or more national teams it prevails:

the one he played for on A level.

the national team of birth.

If they never played for any national team on any level, it prevails the state of birth. For footballers born in dissolved states prevails the actual state of birth (e.g.: Yugoslavia -> Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, etc.).These are all the teams that have had at least a foreign player while playing in a Serie A season and in bold are the ones currently playing for the 2018–19 season :

Alessandria, Ancona, Ascoli, Atalanta, Avellino, Bari, Benevento, Bologna, Brescia, Cagliari, Carpi, Catania, Catanzaro, Cesena, Chievo, Como, Cremonese, Crotone, Empoli, Fiorentina, Foggia, Frosinone, Genoa, Inter, Juventus, Lazio, Lecce, Lecco, Legnano, Livorno, Lucchese, Mantova, Messina, Milan, Modena, Napoli, Novara, Padova, Palermo, Parma, Perugia, Pescara, Piacenza, Pisa, Pistoiese, Pro Patria, Reggiana, Reggina, Roma, Salernitana, Sampdoria, Sassuolo, Siena, SPAL, Torino, Treviso, Triestina, Udinese, Varese, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza.

These are the only teams that have participated in Serie A but have not had a foreign player :

Casale, Pro Vercelli, Ternana

In bold: players still active in Serie A and their respective teams in current season.

Maria Luisa of Parma

Maria Luisa of Parma (9 December 1751 – 2 January 1819) was Queen consort of Spain from 1788 to 1808 by marriage to King Charles IV of Spain. She was the youngest daughter of Philip, Duke of Parma, the fourth son of Philip V of Spain and Louise Élisabeth of France, the eldest daughter of King Louis XV.

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

Marie Louise (Maria Ludovica Leopoldina Franziska Therese Josepha Lucia; Italian: Maria Luigia Leopoldina Francesca Teresa Giuseppa Lucia; 12 December 1791 – 17 December 1847) was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 1814 until her death. She was Napoleon's second wife and, as such, Empress of the French from 1810 to 1814.

As the eldest child of the Habsburg Emperor Francis II of Austria and his second wife, Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily, Marie Louise grew up during a period of continuous conflict between Austria and revolutionary France. A series of military defeats at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte had inflicted a heavy human toll on Austria and led Francis to dissolve the Holy Roman Empire. The end of the War of the Fifth Coalition resulted in the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise in 1810, which ushered in a brief period of peace and friendship between Austria and the French Empire. Marie Louise agreed to the marriage despite being raised to despise France. She was adored by Napoleon, who had been eager to marry a member of one of Europe's leading royal houses to cement his relatively young Empire. With Napoleon, she bore a son, styled the King of Rome at birth, later Duke of Reichstadt, who briefly succeeded him as Napoleon II.

Napoleon's fortunes changed dramatically in 1812 after his failed invasion of Russia. The European powers, including Austria, resumed hostilities towards France in the War of the Sixth Coalition, which ended with the abdication of Napoleon and his exile to Elba. The 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau handed over the Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla to Empress Marie Louise. She ruled the duchies until her death.

Marie Louise married morganatically twice after Napoleon's death in 1821. Her second husband was Count Adam Albert von Neipperg (married 1821), an equerry she met in 1814. She and Neipperg had three children. After Neipperg's death, she married Count Charles-René de Bombelles, her chamberlain, in 1834. Marie Louise died in Parma in 1847.

Parma, Ohio

Parma is a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States, located on the southern edge of Cleveland.

As of the 2010 census it is the seventh largest city in the state of Ohio and the second largest city in Cuyahoga County after Cleveland.

Parma Calcio 1913

Parma Calcio 1913, commonly referred to as Parma, is an Italian football club based in Parma, Emilia-Romagna. It currently plays in Serie A.

Founded as Parma Football Club in December 1913, the club plays its home matches in the 26,969-seat Stadio Ennio Tardini, often referred to as simply Il Tardini, from 1923.

