Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld).[1][2] Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.

For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.

Forms of government
Systems of government
Republican forms of government:
  Presidential republics with an executive presidency separate from the legislature
  Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature
  Semi-presidential republics with both an executive presidency and a separate head of government that leads the legislature, who is appointed by the president
  Parliamentary republics with a ceremonial/non-executive president, where a separate head of government leads the executive

Monarchical forms of government:
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial/non-executive monarch, where a separate head of government leads the executive
  Constitutional monarchies with a ceremonial monarch, but where royalty still hold significant executive and/or legislative power
  Absolute monarchies where the monarch leads the executive

  One-party states where the dominant role of a political party is codified in the constitution
  Countries in which constitutional provisions for government have been suspended (e.g. military dictatorship)
  Countries which do not fit any of the above systems (e.g. transitional government or unclear political situations)
Forms of government parliamentary
Map of different parliamentary systems
  Parliamentary republics where parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state.
  Parliamentary republics with an executive presidency dependent on the legislature.
  Constitutional monarchies in which authority is vested in a parliament.


In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).[1][2]

However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.

In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.

Historical development

Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.[3]

Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.

Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one.

British Commonwealth of Nations

Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in with South Africa (which left the Commonwealth soon after becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.

Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.

List of modern parliamentary republics

Parliamentary republics
Country Head of state elected by Cameral structure Parliamentary republic adopted Previous government form
 Albania Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1991 One-party state
 Armenia Parliament, by absolute majority Unicameral 2018[note 1] Semi-presidential republic
 Austria Direct election, by second-round system Bicameral 1945 One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)
 Bangladesh Parliament Unicameral 1991[note 2] Presidential republic
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote Bicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Bulgaria Bulgaria Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1991 One-party state
Croatia Croatia Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 2000 Semi-presidential republic
 Czech Republic Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority) Bicameral 1993 Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
 Dominica Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1978 Associated state of the United Kingdom
 Estonia Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral 1991[note 3] One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
 Ethiopia Parliament, by two-thirds majority Bicameral 1991 One-party state
 Fiji Parliament, by majority Unicameral 2014 Military dictatorship
 Finland Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 2000[note 4] Semi-presidential republic
 Georgia Electoral college (parliament and region delegates), by absolute majority Unicameral 2018[note 5] Semi-presidential republic
 Germany Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority Bicameral 1949[note 6] One-party state
 Greece Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1975 Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy
 Hungary Parliament, by absolute majority Unicameral 1990 One-party state
 Iceland Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral 1944 Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)
 India Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral 1950 Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
 Iraq Parliament, by two-thirds majority Unicameral[note 7] 2005 One-party state
 Ireland Direct election, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral 1949[note 8] To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
1936–1949: ambiguous
 Israel Parliament, by majority Unicameral 2001 Semi-parliamentary republic
 Italy Parliament and region delegates, by absolute majority Bicameral 1946 Constitutional monarchy
 Kosovo Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,
if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots
Unicameral 2008 UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)
 Kyrgyzstan Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 2010 Presidential republic
 Latvia Parliament Unicameral 1991[note 9] One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
 Lebanon Parliament Unicameral 1941 Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)
 Malta Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1974 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[4])[5]
 Mauritius Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1992 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[6][7][8])[5]
 Moldova Direct election, by second-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
Unicameral 2001 Semi-presidential republic
 Montenegro Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1992 One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
   Nepal Parliament and state legislators Bicameral[9] 2015[note 10] Constitutional monarchy
 North Macedonia Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
 Pakistan Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote Bicameral 2010[10][11] Semi-presidential republic
 Samoa Parliament Unicameral 1960 Trust Territory of New Zealand
 Serbia Direct election, by second-round system Unicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
 Singapore Direct election (since 1993) Unicameral 1965 State of Malaysia
 Slovakia Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament) Unicameral 1993 Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
 Slovenia Direct election, by second-round system Bicameral 1991 One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
 Somalia Parliament Bicameral 2012[note 11] One-party state
 Trinidad and Tobago Parliament Bicameral 1976 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[12])[5]
 Vanuatu Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority Unicameral 1980 British–French condominium (New Hebrides)
Parliamentary republics with a "mixed-republican" system
Country Head of state elected by Cameral structure Parliamentary republic adopted Previous government form
 Botswana Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1966 British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)
 Kiribati Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote Unicameral 1979 Protectorate
 Marshall Islands Parliament Bicameral 1979 UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
 Micronesia Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1986 UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
 Myanmar Parliament, by an electoral college Bicameral 2010 Military dictatorship
 Nauru Parliament Unicameral 1968 Australian Trust Territory
 San Marino Parliament Unicameral 301 Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)
 South Africa Parliament, by majority Bicameral 1961 Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm[13][14][15])[5]
 Suriname Parliament, by majority Unicameral 1987 Military dictatorship
  Switzerland Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority Bicameral 1848 Confederation

