Parkway

A parkway is a landscaped thoroughfare.[1] The term is particularly used for a roadway in a park or connecting to a park from which trucks and other heavy vehicles are excluded.[1]

Over the years, many different types of roads have been labeled parkways. The term may be used to describe city streets as narrow as 2 lanes with a landscaped median, wide landscaped setbacks, or both.

The term has also been applied to scenic highways and to limited-access roads more generally. Many parkways originally intended for scenic, recreational driving have evolved into major urban and commuter routes.

Harden PWY
Harden Parkway in Salinas, California

United States

Eastern Pkwy west of New York Ave
Brooklyn's Eastern Parkway, the world's first parkway, according to the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

Scenic roads

The first parkways in the United States were developed during the late 19th century by landscape architects Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux as roads that separated pedestrians, bicyclists, equestrians, and horse carriages, such as the Eastern Parkway, which is credited as the world's first parkway,[2] and Ocean Parkway in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The terminology "parkway" to define this type of road was coined by Calvert Vaux and Frederick Law Olmsted in their proposal to link city and suburban parks with "pleasure roads".

Parkway Congestion 02
Heavy traffic on the Garden State Parkway in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in the New York Metropolitan Area, United States. This is one of the world's busiest roadways.

In Buffalo, New York, Olmsted and Vaux used parkways with landscaped medians and setbacks to create the first interconnected park and parkway system in the United States.[3] Bidwell Parkway and Chapin Parkway are 200 foot wide city streets with only one lane for cars in each direction and broad landscaped medians that provide a pleasant, shaded route to the park and serve as mini-parks within the neighborhood.[4]

Other parkways, such as Park Presidio Boulevard in San Francisco, California[5], were designed to serve larger volumes of traffic.

During the early 20th century, the meaning of the word was expanded to include limited-access highways designed for recreational driving of automobiles, with landscaping. These parkways originally provided scenic routes without very slow or commercial vehicles, at grade intersections, or pedestrian traffic. Examples are the Merritt Parkway in Connecticut and the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway in New York. But their success led to more development, expanding a city's boundaries, eventually limiting the parkway's recreational driving use. The Arroyo Seco Parkway between Downtown Los Angeles and Pasadena, California is an example of lost pastoral aesthetics. It and others have become major commuting routes, while retaining the name "parkway".

Early high speed roads

In New York City, construction on the Long Island Motor Parkway (Vanderbilt Parkway) began in 1906 and planning for the Bronx River Parkway in 1907. In the 1920s, the New York City Metropolitan Area's parkway system grew under the direction of Robert Moses, the president of the New York State Council of Parks and Long Island State Park Commission, who used parkways to create and access state parks, especially for city dwellers. As Commissioner of New York City Parks under Mayor LaGuardia, he extended the parkways to the heart of the city, creating and linking its parks to the greater metropolitan systems.

Most of the New York metropolitan parkways were designed by Gilmore Clark. The famed "Gateway to New England" Merritt Parkway in Connecticut was designed in the 1930s as a pleasurable alternative for affluent locals to the congested Boston Post Road, running through forest with each bridge designed uniquely to enhance the scenery. Another example is the Sprain Brook Parkway from The Bronx to become the Taconic State Parkway to Chatham, New York. Landscape architect George Kessler designed extensive parkway systems for Kansas City, Missouri; Memphis, Tennessee; Indianapolis; and other cities at the beginning of the 20th century.

New Deal roads

In the 1930s, as part of the New Deal the U.S. federal government constructed National Parkways designed for recreational driving and to commemorate historic trails and routes. These divided four-lane parkways have lower speed limits and are maintained by the National Park Service. An example is the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) built Blue Ridge Parkway in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina and Virginia.

Others are: Skyline Drive in Virginia; the Natchez Trace Parkway in Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee; and the Colonial Parkway in eastern Virginia's Historic Triangle area.[6] The George Washington Memorial Parkway and the Clara Barton Parkway, running along the Potomac River near Washington, D.C. and Alexandria, Virginia, were also constructed during this era.

