Parks Canada

Parks Canada (French: Parcs Canada), officially called the Parks Canada Agency[1] (French: Agence Parcs Canada), is an agency of the Government of Canada run by a chief executive who answers to the Minister of the Environment. Parks Canada is mandated to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada's natural and cultural heritage, and foster public understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations.[2] Parks Canada manages 38 National Parks, three National Marine Conservation Areas, 171 National Historic Sites, one National Urban Park, and one National Landmark. The agency also administers lands and waters set aside as potential national parklands, including eight National Park Reserves and one National Marine Conservation Area Reserve. More than 450,000 km2 (170,000 sq mi) of lands and waters in national parks and national marine conservation areas has been set aside for such purposes.[3] The Canadian Register of Historic Places is supported and managed by Parks Canada, in collaboration with provincial and territorial governments and other federal bodies. The agency is also the working arm of the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which recommends National Historic Sites, Events, and Persons.

Parks Canada
Parcs Canada
Parks Canada logo
Agency overview
Formed19 May 1911
JurisdictionGovernment of Canada
HeadquartersGatineau, Quebec, Canada
Employees4,000
Annual budget$500 million
Minister responsible
Agency executive
  • Daniel Watson, Chief Executive Officer
Websitewww.pc.gc.ca

History

Parks Canada was established on May 19, 1911, as the Dominion Parks Branch under the Department of the Interior, becoming the world's first national park service.[4] Since its creation, its name has changed, known variously as the Dominion Parks Branch, National Parks Branch, Parks Canada, Environment Canada - Parks Branch, and the Canadian Parks Service, before a return to Parks Canada in 1998. The service's activities are regulated under the provisions of the Canada National Parks Act, which was enacted in 1930, and amended in 2000.

To mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation in 2017, Parks Canada offered free passes[5] to national parks and national historic sites for the year.

Organization

The Parks Canada Agency was established as a separate service entity in 1998, and falls under the responsibility of Environment Canada. Before 2003, Parks Canada (under various names) fell under the jurisdiction of the Department of Canadian Heritage, where it had been since 1994. From 1979 to 1994, Parks Canada was part of the Department of Environment, and before it was part of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs (1966 to 1978), and the Department of the Interior.[6] With the organizational shifts and political leadership in Canada, the priorities of Parks Canada have shifted over the years more towards conservation and away from development.[6] Starting in the 1960s, Parks Canada has also moved to decentralize its operations.[6]

Parks Canada is currently headed by Daniel Watson, who was appointed in August 2015, following the retirement of Alan Latourelle, who had been reappointed on August 7, 2007[7][8] As of 2004, the annual budget for Parks Canada is approximately $500 million, and the agency has 4,000 employees.[9]

Name[10] Term
Daniel Watson 2015–2018
Alan Latourelle 2002–2015
Tom Lee 1993-2002
A. Lefebvre-Anglin 1990-1993
J. D. Collinson 1985-1990
Al Davidson 1978-1985
Jack Nicol 1968-1978
J. K. B. Coleman 1957-1968
J. A. Hutchison 1953-1957
James Smart 1941-1953
Frank Williamson 1936-1941
J. B. Harkin 1911-1936

Legislation, Regulations and Boards

The Department of Canadian Heritage, which runs federal Museums and more cultural affairs, falls under the control of the Minister of Heritage.

Enforcement

Parks-Canada-PO

Parks Canada employs Park Wardens to protect natural and cultural resources, conduct campground patrols and other targeted enforcement activities, and to ensure the safety of visitors in national parks and marine conservation areas.[16] They are designated under section 18 of the Canada National Parks Act and have the authority of peace officers. They carry firearms and have access to other use of force options.[17]

The Minister may also designate provincial and local enforcement officers under section 19 of the Act for the purpose of enforcing laws within the specified parks. These officers have the power of peace officers only in relation to the Act.

