A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld). Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other government and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.
|Systems of government|
In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).
However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.
In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.
Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.
Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in with South Africa (which left the Commonwealth soon after becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.
Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.
|Country||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic adopted||Previous government form|
|Albania||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Armenia||Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018[note 1]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Austria||Direct election, by second-round system||Bicameral||1945||One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)|
|Bangladesh||Parliament||Unicameral||1991[note 2]||Presidential republic|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Bulgaria||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Croatia||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2000||Semi-presidential republic|
|Czech Republic||Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)||Bicameral||1993||Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Dominica||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1978||Associated state of the United Kingdom|
|Estonia||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral||1991[note 3]||One-party state (part of Soviet Union)|
|Ethiopia||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Bicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Fiji||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2014||Military dictatorship|
|Finland||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2000[note 4]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Georgia||Electoral college (parliament and region delegates), by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018[note 5]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Germany||Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1949[note 6]||One-party state|
|Greece||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1975||Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy|
|Hungary||Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||1990||One-party state|
|Iceland||Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1944||Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)|
|India||Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1950||Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)|
|Iraq||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral[note 7]||2005||One-party state|
|Ireland||Direct election, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1949[note 8]||To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)|
|Israel||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2001||Semi-parliamentary republic|
|Italy||Parliament and region delegates, by absolute majority||Bicameral||1946||Constitutional monarchy|
|Kosovo||Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,
if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots
|Unicameral||2008||UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)|
|Kyrgyzstan||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2010||Presidential republic|
|Latvia||Parliament||Unicameral||1991[note 9]||One-party state (part of Soviet Union)|
|Lebanon||Parliament||Unicameral||1941||Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)|
|Malta||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1974||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Mauritius||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1992||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Moldova||Direct election, by second-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
|Montenegro||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1992||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|Nepal||Parliament and state legislators||Bicameral||2015[note 10]||Constitutional monarchy|
|North Macedonia||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Pakistan||Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||2010||Semi-presidential republic|
|Samoa||Parliament||Unicameral||1960||Trust Territory of New Zealand|
|Serbia||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|Singapore||Direct election (since 1993)||Unicameral||1965||State of Malaysia|
|Slovakia||Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)||Unicameral||1993||Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Slovenia||Direct election, by second-round system||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Somalia||Parliament||Bicameral||2012[note 11]||One-party state|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Parliament||Bicameral||1976||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Vanuatu||Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority||Unicameral||1980||British–French condominium (New Hebrides)|
|Parliamentary republics with a "mixed-republican" system|
|Country||Head of state elected by||Cameral structure||Parliamentary republic adopted||Previous government form|
|Botswana||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1966||British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)|
|Kiribati||Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1979||Protectorate|
|Marshall Islands||Parliament||Bicameral||1979||UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|Micronesia||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1986||UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|Myanmar||Parliament, by an electoral college||Bicameral||2010||Military dictatorship|
|Nauru||Parliament||Unicameral||1968||Australian Trust Territory|
|San Marino||Parliament||Unicameral||301||Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)|
|South Africa||Parliament, by majority||Bicameral||1961||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|Suriname||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1987||Military dictatorship|
|Switzerland||Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1848||Confederation|
|Country||Year became a parliamentary republic||Year status changed||Changed to||Status changed due to|
|First Czechoslovak Republic||1920||1939||One-party state||Munich agreement|
|Third Czechoslovak Republic||1945||1948||One-party state||Coup d'état|
|Fifth Czechoslovak Republic||1989||1992||Parliamentary Republics||Velvet Divorce|
|First Austrian Republic||1920||1929||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Burma (present-day Myanmar)||1948||1962||Military dictatorship||1962 Burmese coup d'état|
|French Third Republic||1870||1940||Presidential system||World War II German Occupation|
|French Fourth Republic||1946||1958||Semi-presidential system||Political instability|
|Guyana||1970||1980||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Hungary||1946||1949||One-party state||Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary|
|Indonesia||1945||1959||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Israel||1948||1996||Semi-parliamentary system||Constitutional amendment|
|Second Republic of South Korea||1960||1961||Presidential system||May 16 coup|
|Lithuanian First Republic||1920||1926||One-party state||1926 Lithuanian coup d'état[note 12]|
(which led in 1979
to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
|Pakistan||1956||1958||Military dictatorship||1958 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1973||1978||1977 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1988||1999||1999 Pakistani coup d'état|
|Second Polish Republic||1919||1939||One-party state||Invasion of Poland|
|First Portuguese Republic||1911||1926||Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
|May 28 coup|
|First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)||1899||1901||Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
|Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces|
|Republic of the Congo||1960||1965||Military dictatorship
(De facto One-party state)
|1965 Congolese coup d'état|
|Russia||1991[note 13]||1993||Semi-presidential system||Referendum[note 14]|
|Rhodesia||1970||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia|
|Spanish Republic||1931||1939||Fascist dictatorship||Loss of Spanish Civil War|
|Sri Lanka||1972||1978||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Syrian Republic||1930||1958||One-party state||Creation of the United Arab Republic|
|Syrian Arab Republic||1961||1963||One-party state||1963 Syrian coup d'état|
|Uganda||1963||1966||One-party state||Suspension of the constitution|
|Zimbabwe Rhodesia||1979||1979||Parliamentary system||Reversion to Southern Rhodesia|
|Zimbabwe||1980||1987||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms. As of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth.