Post-war parkways

Valley Stream NY and parkways
Aerial view of Valley Stream (foreground) and more of Nassau County, New York, including the Belt Parkway (left), Southern State Parkway (right), and Cross Island Parkway (center rear)

In Kentucky the term "parkway" designates a controlled-access highway in the Kentucky Parkway system, with nine built in the 1960s and 1970s. They were toll roads until the construction bonds were repaid, and are now freeways since 2006.

The Arroyo Seco Parkway from Pasadena to Los Angeles, built in 1940, was the first segment of the vast Southern California freeway system. It became part of State Route 110 and was renamed the Pasadena Freeway. A 2010 restoration of the freeway brought the Arroyo Seco Parkway designation back.

Truckersuseexpwysnotpkwys
Sign informing truckers that it is illegal for their vehicles to use a parkway in New York City.

In the New York metropolitan area, contemporary parkways are predominantly controlled-access highways restricted to non-commercial traffic, excluding trucks and tractor-trailers. Some have low overpasses that also exclude buses. The Vanderbilt Parkway, an exception in western Suffolk County, is a surviving remnant of the Long Island Motor Parkway that became a surface street, no longer with controlled-access or non-commercial vehicle restrictions. The Palisades Interstate Parkway is a post-war parkway that starts at the George Washington Bridge, heads north through New Jersey, continuing through Rockland and Orange counties in New York. The Palisades Parkway was built to allow for a direct route from New York City to Harriman State Park.

In New Jersey, the Garden State Parkway, connecting the urban Northeast U.S. with the Jersey Shore and Atlantic City, is restricted to buses and non-commercial traffic north of the Route 18 interchange but is one of the busiest toll roads in the country.[7]

In the Pittsburgh region, two of the major Interstates are referred to informally as parkways. The Parkway East (I-376, formally the Penn-Lincoln Parkway) connects Downtown Pittsburgh to Monroeville, Pennsylvania. The Parkway West (I-376) runs through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and links Downtown to Pittsburgh International Airport, southbound I-79, Imperial, Pennsylvania, and westbound US 22/US 30. The Parkway North (I-279) connects Downtown to Franklin Park, Pennsylvania and northbound I-79.

In the suburbs of Philadelphia, U.S. Route 202 follows an at-grade parkway alignment known as the "U.S. Route 202 Parkway" between Montgomeryville and Doylestown. The parkway varies from two to four lanes in width, has 5-foot-wide (1.5 m) shoulders, a 12-foot-wide (3.7 m) walking path called the US 202 Parkway Trail on the side, and a 40 mph (64 km/h) speed limit. The parkway opened in 2012 as a bypass of a section of US 202 between the two towns; it had originally been proposed as a four-lane freeway before funding for the road was cut.[8][9][10]

In Minneapolis, the Grand Rounds Scenic Byway system has 50 miles (80 km) of streets designated as parkways. These are not freeways; they have a slow 25-mile-per-hour (40 km/h) speed limit, pedestrian crossings, and stop signs.[11][12]

In Cincinnati, parkways are major roads which trucks are prohibited from using. Some Cincinnati parkways, such as Columbia Parkway, are high-speed, limited-access roads, while others, such as Central Parkway, are multi-lane urban roads without controlled access. Columbia Parkway carries US-50 traffic from downtown towards east-side suburbs of Mariemont, Anderson, and Milford, and is a limited access road from downtown to the Village of Mariemont.

Canada

"Parkway" is used in the names of many Canadian roads, including major routes through national parks, scenic drives, major urban thoroughfares, and even regular freeways that carry commercial traffic.

Parkways in the National Capital Region are administered by the National Capital Region (Canada). However, some of them are named "drive" or "driveway".

The term in Canada is also applied to multi-use paths and greenways used by walkers and cyclists.[13][14]

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has parkways in many large towns and cities. Most examples are motorways or A roads. Some parkways including Chelmsford Parkway have flyovers leading to major roads.