In May 2012, it was reported that Park Wardens may be cross designated to enforce certain wildlife acts administered by Environment Canada. Should the designations go ahead it would only be for Park Wardens that are stationed near existing migratory bird sanctuaries.[18]

Essentially the intent of the change is to allow for a faster and lower-cost response to environmental enforcement incidents, particularly in remote areas in the north where Environment Canada does not have an ongoing presence, but Parks Canada has a park warden nearby who could act on its behalf, rather than have Environment Canada responded from a farther office.[19]

Parka

Parka, a female beaver, is Parks Canada's mascot.[20] A series of animated shorts starring her are hosted on the organization's website and have also been aired on television as interstitials.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Parks Canada Agency Act". Government of Canada – Justice Laws. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  2. ^ Parks Canada Agency, Government of Canada (2018-01-04). "The Parks Canada Mandate and Charter". www.pc.gc.ca. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  3. ^ "Parks Canada celebrates 100 years of world-class conservation and further protects historic gr". wwf.ca. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  4. ^ Irish, Paul (May 13, 2011). "Parks Canada celebrates a century of discovery". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
  5. ^ "Free Parks Canada passes costing $5.7 million". globalnews.ca. Archived from the original on January 8, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  6. ^ a b c Hildebrandt, Walter (1995). "Historical Analysis of Parks Canada and Banff National Park, 1968–1995". Banff-Bow Valley Study.
  7. ^ "Prime Minister announces changes in the senior ranks of the Public Service". Office of the Prime Minister. May 15, 2007. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  8. ^ "CEO's Message". Parks Canada. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
  9. ^ "Parks Canada Agency Annual Report, 2003–2004". Parks Canada. Archived from the original on May 9, 2006. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
  10. ^ "Leaders of Parks Canada". Parks Canada History. 23 January 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
  11. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Parks Canada Agency Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  12. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Heritage Lighthouse Protection Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  13. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Historic Sites and Monuments Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  14. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Heritage Railway Stations Protection Act". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  15. ^ Branch, Legislative Services. "Consolidated federal laws of canada, Historic Canals Regulations". laws-lois.justice.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 14, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  16. ^ Jobs at Parks Canada Archived June 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ National park wardens to get sidearms in 2009 Archived June 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "Wardens may extend expertise outside parks - Local News - Rocky Mountain Outlook". Archived from the original on May 18, 2014.
  19. ^ "Finance Committee on May 17th, 2012 - openparliament.ca". openparliament.ca. Archived from the original on August 19, 2015. Retrieved April 30, 2018.
  20. ^ Canada, Parks Canada Agency, Government of. "Parka, our mascot". www.pc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on January 2, 2018. Retrieved April 30, 2018.

Bibliography

External links

Coordinates: 45°25′32″N 75°43′14″W / 45.425503°N 75.720423°W

Banff National Park

Banff National Park (French: Parc national Banff) is Canada's oldest national park and was established in 1885. Located in the Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometres (68–112 mi) west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi) of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. The Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park in the north. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. The main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley.

The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff's early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, and attracting tourists through extensive advertising. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees from World War I, and through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s. Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway. As Banff has over three million visitors annually, the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, and new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity.

Banff National Park has a subarctic climate with three ecoregions, including montane, subalpine, and alpine. The forests are dominated by Lodgepole pine at lower elevations and Engelmann spruce in higher ones below the treeline, above which is primarily rocks and ice. Mammal species such as the grizzly bear, cougar, wolverine, elk, bighorn sheep and moose are found, along with hundreds of bird species. Reptiles and amphibians are also found but only a limited number of species have been recorded. The mountains are formed from sedimentary rocks which were pushed east over newer rock strata, between 80 and 55 million years ago. Over the past few million years, glaciers have at times covered most of the park, but today are found only on the mountain slopes though they include the Columbia Icefield, the largest uninterrupted glacial mass in the Rockies. Erosion from water and ice have carved the mountains into their current shapes.