In 1952, Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession used the term realms to describe the seven sovereign states of which she was queen—the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. Since then, new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies and some realms have become republics.Constitution of Armenia
The Constitution of Armenia was adopted by a nationwide Armenian referendum on July 5, 1995. This constitution established Armenia as a democratic, sovereign, social, and constitutional state. Yerevan is defined as the state's capital. Power is vested in its citizens, who exercise it directly through the election of government representatives. Decisions related to changes in constitutional status or to an alteration of borders are subject to a vote of the citizens of Armenia exercised in a referendum. There are 117 articles in the 1995 constitution. On November 27, 2005, a nationwide constitutional referendum was held and an amended constitution was adopted. The constitution was amended again in a national referendum on December 6, 2015 that changed the political structure from a semi-presidential system to a parliamentary republic.
According to the November 2005 Constitution, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister based on the distribution of the seats in the National Assembly and consultations with the parliamentary factions. The President also appoints (or dismisses from office) the members of the Government upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Given the constitutional powers of the president, Armenia can be regarded as a semi-presidential republic.Constitution of Bulgaria
The Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Конституция на Република България, Konstitutsia na Republika Balgaria) is the supreme and basic law of the Republic of Bulgaria. The current constitution was adopted on 12 July 1991 by the 7th Grand National Assembly of Bulgaria, and defines the country as a unitary parliamentary republic. It has been amended five times (in 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2015).
Chronologically, it is the fourth constitution of Bulgaria, the first being the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879. It was immediately preceded by the two Communist-era constitutions–the Dimitrov Constitution (named after Georgi Dimitrov), in force between 1947 and 1971, and the Zhivkov Constitution (named after Todor Zhivkov), in force between 1971 and 1991.Federal parliamentary republic
A federal parliamentary republic refers to a federation of states with a republican form of government that is, more or less, dependent upon the confidence of parliaments at both the national and subnational levels. It is a combination of the federal republic and the parliamentary republic.
Such republics usually possess a bicameral legislature at the federal level out of necessity, so as to allow for a set, often equal number of representatives of the subnational entities to sit in the upper house; however, the government, headed by a head of government, will be dependenluihgt upon the lower house of parliament for its stability or legitimacy.Government of Ethiopia
The government of Ethiopia is structured in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. The prime minister is chosen by the parliament. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The Judiciary is more or less independent of the executive and the legislature. They are governed under the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia. There is a bicameral parliament made of the 108-seat house of federation and the 547-seat House of Peoples Representatives. The house of federation has members chosen by the state assemblies to serve five year terms. The house of people's representatives are elected by direct election, who in turn elect the president for a six-year term.Government of Latvia
The Government of Latvia is the central government of the Republic of Latvia. The Constitution of Latvia (Satversme) outlines the nation as a parliamentary republic represented by a unicameral parliament (Saeima) and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republikas Ministru kabinets), which form the executive branch of the Government of Latvia.
Since the early 2000s cabinet meetings in Latvia have been open to the public. In June 2013, the Latvian government became one of the first in Europe to offer live internet broadcasts of cabinet meetings.Government of South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system. Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of South Africa. Executive authority is vested in the President of South Africa who is head of state and head of government, and his Cabinet. The President is elected by the Parliament to serve a fixed term. South Africa's government differs greatly from those of other Commonwealth nations. The national, provincial and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, and are defined in the South African Constitution as "distinctive, interdependent and interrelated".
Operating at both national and provincial levels ("spheres") are advisory bodies drawn from South Africa's traditional leaders. It is a stated intention in the Constitution that the country be run on a system of co-operative governance.