Bristol (and other) park-and-ride railway stations

Luton Airport Parkway railway station
Luton Airport Parkway railway station

Several mainly park-and-ride-status railway stations in England have the suffix "parkway" in their name. The etymology is from the original U.S. meaning as the Bristol Parkway railway station was named after the adjacent M32 motorway, originally known as The Parkway because of its green-buffered route into the city. Bristol Parkway was the first railway station so named, in 1972. The majority of such stations were opened in the late 20th century to relieve pressure on existing city centre stations. Examples such as Didcot Parkway are renamings following the expansion of the car parking facilities where the name is used promotionally (for example commuters to Oxford are encouraged to leave their car at Didcot and travel to Oxford by train) whereas in others with multi-storey car parks serving modest settlements such as Brookwood and Fleet the suffix has not been adopted.

Luton Airport Parkway and Southampton Airport Parkway are examples serving Luton and Southampton airports. Some were so named as they are not in easy walking distance of an airport terminal; passengers use shuttle bus services, although Southampton Airport station is within easy walking distance of Southampton Airport and has no separate car parking facilities of its own.

Peterborough

The city and third-generation new town of Peterborough (population of 184,500 as at 2011 census) has an overall free-capacity system roads branded as "parkways", which together with other roads provide routes for much through traffic and local traffic sufficient to cope in most peak hours. The majority are dual carriageways, with many of their junctions numbered. Five main parkways (Soke Parkway, Nene Parkway, Fletton Parkway, Frank Perkins Parkway, Paston Parkway) form an orbital outer ring road. Orton Parkway, Werrington Parkway, Longthorpe Parkway are named after the settlements they serve. For example, Werrington Parkway is an arbitrary renaming of a short section of the A15 Lincoln Road.

Plymouth

In the City of Plymouth, the A38 is called "The Parkway" and bisects a rural belt of the local authority area, which coincides with the geographical centre; it has two junctions to enter the downtown part of the city.

Australia

Australian Capital Territory

The Australian Capital Territory uses the term "parkway" to refer to roadways of a standard approximately equivalent to what would be designated as an "expressway", "freeway", or "motorway" in other areas. Parkways generally have multiple lanes in each direction of travel, no intersections (crossroads are accessed by interchanges), high speed limits, and are of dual carriageway design (or have high crash barriers on the median).[15]

Victoria

Victoria uses the term "parkway" to sometimes refer to smaller local access roads that travel through parkland. Unlike other uses of the term, these parkways are not high-speed routes but may still have some degree of limited access.

Other countries

Singapore uses the term "parkway" as an alternative to "expressway". As such, parkways are also dual carriageways with high speed limits and interchanges. The East Coast Parkway is currently the only expressway in Singapore that uses this terminology.

In Russia, long, broad (multi-lane) and beautified thoroughfares are referred to as prospekts.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "parkway."Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Apr. 2007).
  2. ^ http://www.nycgovparks.org/about/history/historical-signs/listings?id=196
  3. ^ "Olmsted's Buffalo Park System and Its Stewards | Frederick Law Olmsted | PBS". Olmsted's Buffalo Park System and Its Stewards | Frederick Law Olmsted | PBS. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
  4. ^ "Your Parkways | Caring for 850 acres of Buffalo's Olmsted Park System". Buffalo Olmsted Parks. Retrieved 2019-07-10.
  5. ^ Alexander, Jeanne. "History of Park Presidio Boulevard".
  6. ^ Thornton, Tim; Howell, Isak. "Parkway's Past Haunts Its Future". Archived from the original on October 9, 2012.
  7. ^ "Title 16. Department of Transportation; Chapter 32. Truck Access" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
  8. ^ Mucha, Peter (December 3, 2012). "New Route 202 parkway opens today". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
  9. ^ Savana, Freda R. (March 2, 2008). "Make way for the 202 Parkway". The Intelligencer.
  10. ^ Kristofic, Christina (November 1, 2007). "PennDOT to hold meetings on noise from parkway". The Intelligencer.
  11. ^ "Information Center: About the Grand Rounds". Archived from the original on 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
  12. ^ "Second Ward, Minneapolis: Traffic Calming Event". Retrieved 2007-12-18.
  13. ^ BC Parkway, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  14. ^ Welland Canals Parkway Trail, Canada
  15. ^ EPBC Referral - Majura Parkway to DEWHA (Revision 1), SMEC, Page 9, 19 August 2009