List of former parliamentary republics

Country Year became a parliamentary republic Year status changed Changed to Status changed due to
Czechoslovakia First Czechoslovak Republic 1920 1939 One-party state Munich agreement
Czechoslovakia Third Czechoslovak Republic 1945 1948 One-party state Coup d'état
Czechoslovakia Fifth Czechoslovak Republic 1989 1992 Parliamentary Republics Velvet Divorce
Austria First Austrian Republic 1920 1929 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
 Brazil 1961 1963 Presidential system Referendum
 Burma (present-day Myanmar) 1948 1962 Military dictatorship 1962 Burmese coup d'état
France French Third Republic 1870 1940 Presidential system World War II German Occupation
France French Fourth Republic 1946 1958 Semi-presidential system Political instability
 Guyana 1970 1980 Presidential system Constitutional amendment
Hungary Hungary 1946 1949 One-party state Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary
 Indonesia 1945 1959 Presidential system Constitutional amendment
 Israel 1948 1996 Semi-parliamentary system Constitutional amendment
South Korea Second Republic of South Korea 1960 1961 Presidential system May 16 coup
Lithuania Lithuanian First Republic 1920 1926 One-party state 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état[note 12]
 Nigeria 1963 1966 Military dictatorship
(which led in 1979
to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
Coup d'état
 Pakistan 1956 1958 Military dictatorship 1958 Pakistani coup d'état
1973 1978 1977 Pakistani coup d'état
1988 1999 1999 Pakistani coup d'état
Poland Second Polish Republic 1919 1939 One-party state Invasion of Poland
Portugal First Portuguese Republic 1911 1926 Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
May 28 coup
Philippines First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic) 1899 1901 Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces
Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo 1960 1965 Military dictatorship
(De facto One-party state)
1965 Congolese coup d'état
 Russia 1991[note 13] 1993 Semi-presidential system Referendum[note 14]
 Rhodesia 1970 1979 Parliamentary system Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
 Spanish Republic 1931 1939 Fascist dictatorship Loss of Spanish Civil War
 Sri Lanka 1972 1978 Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
Syria Syrian Republic 1930 1958 One-party state Creation of the United Arab Republic
Syria Syrian Arab Republic 1961 1963 One-party state 1963 Syrian coup d'état
 Turkey 1923 2018 Presidential system Referendum
 Uganda 1963 1966 One-party state Suspension of the constitution
 Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979 1979 Parliamentary system Reversion to Southern Rhodesia
 Zimbabwe 1980 1987 Presidential system Constitutional amendment

See also


  1. ^ Changed after the 2015 referendum.
  2. ^ Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
  3. ^ Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  4. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048. as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.
  5. ^ Georgia is transitioning to a parliamentary republic
  6. ^ In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. Please note that German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
  7. ^ Officially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.
  8. ^ The head of state was ambiguous from 1936 until the Republic of Ireland Act came into force on 18 April 1949. A minority of Irish republicans assert that the Irish Republic proclaimed in 1919 is still extant.
  9. ^ Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  10. ^ Had a transitional government between 2008 and 2015.
  11. ^ Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.
  12. ^ In June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
  13. ^ Post of President of Russia is created, and development of separation of powers is started, some of Supreme Soviet's executive powers is transferred to new post. Before that, Russia was a Soviet republic.
  14. ^ Preceded by crisis and armed dissolving of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, then-parliament of the Russian Federation.