The national government is composed of three inter-connected branches:
Legislative: Parliament, consisting of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces
Executive: The President, who is both Head of State and Head of Government
Judicial: The Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the High CourtAll bodies of the South African government are subject to the rule of the Constitution, which is the Supreme law in South Africa.History of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)
The Parliamentary Era in Chile began in 1891, at the end of the Civil War, and spanned until 1925 and the establishment of the 1925 Constitution. Also called "pseudo-parliamentary" period or "Parliamentary Republic", this period was thus named because it established a quasi-parliamentary system based on the interpretation of the 1833 Constitution following the defeat of President José Manuel Balmaceda during the Civil War. As opposed to a "true parliamentary" system, the executive was not subject to the legislative power but checks and balances of executive over the legislature were weakened. The President remained the head of state but its powers and control of the government were reduced. The Parliamentary Republic lasted until the 1925 Constitution drafted by President Arturo Alessandri and his minister José Maza. The new Constitution created a presidential system, which lasted, with several modifications, until the 1973 coup d'état.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Chile temporarily resolved its border disputes with Argentina with the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina, the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit of 1899 and the Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case, 1902.List of companies of Turkey
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey is a transcontinental parliamentary republic in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage.The country has an emerging market economy as defined by the IMF. Turkey is among the world's developed countries according to the CIA World Factbook. Turkey is also defined by economists and political scientists as one of the world's newly industrialized countries. Turkey has the world's 18th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is among the world's leading producers of agricultural products; textiles; motor vehicles, ships and other transportation equipment; construction materials; consumer electronics and home appliances.
For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in Turkey".Luhansk People's Republic
The Luhansk People's Republic (Ukrainian: Луганська Народна Республіка, Luhanska Narodna Respublika), also known as Lugansk People's Republic (Russian: Луга́нская Наро́дная Респу́блика, tr. Luganskaya Narodnaya Respublika, LNR, IPA: [lʊˈɡanskəjə nɐˈrodnəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə]), usually abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a declared people's republic and landlocked proto-state in eastern Ukraine. Along with the Donetsk People's Republic (DPR), the LPR declared independence from Ukraine in the spring of 2014. An armed conflict with Ukraine followed its declaration of independence, during which the LPR and DPR received military and humanitarian assistance from Russia. This conflict is still ongoing as of February 2019. LPR remains unrecognised by any UN member state, including Russia—although Russia recognizes documents issued by the LPR government, such as identity documents, diplomas, birth and marriage certificates and vehicle registration plates.Ukraine's legislation describes the LPR's area as a "temporarily occupied territory" and its government as an "occupying administration of the Russian Federation". Ukraine's prosecutor general said that the LPR is a terrorist organisation.Politics of Armenia
The politics of Armenia take place in the framework of the parliamentary representative democratic republic of Armenia, whereby the President of Armenia is the head of state and the Prime Minister of Armenia the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and Parliament.Politics of Serbia
The politics of Serbia function within the framework of a parliamentary democracy. The prime minister is the head of government, while the president is the head of state. Serbia is a parliamentary republic composed of three branches of government: an executive, legislature, and judiciary.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Serbia as "flawed democracy" in 2016.President of Estonia
The President of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi President) is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia.
Estonia is a parliamentary republic in which the President is a ceremonial figurehead with no executive power. The President is obliged to suspend their membership in any political party for the term in office. Upon assuming office, the authority and duties of the President in all other elected or appointed offices terminate automatically. These measures should theoretically help the President to function in a more independent and impartial manner.
The President is elected by the Riigikogu or a special electoral body for a five-year term. The electoral body is convened in case no candidate secures a two-thirds supermajority in the Riigikogu after three rounds of balloting. The electoral body, which consists of all members of the Riigikogu and elected representatives of all local self-governments (at least one representative per each municipality, but not more than 10 representatives depending on the number of citizens with voting rights residing in the municipality), elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes.
The President holds office for five years. They can be reelected any number of times, but not more than twice consecutively.