External links

Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center station

Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center (formerly Atlantic Avenue/Pacific Street) is a New York City Subway station complex shared by the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, the BMT Brighton Line and the IRT Eastern Parkway Line, located at Atlantic, Fourth, and Flatbush Avenues and Pacific Street in Downtown Brooklyn. The complex is served by the:

2, 4, D, N, Q and R trains at all times

3 train at all times except late nights

5 and B trains weekdays only except late nights

W train during rush hours only, with a few trips in the peak directionWith nine subway services, this station complex is second to the Times Square–42nd Street/Port Authority Bus Terminal station in offering the most transfers to other services.

As of 2017, it is the busiest subway station in Brooklyn, with 13,571,093 passengers, and is ranked 21st overall. The control house has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1980, while the station complex as a whole has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 2004, and is ADA-compliant.

Baltimore–Washington Parkway

The Baltimore–Washington Parkway (also referred to as the B–W Parkway) is a highway in the U.S. state of Maryland, running southwest from Baltimore to Washington, D.C. The road begins at an interchange with U.S. Route 50 (US 50) near Cheverly in Prince George's County at the D.C. border, and continues northeast as a parkway maintained by the National Park Service (NPS) to MD 175 near Fort Meade, serving many federal institutions. This portion of the parkway is dedicated to Gladys Noon Spellman, a representative of Maryland's 5th congressional district, and has the unsigned Maryland Route 295 (MD 295) designation. Commercial vehicles, including trucks, are prohibited within this stretch. This section is administered by the NPS's Greenbelt Park unit. After leaving park service boundaries the highway is maintained by the state and signed with the MD 295 designation. This section of the parkway passes near Baltimore–Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. Upon entering Baltimore, the Baltimore Department of Transportation takes over maintenance of the road and it continues north to an interchange with Interstate 95 (I-95). Here, the Baltimore–Washington Parkway ends and MD 295 continues north unsigned on Russell Street, which carries the route north into downtown Baltimore. In downtown Baltimore, MD 295 follows Paca Street northbound and Greene Street southbound before ending at US 40.

Plans for a parkway linking Baltimore and Washington date back to Pierre Charles L'Enfant's original layout for Washington D.C. in the 18th century but did not fully develop until the 1920s. Major reasons surrounding the need for a parkway included high accident rates on adjacent US 1 and defense purposes before World War II. In the mid-1940s, plans for the design of the parkway were finalized and construction began in 1947 for the state-maintained portion and in 1950 for the NPS-maintained segment. The entire parkway opened to traffic in stages between 1950 and 1954. Following the completion of the B–W Parkway, suburban growth took place in both Washington and Baltimore. In the 1960s and the 1970s, there were plans to give the segment of the parkway owned by the NPS to the state and make it a part of I-295 and possibly I-95; however, they never came through and the entire road is today designated as MD 295, despite only being signed on the state portion. Between the 1980s and the 2000s, the NPS portion of the road was modernized. MD 295 is in the process of being widened from four to six lanes, with more widening and a new interchange along this segment planned for the future.