Financed by Calisto Tanzi, the club won eight trophies between 1992 and 2002, a period in which it achieved its best ever league finish, as runners-up in the 1996–97 season. The club has won three Coppa Italia, one Supercoppa Italiana, two UEFA Cups, one European Super Cup and one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup.Financial troubles were brought about in late 2003 by the Parmalat scandal which caused the parent company to collapse and resulted in the club operating in controlled administration until January 2007. The club was declared bankrupt in 2015 and re-founded in Serie D but secured a record three straight promotions to return to Serie A in 2018.

Philip, Duke of Parma

Philip of Spain (15 March 1720 – 18 July 1765) was Infante of Spain by birth, and Duke of Parma from 1748 to 1765. He founded the House of Bourbon-Parma, a cadet line of the Spanish branch of the dynasty. He was a son-in-law of Louis XV.

Prosciutto

Prosciutto (, Italian: [proʃˈʃutto]) is an Italian dry-cured ham that is usually thinly sliced and served uncooked; this style is called prosciutto crudo in Italian (or simply crudo) and is distinguished from cooked ham, prosciutto cotto.

A number of regions have their own variations of prosciutto, each with degrees of protected status, but the most prized are the Prosciutto di Parma PDO from the Emilia-Romagna region and the Prosciutto di San Daniele PDO from the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region. Prosciutto mustn't be confused with Speck Alto Adige PGI, from the South Tyrol region, which may appear similar but there are some remarkable differences.

The names prosciutto and prosciutto crudo are generic, and not protected designations, and may name or describe a variety of hams more or less similar to Italian prosciutto crudo or other dry-cured hams worldwide.

Robert I, Duke of Parma

Robert I (Italian: Roberto I Carlo Luigi Maria di Borbone, Duca di Parma e Piacenza; 9 July 1848 – 16 November 1907) was the last sovereign Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1854 until 1859, when the duchy was annexed to Sardinia-Piedmont during the Risorgimento. He was a member of the House of Bourbon-Parma and descended from Philip, Duke of Parma, the third son of King Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth Farnese.

Zita of Bourbon-Parma

Zita of Bourbon-Parma (Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese; 9 May 1892 – 14 March 1989) was the wife of Charles, the last monarch of Austria-Hungary. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria and Queen of Hungary, in addition to other titles.

Born as the seventeenth child of the dispossessed Robert I, Duke of Parma, and his second wife, Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal, Zita married the then Archduke Charles of Austria in 1911. Charles became heir presumptive to the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1914 after the assassination of his uncle Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and acceded to the throne in 1916 after the old emperor's death.

After the end of World War I in 1918, the Habsburgs were deposed and the empire became four independent countries, Austria, Hungary, and the newly formed Czechoslovakia and State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Charles and Zita left for exile in Switzerland and later Madeira, where Charles died in 1922. After her husband's death, Zita and her son Otto served as symbols of unity for the exiled dynasty. A devout Catholic, she raised a large family after being widowed at the age of 29, and never remarried.

Climate data for Parma (city center)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
7.5
(45.5)
13.2
(55.8)
18.0
(64.4)
22.8
(73.0)
27.3
(81.1)
30.1
(86.2)
29.3
(84.7)
24.8
(76.6)
17.8
(64.0)
10.3
(50.5)
5.4
(41.7)
17.6
(63.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
3.9
(39.0)
8.9
(48.0)
13.1
(55.6)
17.6
(63.7)
21.8
(71.2)
24.4
(75.9)
23.9
(75.0)
19.9
(67.8)
13.9
(57.0)
7.6
(45.7)
2.9
(37.2)
13.3
(55.9)
Average low °C (°F) −1.5
(29.3)
0.4
(32.7)
4.5
(40.1)
8.3
(46.9)
12.5
(54.5)
16.3
(61.3)
18.6
(65.5)
18.2
(64.8)
15.0
(59.0)
10.1
(50.2)
4.8
(40.6)
0.4
(32.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57
(2.2)
55
(2.2)
65
(2.6)
76
(3.0)
73
(2.9)
56
(2.2)
37
(1.5)
48
(1.9)
67
(2.6)
96
(3.8)
84
(3.3)
73
(2.9)
777
(30.6)
Source: Archivio climatico Enea-Casaccia (1961-1990)[11]
Cities in Italy by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+

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