  1. ^ a b Twomey, Anne. "Australian politics explainer: Gough Whitlam's dismissal as prime minister". The Conversation. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  2. ^ a b "The President's Role - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-10-18.
  3. ^ Arend Lijphart, ed. (1992). Parliamentary versus presidential government. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878044-1.
  4. ^ "Malta: Heads of State: 1964-1974". Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d "British Monarch's Titles: 1867-2018". Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  6. ^ "Mauritius: Heads of State: 1968-1992". Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  7. ^ Paxton, John (1984). The Statesman's Year-Book 1984-85. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-333-34731-7. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  8. ^ Cahoon, Ben. "Mauritius". Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  9. ^ Constitution of Nepal Archived December 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Kiran Khalid, CNN (2010-04-09). "Pakistan lawmakers approve weakening of presidential powers". Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  11. ^ "'18th Amendment to restore Constitution' | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Archived from the original on 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2010-04-14.
  12. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago: Heads of State: 1962-1976". Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  13. ^ "South Africa: Heads of State: 1910-1961". Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  14. ^ Carlin, John (31 May 1994). "South Africa returns to the Commonwealth fold". The Independent. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  15. ^ "Secession Talked by Some Anti-Republicans". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 11 October 1960. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms. As of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth.

In 1952, Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession used the term realms to describe the seven sovereign states of which she was queen—the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. Since then, new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies and some realms have become republics.

Constitution of Armenia

The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995. This constitution established Armenia as a democratic, sovereign, social, and constitutional state. Yerevan is defined as the state's capital. Power is vested in its citizens, who exercise it directly through the election of government representatives. Decisions related to changes in constitutional status or to an alteration of borders are subject to a vote of the citizens of Armenia exercised in a referendum. There are 117 articles in the 1995 constitution. On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. The constitution was amended again in a national referendum on December 6, 2015 that changed the political structure from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic.

According to the November 2005 Constitution, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister based on the distribution of the seats in the National Assembly and consultations with the parliamentary factions. The President also appoints (or dismisses from office) the members of the Government upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Given the constitutional powers of the president, Armenia can be regarded as a semi-presidential republic.

Constitution of Bulgaria

The Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Конституция на Република България, Konstitutsia na Republika Balgaria) is the supreme and basic law of the Republic of Bulgaria. The current constitution was adopted on 12 July 1991 by the 7th Grand National Assembly of Bulgaria, and defines the country as a unitary parliamentary republic. It has been amended five times (in 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2015).

Chronologically, it is the fourth constitution of Bulgaria, the first being the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879. It was immediately preceded by the two Communist-era constitutions–the Dimitrov Constitution (named after Georgi Dimitrov), in force between 1947 and 1971, and the Zhivkov Constitution (named after Todor Zhivkov), in force between 1971 and 1991.

Federal parliamentary republic

A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels. It is a combination of the federal republic and the parliamentary republic.

Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the subnational entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be dependenluihgt upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.

Government of Ethiopia

The government of Ethiopia is structured in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. The prime minister is chosen by the parliament. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The Judiciary is more or less independent of the executive and the legislature. They are governed under the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia. There is a bicameral parliament made of the 108-seat house of federation and the 547-seat House of Peoples Representatives. The house of federation has members chosen by the state assemblies to serve five year terms. The house of people's representatives are elected by direct election, who in turn elect the president for a six-year term.

Government of Latvia

The Government of Latvia is the central government of the Republic of Latvia. The Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) outlines the nation as a parliamentary republic represented by a unicameral parliament (Saeima) and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republikas Ministru kabinets), which form the executive branch of the Government of Latvia.

Since the early 2000s cabinet meetings in Latvia have been open to the public. In June 2013, the Latvian government became one of the first in Europe to offer live internet broadcasts of cabinet meetings.

Government of South Africa

The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system. Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of South Africa. Executive authority is vested in the President of South Africa who is head of state and head of government, and his Cabinet. The President is elected by the Parliament to serve a fixed term. South Africa's government differs greatly from those of other Commonwealth nations. The national, provincial and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, and are defined in the South African Constitution as "distinctive, interdependent and interrelated".

Operating at both national and provincial levels ("spheres") are advisory bodies drawn from South Africa's traditional leaders. It is a stated intention in the Constitution that the country be run on a system of co-operative governance.