Blue Ridge Parkway

The Blue Ridge Parkway is a National Parkway and All-American Road in the United States, noted for its scenic beauty. The parkway, which is America's longest linear park, runs for 469 miles (755 km) through 29 Virginia and North Carolina counties, linking Shenandoah National Park to Great Smoky Mountains National Park. It runs mostly along the spine of the Blue Ridge, a major mountain chain that is part of the Appalachian Mountains. Its southern terminus is at U.S. 441 on the boundary between Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Cherokee Indian Reservation in North Carolina, from which it travels north to Shenandoah National Park in Virginia. The roadway continues through Shenandoah as Skyline Drive, a similar scenic road which is managed by a different National Park Service unit. Both Skyline Drive and the Virginia portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway are part of Virginia State Route 48, though this designation is not signed.

The parkway has been the most visited unit of the National Park System every year since 1946 except three (1949, 2013, and 2016). Land on either side of the road is owned and maintained by the National Park Service, and in many places parkway land is bordered by United States Forest Service property. The parkway was on North Carolina's version of the America the Beautiful quarter in 2015.

Bristol Parkway railway station

Bristol Parkway railway station, on the South Wales Main Line, is in the Stoke Gifford area in the northern suburbs of the Bristol conurbation. It is 112 miles (180 km) from London Paddington. Its three-letter station code is BPW. The station was opened in 1972 by British Rail, and was the first in a new generation of park and ride stations. It is the third-most heavily used station in the West of England, after Bristol Temple Meads and Bath Spa. There are four platforms, and a well-equipped waiting area. The station is managed by Great Western Railway, who provide most of the trains at the station, with CrossCountry providing the rest.

Electrification using the 25kV AC overhead system reached Bristol Parkway in late 2018, and electric trains in the Swindon and London direction commenced passenger service on 30th December 2018. This is part of the planned modernisation of the Great Western Main Line.

Don Valley Parkway

The Don Valley Parkway (DVP) is a municipal expressway in the Canadian city of Toronto, Ontario, which connects the Gardiner Expressway in downtown Toronto with Highway 401. North of Highway 401, it continues as Highway 404. The parkway runs through the parklands of the Don River Valley, after which it is named. It has a maximum speed limit of 90 km/h (56 mph) for its entire length of 15.0 km (9.3 mi). It is six lanes for most of its length but it is eight lanes north of York Mills and four lanes south of Eastern. As a municipal road, it is patrolled by the Toronto Police Service.

The parkway was the second expressway to be built by Metropolitan Toronto (Metro). Planning began in 1954, the year of Metro's formation. The first section opened during 1961 and the entire route was completed by the end of 1966. South of Bloor Street, the expressway was constructed over existing roadways. North of Bloor Street, it was built on a new alignment through the valley, requiring the removal of several hills, diversion of the Don River and the clearing of woodland. North of Eglinton Avenue, the expressway follows the former Woodbine Avenue right-of-way north to Highway 401.

Traffic conditions on the parkway often exceed its intended capacity of 60,000 vehicles per day. Today, some sections carry an average of 100,000 vehicles a day and have bumper-to-bumper traffic conditions during commuting hours. The parkway was planned to be one of two north-south expressways into downtown Toronto. The other was cancelled due to public opposition, leaving the DVP as the sole north-south expressway into downtown. The parkway is also used by regional transit buses which can access designated lanes to pass slow-moving traffic.

Garden State Parkway

The Garden State Parkway (GSP), known colloquially as "the Parkway", is a 172.4-mile (277.5 km) limited-access toll road that stretches the length of New Jersey from the state's southernmost tip at Cape May to the New York line at Montvale. Its name refers to New Jersey's nickname, the "Garden State". The parkway's official, but unsigned, designation is Route 444. At its north end, the road becomes the Garden State Parkway Connector, a component of the New York State Thruway system that connects to the Thruway mainline in Ramapo. The parkway is primarily for passenger vehicle use; trucks weighing over 10,000 pounds (4,500 kg) are prohibited north of exit 105. It has been ranked as the busiest toll highway in the country based on the number of toll transactions. At approximately 172 miles, the parkway is the longest highway in the state.