Banff Park Museum

The Banff Park Museum National Historic Site, located in downtown Banff, Alberta, is an exhibition space associated with Banff National Park. The museum was established in 1895 to house an exhibit of taxidermy mounted specimens of animals, plants and minerals associated with the park. The museum building, constructed in 1903 to the design of territorial government engineer John Stocks, is an early example of the rustic style of architecture that was becoming popular in the parks of North America.

In 1896 Norman Bethune Sanson was hired as the museum curator. Serving until 1932, Sanson was responsible for expanding the collection from eight mammals, 259 birds, a turtle and a variety of mineral and botanical specimens to the present collection of 5000 specimens. The building, described as a "railway pagoda", uses exposed log framing and rustic detailing. It is the oldest building maintained by Parks Canada. The museum was declared a National Historic Site of Canada in 1985 and was classified as historic structure the following year.From 1905 to 1937 a small zoo operated on the grounds to the rear of the museum, featuring a small collection of animals, many of which were exotic or non-native. At its peak in 1914 there were 36 birds in an aviary and 50 mammals. The zoo declined in the 1930s, was closed in 1937, and was demolished in 1939. Forty-six animals were donated to the Calgary Zoo at the Banff Zoo's closing, including wolves, lynx, and black, cinnamon and polar bears.

Elk Island National Park

Elk Island National Park (French: parc national Elk Island) is a national park in Canada that played an important part in the conservation of the American bison. The park is administered by the Parks Canada Agency. This "island of conservation" is located 35 km east of Edmonton, Alberta along the Yellowhead Highway, which goes through the park. It is Canada's 8th smallest in area but largest fully enclosed national park, with an area of 194 square kilometres (75 sq mi).

The park is representative of the northern prairies plateau ecosystem and as such, the knob and kettle landscape is a mix of native fescue grassland, aspen parkland and boreal forest. As well, Elk Island plays host to both the largest and the smallest terrestrial mammals in North America, the wood bison and pygmy shrew respectively.

Fairholme Range

The Fairholme Range is a mountain range east of the Bow River valley in the Canadian Rockies. The range is bounded by the Trans-Canada Highway on the west side while the northern section of the range extends into Banff National Park to the southern shores of Lake Minnewanka. John Palliser named the range in 1859 after his sister Grace Fairholme, who had married William Fairholme.Peaks of this range include:

In the spring and summer of 2003, Parks Canada performed a prescribed burn in selected areas of the range in order to reduce fire hazard, manage pine beetle population and increase sheep habitat. In total, 5300 hectares of land were affected.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Alberta

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Alberta. As of March 2018, there are 61 National Historic Sites designated in Alberta, 15 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first three sites in Alberta were designated in 1923: the site of rival trading posts Fort Augustus and Fort Edmonton, the site of the Frog Lake Massacre and the site of the first outpost of the North-West Mounted Police in Western Canada at Fort Macleod.Numerous National Historic Events also occurred across Alberta, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way.

This list uses names designated by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. There are 46 National Historic Sites designated in Newfoundland and Labrador, 10 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Sites to be designated in the province were Fort Amherst, Fort Townshend and Signal Hill in 1951.The Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial, a National Historic Site commemorating Dominion of Newfoundland forces killed during World War I, is located in France.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred across Newfoundland & Labrador, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Nunavut

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the territory of Nunavut. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in Nunavut, one of which is in the national park system, administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ).Related to the Sites, National Historic Events also occurred in Nunavut, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Prince Edward Island

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Prince Edward Island. There are 22 National Historic Sites designated in Prince Edward Island, five of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Site to be designated in Prince Edward Island was Jean-Pierre Roma at Three Rivers in 1933.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in P.E.I., and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Quebec

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Quebec. As of March 2018, there are 197 National Historic Sites designated in Quebec, 30 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). Sites in the province's two largest cities are listed separately at List of National Historic Sites in Montreal and List of National Historic Sites in Quebec City.

Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Quebec, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Saskatchewan

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the province of Saskatchewan. There are 47 National Historic Sites designated in Saskatchewan, 10 of which are administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ).Numerous National Historic Events also occurred in Saskatchewan, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated throughout the province in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given. The Rideau Canal is a Site, for example, while the Welland Canal is an Event. The cairn and plaque to John Macdonell does not refer to a National Historic Person, but is erected because his home, Glengarry House, is a National Historic Site. Similarly, the plaque to John Guy officially marks not a Person, but an Event—the Landing of John Guy.This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in Yukon

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux) in the territory of Yukon. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in Yukon, five of which are in the national park system, administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). Several National Historic Events also occurred in Yukon, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Historic Sites of Canada in the Northwest Territories

This is a list of National Historic Sites (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) in the territory of Northwest Territories. There are 12 National Historic Sites designated in the Northwest Territories, of which one (Sahoyúé-§ehdacho) is administered by Parks Canada (identified below by the beaver icon ). The first National Historic Site to be designated in the Northwest Territories was Parry's Rock Wintering Site in 1930.

A number of National Historic Events also occurred in the Northwest Territories, and are identified at places associated with them, using the same style of federal plaque which marks National Historic Sites. Several National Historic Persons are commemorated in the same way. The markers do not indicate which designation—a Site, Event, or Person—a subject has been given.

This list uses names designated by the national Historic Sites and Monuments Board, which may differ from other names for these sites.

List of National Parks of Canada

Canada's National Parks are protected areas under the Canada National Parks Act, owned by the Government of Canada and administered for the benefit, education, and enjoyment of the people of Canada and its future generations. National parks are administered by Parks Canada, a Crown agency operating under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. The goal of the national parks system is to set aside lands representing the country's 39 distinct natural regions described in the National Parks System Plan, primarily to protect the ecological integrity of the land, and secondarily to allow the public to explore, learn about and enjoy Canada's natural spaces.Canada's first national park was created in 1885 through an Order-in-Council to reserve 26 km2 (10 sq mi) over the Cave and Basin Hot Springs to prevent the land from being sold for private development despite claims being made for it. Modeled after the American experience with Yellowstone National Park, the Rocky Mountains Park Act, adopted in 1887, established the Rocky Mountains Park (now Banff National Park). The idea of a national park was popular and led to numerous proposals for the Ministry of the Interior to consider, including additional sites along the Canadian Pacific Railway (e.g. Yoho and Glacier and an expansion of Banff) and the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (e.g. Jasper). In 1911 the Rocky Mountains Park Act was replaced by the Dominion Forest Reserves and Parks Act which created the world's first national parks service, the Dominion Parks Branch, to administer national parks in Canada. These early national parks, including those established under the leadership of JB Harkin who was the first commissioner of the Dominion Parks Branch, were set aside to reserve lands principally for tourism and conservation but also had an exclusionary policy prohibiting First Nations peoples from using their traditional lands within the new parks. In 1922, Wood Buffalo National Park was the first to allow traditional indigenous activities to continue. In 1972, Parks Canada defined National Park Reserves, lands administered by the agency intended to become National Parks pending settlement of indigenous land rights and agreements for continued traditional use of the lands.As of 2018 there are 39 National Parks and eight National Park Reserves, covering an area of approximately 328,198 km2 (126,718 sq mi), or about 3.3% of the total land area of Canada, and representing 30 of the 39 natural regions. There is at least one park located in every one of the nation's 13 provinces and territories. Parks Canada reported attendance of 15,449,249 at all National Parks and Reserves in 2016–17, including over four million visits to the busiest park (Banff) and only two persons at the least-visited park (Tuktut Nogait). Parks Canada additionally manages three National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCAs), a single NMCA Reserve, and the country's lone National Landmark. The Canada National Parks Act also allows for recognition of National Historic Sites that commemorate events, landmarks, or objects of national importance, and which may include similar levels of protection and administration as national parks. Feasibility studies are underway to establish further national parks in unrepresented regions.