The national government is composed of three inter-connected branches:

Legislative: Parliament, consisting of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces

Executive: The President, who is both Head of State and Head of Government

Judicial: The Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the High CourtAll bodies of the South African government are subject to the rule of the Constitution, which is the Supreme law in South Africa.

History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)

The Parliamentary Era in Chile began in 1891, at the end of the Civil War, and spanned until 1925 and the establishment of the 1925 Constitution. Also called "pseudo-parliamentary" period or "Parliamentary Republic", this period was thus named because it established a quasi-parliamentary system based on the interpretation of the 1833 Constitution following the defeat of President José Manuel Balmaceda during the Civil War. As opposed to a "true parliamentary" system, the executive was not subject to the legislative power but checks and balances of executive over the legislature were weakened. The President remained the head of state but its powers and control of the government were reduced. The Parliamentary Republic lasted until the 1925 Constitution drafted by President Arturo Alessandri and his minister José Maza. The new Constitution created a presidential system, which lasted, with several modifications, until the 1973 coup d'état.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Chile temporarily resolved its border disputes with Argentina with the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina, the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit of 1899 and the Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case, 1902.

List of companies of Turkey

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey is a transcontinental parliamentary republic in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.The country has an emerging market economy as defined by the IMF. Turkey is among the world's developed countries according to the CIA World Factbook. Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. Turkey has the world's 18th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances.

For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in Turkey".

Luhansk People's Republic

The Luhansk People's Republic (Ukrainian: Луганська Народна Республіка, Luhanska Narodna Respublika), also known as Lugansk People's Republic (Russian: Луга́нская Наро́дная Респу́блика, tr. Luganskaya Narodnaya Respublika, LNR, IPA: [lʊˈɡanskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə]), usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a declared people's republic and landlocked proto-state in eastern Ukraine. Along with the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), the LPR declared independence from Ukraine in the spring of 2014. An armed conflict with Ukraine followed its declaration of independence, during which the LPR and DPR received military and humanitarian assistance from Russia. This conflict is still ongoing as of February 2019. LPR remains unrecognised by any UN member state, including Russia—although Russia recognizes documents issued by the LPR government, such as identity documents, diplomas, birth and marriage certificates and vehicle registration plates.Ukraine's legislation describes the LPR's area as a "temporarily occupied territory" and its government as an "occupying administration of the Russian Federation". Ukraine's prosecutor general said that the LPR is a terrorist organisation.

Politics of Armenia

The politics of Armenia take place in the framework of the parliamentary representative democratic republic of Armenia, whereby the President of Armenia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Armenia the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and Parliament.

Politics of Serbia

The politics of Serbia function within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. The prime minister is the head of government, while the president is the head of state. Serbia is a parliamentary republic composed of three branches of government: an executive, legislature, and judiciary.

The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Serbia as "flawed democracy" in 2016.

President of Estonia

The President of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.

Estonia is a parliamentary republic in which the President is a ceremonial figurehead with no executive power. The President is obliged to suspend their membership in any political party for the term in office. Upon assuming office, the authority and duties of the President in all other elected or appointed offices terminate automatically. These measures should theoretically help the President to function in a more independent and impartial manner.

The President is elected by the Riigikogu or a special electoral body for a five-year term. The electoral body is convened in case no candidate secures a two-thirds supermajority in the Riigikogu after three rounds of balloting. The electoral body, which consists of all members of the Riigikogu and elected representatives of all local self-governments (at least one representative per each municipality, but not more than 10 representatives depending on the number of citizens with voting rights residing in the municipality), elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes.

The President holds office for five years. They can be reelected any number of times, but not more than twice consecutively.

The current President is Kersti Kaljulaid, elected by Parliament on 3 October 2016, becoming the first woman and youngest person ever who holds the position.

President of Rhodesia

The President of Rhodesia was the head of state of Rhodesia from 1970 to 1979. As Rhodesia reckoned itself as a parliamentary republic rather than a presidential republic at the time, the president's post was almost entirely ceremonial, and the real power continued to be vested in Rhodesia's Prime Minister, Ian Smith. Two individuals held the office of president, while two others served as acting presidents. All were white people of British descent. As with Rhodesia itself, the position lacked international recognition for the entire period.