George Washington Memorial Parkway

The George Washington Memorial Parkway, colloquially the G.W. Parkway, is a 25-mile-long (40 km) parkway that runs along the south bank of the Potomac River from Mount Vernon, Virginia, northwest to McLean, Virginia, and is maintained by the National Park Service (NPS). It is located almost entirely within Virginia, except for a short portion of the parkway northwest of the Arlington Memorial Bridge that passes over Columbia Island within the District of Columbia.

The parkway is separated into two sections joined by Washington Street (State Route 400) in Alexandria. A third section, which is the Clara Barton Parkway, runs on the opposite side of the Potomac River in the District of Columbia and suburban Montgomery County, Maryland. A fourth section was originally proposed for Fort Washington, Maryland, but never built. The parkway has been designated an All-American Road.

Virginia's official state designation for the parkway is State Route 90005.

Gloucestershire Parkway railway station

Gloucestershire Parkway railway station is or was a proposed development in transport infrastructure for a semi-greenfield site surrounded by warehouse and light industry units 1.4 miles (2.3 km) east of Gloucester city centre (including its main railway station) which is on a major east-west spur line off of the greater north-south Birmingham-to-Bristol line on which this station would be built. The proposed site is specifically by an intra-city (urban) part of the inceptive A40 road in an area known as Elmbridge Court, Gloucester, England, UK.

Googleplex

The Googleplex is the corporate headquarters complex of Google and its parent company Alphabet Inc. It is located at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in Mountain View, California, United States.

The original complex, with 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of office space, is the company's second largest square footage assemblage of Google buildings, after Google's 111 Eighth Avenue building in New York City, which the company bought in 2010.

"Googleplex" is a portmanteau of Google and complex (meaning a complex of buildings) and a reference to googolplex, the name given to the large number 10(10100), or 10googol.

List of parkways and named highways in Kentucky

This is a list of parkways and named highways in Kentucky. Most parkways also carry an unsigned 9000-series designation.

Luton Airport Parkway railway station

Luton Airport Parkway railway station is on the Midland Main Line in England, serving south Luton and Luton Airport in Bedfordshire. It is situated in Park Town, Luton, and is 29 miles 19 chains (47.1 km) down the line from London St Pancras between Harpenden to the south and Luton to the north. Its three-letter station code is LTN, also the IATA code for the airport.

The station is served by Thameslink operated trains on the Thameslink route and by East Midlands Trains.

It is situated approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the airport, to which it is linked by a chargeable shuttle bus service.

Natchez Trace Parkway

The Natchez Trace Parkway (also known as the Natchez Trace or simply the Trace) is a National Parkway in the southeastern United States that commemorates the historic Old Natchez Trace and preserves sections of the original trail. Its central feature is a two-lane parkway road that extends 444 miles (715 km) from Natchez, Mississippi, to Nashville, Tennessee. Access to the parkway is limited, with more than fifty access points in the states of Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee. The southern end of the route is in Natchez at an intersection with Liberty Road, and the northern end is northeast of Fairview, Tennessee, in the suburban community of Pasquo, Tennessee, at an intersection with Tennessee State Route 100. In addition to Natchez and Nashville, the larger cities along the route include Jackson and Tupelo, Mississippi, and Florence, Alabama.The All-American Road is maintained by the National Park Service, to commemorate the original route of the Natchez Trace.

National Parkway

A National Parkway is a designation for a protected area in the United States. The designation is given to a scenic roadway and a protected corridor of surrounding parkland. National Parkways often connect cultural or historic sites. The U.S. National Park Service manages the parkways.