The current President is Kersti Kaljulaid, elected by Parliament on 3 October 2016, becoming the first woman and youngest person ever who holds the position.President of Rhodesia
The President of Rhodesia was the head of state of Rhodesia from 1970 to 1979. As Rhodesia reckoned itself as a parliamentary republic rather than a presidential republic at the time, the president's post was almost entirely ceremonial, and the real power continued to be vested in Rhodesia's Prime Minister, Ian Smith. Two individuals held the office of president, while two others served as acting presidents. All were white people of British descent. As with Rhodesia itself, the position lacked international recognition for the entire period.Prime Minister's Residence, Yerevan
The Residence of the Prime Minister of Armenia (Armenian: Հայաստանի Հանրապետության վարչապետի նստավայր; Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun Varchapeti Nstavayr) is located on Baghramyan Avenue 26, Yerevan. It was designed by Mark Grigoryan as the premises for the Council of Ministers of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic and completed in 1951. The building has served as the residence of the president of Armenia from 11 November 1991 until 9 April 2018, when Armenia was officially turned into parliamentary republic, and the building became the official residence of the prime minister. The President's Residence was moved to Mashtots Avenue. On 8 November 2018, the Armenian government approved an initiative to relocate the Prime Minister's Residence to Government House 1 and move the President's Resident back to Baghramyan Avenue 26. Since 2018, the Honour Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defense of Armenia has performed guard duty at the residence.Religion in Mongolia
Religion in Mongolia has been traditionally dominated by the schools of Mongolian Buddhism and by Mongolian shamanism, the ethnic religion of the Mongols. Historically, through their Mongol Empire the Mongols were exposed to the influences of Christianity (Nestorianism and Catholicism) and Islam, although these religions never came to dominate. During the socialist period of the Mongolian People's Republic (1924-1992) all religions were suppressed, but with the transition to the parliamentary republic in the 1990s there has been a general revival of faiths.
According to the national census of 2010, 53% of the Mongolians identify as Buddhists, 38.6% as not religious, 3% as Muslims (predominantly of Kazakh ethnicity), 2.9% as followers of the Mongol shamanic tradition, 2.2% as Christians, and 0.4% as followers of other religions. Other sources estimate that a significantly higher proportion of the population follows the Mongol ethnic religion (18.6%).Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government. As of May 2017, 31 out of the 53 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the monarch in the Commonwealth realms, is still the titular Head of the Commonwealth in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead, it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members.Except for the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda, they are all former British (or partly British) colonies or self-governing colonies that have evolved into republics. Most of them achieved independence while keeping the British monarch as their own individual head of state (in a form of personal union) and later became republics within the Commonwealth by abolishing the monarchy. In some instances, the countries became republics after achieving independence from other former British colonies (as Bangladesh did from Pakistan in 1971).Semi-presidential system
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of a state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state, who is more than a mostly ceremonial/non-executive (the powers, limitations differ in different parliamentary republics, that this type of president would have tended to be 'reserve'/emergency and non-partisan in nature), figurehead (a president in a dual executive system also has political powers), and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence.While the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) exemplified an early semi-presidential system, the term "semi-presidential" was introduced by a 1959 article by journalist Hubert Beuve-Méry and popularized by a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger, both of which intended to describe the French Fifth Republic (established in 1958).West Pakistan
West Pakistan (Urdu: مغربی پاکستان, Mag̱ẖribī Pākistān IPA: [məɣrɪbiː pɑːkɪstɑːn]; Bengali: পশ্চিম পাকিস্তান, Pôśchim Pākistān) was one of the two exclaves created at the formation of the modern State of Pakistan following the 1947 Partition of India.After gaining independence from the British in 1947, the State of Pakistan was physically separated into two exclaves, with the western and eastern wings separated from each other by the Republic of India. The western wing of Pakistan comprised three Governor's provinces (North-West Frontier, West-Punjab and Sindh Province), one Chief Commissioner's province (Baluchistan Province), and the Baluchistan States Union along with several other independent princely states (notably Bahawalpur, Chitral, Dir, Hunza, Khairpur and Swat), the Federal Capital Territory around Karachi, and the tribal areas. The eastern wing of the new country – East Pakistan – formed the single province of East Bengal (including the former Assam district of Sylhet).
West Pakistan was politically dominant despite East Pakistan having over half of the population and a disproportionately small number of seats in the Constituent Assembly. This inequality of the two wings and the geographical distance between them were believed to be delaying the adoption of a new constitution. To diminish the differences between the two regions, the government decided to reorganise the country into two distinct provinces under the One Unit policy announced by Prime Minister Chaudhry Muhammad Ali on 22 November 1954.
In 1970, President General Yahya Khan enacted a series of territorial, constitutional and military reforms. These established the provincial assemblies, state parliament, and the current provisional borders of Pakistan's four provinces. On 1 July 1970, West Pakistan was devolved and renamed "Pakistan" under Legal Framework Order No. 1970, which dissolved the "One Unit" and removed the term "West", simply establishing the country as Pakistan. The order had no effect on East Pakistan, which retained the geographical position established in 1955. The next year's civil war, however, resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.