Prime Minister's Residence, Yerevan

The Residence of the Prime Minister of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետության վարչապետի նստավայր; Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun Varchapeti Nstavayr) is located on Baghramyan Avenue 26, Yerevan. It was designed by Mark Grigoryan as the premises for the Council of Ministers of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic and completed in 1951. The building has served as the residence of the president of Armenia from 11 November 1991 until 9 April 2018, when Armenia was officially turned into parliamentary republic, and the building became the official residence of the prime minister. The President's Residence was moved to Mashtots Avenue. On 8 November 2018, the Armenian government approved an initiative to relocate the Prime Minister's Residence to Government House 1 and move the President's Resident back to Baghramyan Avenue 26. Since 2018, the Honour Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defense of Armenia has performed guard duty at the residence.

Religion in Mongolia

Religion in Mongolia has been traditionally dominated by the schools of Mongolian Buddhism and by Mongolian shamanism, the ethnic religion of the Mongols. Historically, through their Mongol Empire the Mongols were exposed to the influences of Christianity (Nestorianism and Catholicism) and Islam, although these religions never came to dominate. During the socialist period of the Mongolian People's Republic (1924-1992) all religions were suppressed, but with the transition to the parliamentary republic in the 1990s there has been a general revival of faiths.

According to the national census of 2010, 53% of the Mongolians identify as Buddhists, 38.6% as not religious, 3% as Muslims (predominantly of Kazakh ethnicity), 2.9% as followers of the Mongol shamanic tradition, 2.2% as Christians, and 0.4% as followers of other religions. Other sources estimate that a significantly higher proportion of the population follows the Mongol ethnic religion (18.6%).

Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government. As of May 2017, 31 out of the 53 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the monarch in the Commonwealth realms, is still the titular Head of the Commonwealth in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead, it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members.Except for the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda, they are all former British (or partly British) colonies or self-governing colonies that have evolved into republics. Most of them achieved independence while keeping the British monarch as their own individual head of state (in a form of personal union) and later became republics within the Commonwealth by abolishing the monarchy. In some instances, the countries became republics after achieving independence from other former British colonies (as Bangladesh did from Pakistan in 1971).

Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive (the powers, limitations differ in different parliamentary republics, that this type of president would have tended to be 'reserve'/emergency and non-partisan in nature), figurehead (a president in a dual executive system also has political powers), and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.While the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger, both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958).

West Pakistan

West Pakistan (Urdu: مغربی پاکستان‬‎, Mag̱ẖribī Pākistān IPA: [məɣrɪbiː pɑːkɪstɑːn]; Bengali: পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান, Pôśchim Pākistān) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.After gaining independence from the British in 1947, the State of Pakistan was physically separated into two exclaves, with the western and eastern wings separated from each other by the Republic of India. The western wing of Pakistan comprised three Governor's provinces (North-West Frontier, West-Punjab and Sindh Province), one Chief Commissioner's province (Baluchistan Province), and the Baluchistan States Union along with several other independent princely states (notably Bahawalpur, Chitral, Dir, Hunza, Khairpur and Swat), the Federal Capital Territory around Karachi, and the tribal areas. The eastern wing of the new country – East Pakistan – formed the single province of East Bengal (including the former Assam district of Sylhet).

West Pakistan was politically dominant despite East Pakistan having over half of the population and a disproportionately small number of seats in the Constituent Assembly. This inequality of the two wings and the geographical distance between them were believed to be delaying the adoption of a new constitution. To diminish the differences between the two regions, the government decided to reorganise the country into two distinct provinces under the One Unit policy announced by Prime Minister Chaudhry Muhammad Ali on 22 November 1954.

In 1970, President General Yahya Khan enacted a series of territorial, constitutional and military reforms. These established the provincial assemblies, state parliament, and the current provisional borders of Pakistan's four provinces. On 1 July 1970, West Pakistan was devolved and renamed "Pakistan" under Legal Framework Order No. 1970, which dissolved the "One Unit" and removed the term "West", simply establishing the country as Pakistan. The order had no effect on East Pakistan, which retained the geographical position established in 1955. The next year's civil war, however, resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

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