New York State Thruway

The New York State Thruway (officially the Governor Thomas E. Dewey Thruway and colloquially "the Thruway") is a system of controlled-access highways spanning 569.83 miles (917.05 km) within the U.S. state of New York. It is operated by the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), a New York State public-benefit corporation. The 496.00-mile (798.23 km) mainline is a toll road that extends from the New York City line at Yonkers to the Pennsylvania state line at Ripley by way of Albany, Syracuse, and Buffalo. According to the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association, the Thruway is the fifth busiest toll road in the United States.A tolled highway connecting the major cities of New York was first proposed as early as the 1940s. The first section of the Thruway, between Utica and Rochester, opened on June 24, 1954. The remainder of the mainline and many of its spurs connecting to highways in other states and provinces were built in the 1950s. In 1957, much of the Thruway system was included as portions of Interstate 87 (I-87), I-90, and I-95. Other segments became part of I-190 and I-287 shortly afterward. Today, the system comprises six highways: the New York–Ripley mainline, the Berkshire Connector, the Garden State Parkway Connector, the New England Thruway (I-95), the Niagara Thruway (I-190), and the Cross-Westchester Expressway (I-287). The portion of I-84 in New York was part of the Thruway system from 1991 to 2010.

The Thruway utilizes a combination of closed (ticket-based), and all-electronic (open road) tolling. Tickets are used on the Thruway mainline between Harriman and Williamsville and from Lackawanna to the Pennsylvania state line. The Berkshire Connector also utilizes a ticket-based tolling system. The New England Thruway, the Niagara Thruway and the portion of the mainline south/east of Harriman use all-electronic tolling, with tolls paid using either E-ZPass or Tolls-By-Mail. The last two components—the Garden State Parkway Connector and the Cross-Westchester Expressway—and the section of the mainline in and around Buffalo are toll-free. A proposed transition to cashless tolls would eliminate all toll booths and their operators by 2020. The thruway is partly subsidized by the tolls, whereas other parts are subsidized by NYSDOT, a 50/50 for the toll-free areas, and cashless/tolled areas.

Ontario Highway 401

King's Highway 401, commonly referred to as Highway 401 and also known by its official name as the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway or colloquially as the four-oh-one,

is a controlled-access 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. It stretches 828 kilometres (514 mi) from Windsor in the west to the Ontario–Quebec border in the east. The part of Highway 401 that passes through Toronto is North America's busiest highway, and one of the widest.

Together with Quebec Autoroute 20, it forms the road transportation backbone of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along which over half of Canada's population resides and is also a Core Route in the National Highway System of Canada.

The route is maintained by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (MTO) and patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. The speed limit is 100 km/h (62 mph) throughout its length, with the only exceptions the posted 80 km/h (50 mph) limit westbound in Windsor and in most construction zones.

By the end of 1952, three individual highways were numbered "Highway 401": the partially completed Toronto Bypass between Weston Road and Highway 11 (Yonge Street); Highway 2A between West Hill and Newcastle; and the Scenic Highway between Gananoque and Brockville, now known as the Thousand Islands Parkway. These three sections of highway were 11.8, 54.7 and 41.2 km, (7.3, 34.0 and 25.6 mi), respectively. In 1964, the route became fully navigable from Windsor to the Ontario–Quebec border. In 1965 it was given a second designation, the Macdonald–Cartier Freeway, in honour of two Fathers of Confederation. At the end of 1968, the Gananoque–Brockville section was bypassed and the final intersection grade-separated near Kingston, making Highway 401 a freeway for its entire 817.9-km length. On August 24, 2007, the portion of the highway between Glen Miller Road in Trenton and the Don Valley Parkway / Highway 404 Junction in Toronto was designated the Highway of Heroes, as the road is travelled by funeral convoys for fallen Canadian Forces personnel from CFB Trenton to the coroner's office in Toronto. On September 27, 2013, the Highway of Heroes designation was extended west to Keele Street in Toronto, to coincide with the move of the coroner's office to the new Forensic Services and Coroner's Complex at the Humber River Hospital.

In 2011, construction began on a westward extension called the "Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway". This new route follows but does not replace, the former Highway 3 between the former end of the freeway and the E. C. Row Expressway, at which point it turns and parallels that route towards the site of the future Gordie Howe International Bridge. An 8-kilometre (5 mi) section of the parkway, east of the E. C. Row interchange, opened on June 28, 2015, with the remaining section completed and opened on November 21.