National Historic Sites of Canada

National Historic Sites of Canada (French: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC), as being of national historic significance. Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program. As of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites, 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada; the remainder are administered or owned by other levels of government or private entities. The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France (the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial and Canadian National Vimy Memorial).There are related federal designations for National Historic Events and National Historic Persons. Sites, Events and Persons are each typically marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given. The Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site, while the Welland Canal is a National Historic Event.

National Parks of Canada

National Parks of Canada are protected natural spaces throughout the country that represent distinct geographical regions of the nation. Under the administration of Parks Canada, a government branch, National Parks allow for public enjoyment without compromising the area for future generations, including the management of wildlife and habitat within the ecosystems of the park. Within Parks Canada's administration is a wide range of protected areas, encompassing National Historic Sites, National Marine Conservation Areas (NMCA), and National Park Reserves.

Canada's first national park, located in Banff, was established in 1885. Tourism and commercialization dominated early park development, followed closely by resource extraction. Commodifying the parks for the profit of Canada's national economy as well as conserving the natural areas for public and future use became an integrated method of park creation. The process of establishing National Parks has included the often forced displacement of indigenous and non-indigenous residents of areas within the proposed park boundaries. The conflicts between the creation of parks and the residents of the area have been negotiated through co-management practices, as Parks Canada acknowledged the importance of community involvement in order to sustain a healthy ecosystem.

A transition towards developing parks as a place of preservation began with the National Parks Act of 1930. This event marked a shift in park management practices. Revised in 1979 under the National Parks Policy, the Act placed greater emphasis on preserving the natural areas in an unimpaired state through ecological integrity and restoration, moving away from development based heavily on profit. Acting as national symbols, Canada's National Parks exist in every province and territory representing a variety of landscapes that mark Canada's natural heritage.

National park

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas.While this type of national park had been proposed previously, the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not officially termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve (established in 1776), and the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain (1778) are seen as the oldest legally protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century. The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U.S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was consequently lost. As a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures.The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park.National parks are almost always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.

Rideau Canal

The Rideau Canal, also known unofficially as the Rideau Waterway, connects Canada's capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, to Lake Ontario and the Saint Lawrence River at Kingston, Ontario. It is 202 kilometres in length. The name Rideau, French for "curtain", is derived from the curtain-like appearance of the Rideau River's twin waterfalls where they join the Ottawa River. The canal system uses sections of two rivers, the Rideau and the Cataraqui, as well as several lakes. The Rideau Canal is operated by Parks Canada.

The canal was opened in 1832 as a precaution in case of war with the United States. It remains in use today primarily for pleasure boating, with most of its original structures intact, operated by Parks Canada. The locks on the system open for navigation in mid-May and close in mid-October. It is the oldest continuously operated canal system in North America, and in 2007 it was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Riding Mountain National Park

Riding Mountain National Park (French: Parc national du Mont-Riding) is a national park in Manitoba, Canada. The park sits atop the Manitoba Escarpment. Consisting of a protected area 2,969 km2 (1,146 sq mi), the forested parkland stands in sharp contrast to the surrounding prairie farmland. It was designated a national park because it protects three different ecosystems that converge in the area; grasslands, upland boreal and eastern deciduous forests. It is most easily reached by Highway 10 which passes through the park. The south entrance is at the townsite of Wasagaming, which is the only commercial centre within the park boundaries.

Rouge National Urban Park

Rouge National Urban Park is a national urban park in Ontario, Canada. Most of the park is located in Toronto's suburban district of Scarborough, while parts of the park are in the bordering cities of Markham and Pickering.

Since 2011, Parks Canada has been working to nationalize and nearly double the size of the original Rouge Park. Parks Canada is planning to add more trails, education and orientation centres and improved signage and interpretive panels and displays throughout the park. Parks Canada introduced new educational programs to the park, including Learn-to-Camp, Learn-to-Hike, fire side chats, and other complimentary programming. Once fully established, the park will span 79.1 square kilometres (30.5 sq mi). Parks Canada currently manages or has a direct interest in 62.9 square kilometres (24.3 sq mi) of this area.

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