Elsewhere in Ontario, plans are underway to widen the remaining four-lane sections between Windsor and London to six lanes and to widen the route between Kitchener and Milton as well as through Oshawa. The expansive twelve-plus-lane collector–express system will also be extended west through Mississauga to Milton and east through Ajax and Whitby.

Parkway Drive

Parkway Drive are an Australian alternative metal band from Byron Bay, New South Wales, formed in 2003. As of 2018, Parkway Drive has released six full-length albums (Killing with a Smile, Horizons, Deep Blue, Atlas, Ire, and Reverence), one EP (Don't Close Your Eyes), two DVDs, a split album and one book, titled Ten Years of Parkway Drive. The band's latest four albums have reached the top 10 of the Australian ARIA Charts, with Ire reaching number 1 in October 2015, and Reverence in May 2018.

The band's line-up has been consistent since the addition of bassist Jia O'Connor in 2006, with Brett Versteeg having left in 2004 and Shaun Cash in 2006.

Parkway Pines, New Jersey

Parkway Pines is an unincorporated community located along the border of Howell Township in Monmouth County and Brick Township in Ocean County, in New Jersey, United States. The Howell area of this community is called Ramtown.

The enclave gets its name from its proximity to exit 91 of the Garden State Parkway (GSP). In the early years of the GSP, bedroom communities sprouted near exits, encouraging city dwellers to settle further south, in presumably quieter and safer surroundings, and commute to and from New York City each working day. Exit 91 exits the Parkway southbound and enters the Parkway northbound.

There are two main streets, Neil Avenue and Stephan Lane, connected by a series of short blocks: Barbara Lane, Skipper Lane and Lark Lane. Lanes Mill Road runs east to west across the bottom boundary of the community; the Pine Barrens form a natural boundary to the west; and Howell Township, in Monmouth County, sits just to the north.

There is a large park located between Lark Lane and Lanes Mill Road. This park contains a pavilion, two ballfields and a playground. There is parking on Neil Avenue and a path between houses from Lark Lane.

Homes were all of a similar design: single story, 3 bedrooms and one bathroom, with a kitchen, living room and laundry room. They were mostly built by U.S. Homes in the 1960s. The larger ranches in Parkway Pines had a family room. Some homes were offered with a garage which could alternately be converted to a sun room. The homes were quite small by modern standards, especially the bedrooms, which ranged from 8x10 to 12x14. Each home has a front and back yard, sufficient for children to play. Most homes have backyard fences, perhaps a relic of city life. Most of the original owners came from the cities of Northern New Jersey or one of the boroughs of New York City.

One difference between the Brick side (in Ocean County) and the Howell side (in Monmouth County) was the addition of cement "curbs" along the roads in Howell Township, whereas in Brick, the lawns met the road without a cement border. As the development expanded further into Howell, it was named "Shore Club" and the newer houses had cement sidewalks and planted trees along them.

Parkways in New York

The majority of parkways in the US state of New York are part of a statewide parkway system owned by several public and private agencies but mostly maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT). A handful of other roads in the Hudson Valley and on Long Island are also known as parkways but are not part of the state system. The state parkway system introduced the concept of limited-access roads. These highways were not divided and allowed no driveway cuts, but did have intersections for some of the streets they crossed. A small section of the privately financed Long Island Motor Parkway was the first limited-access road to begin operation as a toll road and the first highway to use bridges and overpasses to eliminate intersections.The individual parkways vary widely in composition. Some, such as the Sprain Brook Parkway, are functionally equivalent to a freeway; others, like Seven Lakes Drive, are a two-lane undivided surface road. The majority of parkways are located in downstate New York, where the state parkway system originated in the early 20th century.

Worcestershire Parkway Regional Interchange

Worcestershire Parkway Regional Interchange is a new railway station currently being built at a rural junction where the Cotswold and Cross Country lines cross near Norton, Worcester, England. It is expected to open in 2019.

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