A parking violation is the act of parking a motor vehicle in a restricted place or for parking in an unauthorized manner. It is against the law virtually everywhere to park a vehicle in the middle of a highway or road; parking on one or both sides of a road, however, is commonly permitted. However, restrictions apply to such parking, and may result in an offense being committed. Such offenses are usually cited by a police officer or other government official in the form of a traffic ticket.
Parking violations include, but are not limited to:
Fines or parking citations may result if any of the above criteria are met.
In 1926, American merchants listed downtown traffic congestion as their most serious difficulty. Unenforced curbside parking and lack of off-street parking facilities were listed as the primary problems. Customers went where they could park.
During the Great Depression, city revenues dwindled. With parking meters, however, a new source of municipal revenue was found. Not only did the nickels paid in by parkers accumulate, but so did the fines imposed for over parking. By 1944, American cities were generating some $10 million annually from parking meters alone. Soon after came meter maids, who, because they were paid less than police officers, increased city revenues further. Complex parking rules, restrictions and regulations are now an integral part of modern life and landscape.
Typically, a ticket is placed on a vehicle when the owner or driver is not present. There is no place for a signature, and in California, the registered owner cannot be charged with a misdemeanor or other criminal offense for ignoring a ticket. A letter will usually be sent prior to any punitive action. Most jurisdictions, however, will have sanctions such as refusal to allow renewal of license plates if the owner of the vehicle has unpaid parking tickets. In some jurisdictions, such as New York City, a vehicle may be towed if it has overdue parking fines exceeding a specified balance and subjected to impounded vehicle auction if unredeemed. In many jurisdictions, such as Boston, vehicles with numerous outstanding parking citations are subject to booting.
In Europe, parking tickets are also heavily used. In Sweden, parking violations on street are considered traffic crimes with a fine. If the fine is not objected or paid within a specified time, the Swedish Enforcement Administration will claim money from bank accounts or other assets, relatively fast. The owner will be noted as a bad payer, and will not get a loan or a new rental apartment etc. for three years. A parking violation on a parking place (not on the street) is considered a break of contract which results in a penalty fee with different rules. According to statistics from Stockholm the cars with the highest number of parking violations (weighted for number of cars) are Jeep, Mercedes-Benz, Porsche and Lexus. Mercedes owners were the worst for parking in handicap spaces. Professor Gunnar Aronsson at the department for psychology at Stockholm university believes this is due to the owners being well-off and thinking that their time is more important. According to Jan Prestberg at the traffic office in Stockholm the fines are low enough to be ignored by richer people. It is often hard to find parking spots in big cities. After wheel-locks were introduced in London, the prices for rented parking spots went up considerably.
Foreign-registered vehicles in Europe in reality can not be fined. This is partly because it is too much work to find the owner in a foreign country, but mainly because it is not legally possible to claim money from a foreign resident person if they don't pay voluntarily. The European Union is introducing legislation into all member countries to collect fines across borders. In some cities, like London, this has been solved by locking one wheel of an unlawfully parked vehicle. The driver has to pay to be able to drive.
In New Zealand, parking fines are mostly issued by council parking officers, but can also be issued by police officers. Parking tickets are mostly attached to an unattended vehicle, or they can be posted to the address of the registered owner. Posting tickets are commonly used by parking officers when the person concerned appears to be hostile or aggressive, so minimal contact can take place for safety reasons. Usually, the most common parking fines issued are those for parking over the time limit.
Parking fines were introduced in the 1950s in New South Wales, Australia. At that time, council rangers only worked in council car parks and parking fines on the streets, mainly in Sydney were issued by the NSW Parking Police. These were employees of the New South Wales Police Force. Up until about 1995, these fines were issued and processed by the NSW Police and the fines were processed by the traffic penalties section of the police. This section was mostly staffed by clerical staff employed by the police, however they were not members of the police force. If fines were unpaid, the courts could decide on a penalty, and if then unpaid, a warrant would be made out and a person could spend time in jail to cover the amount of the fine. Now the system is different with the State Debt Recovery Office handling the fines.
Possibly the first parking restrictions were put in place in Nineveh, the capital of ancient Assyria in c.700 BC. The restrictions are due to their king Sennacherib (704 to 681 BC) and pertained to the sacred main processional way through Nineveh. The oldest parking signs ever discovered read "Royal Road – let no man decrease it". The penalty for parking a chariot on this road was death followed by impaling outside one's own home.
The 1963 World Series matched the two-time defending champion New York Yankees against the Los Angeles Dodgers, with the Dodgers sweeping the Series in four games to capture their second title in five years, and their third in franchise history. Starting pitchers Sandy Koufax, Don Drysdale, and Johnny Podres, and ace reliever Ron Perranoski combined to give up only four runs in four games. The dominance of the Dodgers pitchers was so complete that at no point in any of the four games did the Yankees have the lead. New York was held to a .171 team batting average, the lowest ever for the Yankees in the post-season.
This was the first time that the Yankees were swept in a World Series in four staight (the 1922 World Series had one tie).
Of the Los Angeles Dodgers four World Series championships since the opening of Dodger Stadium, this was the only one won at Dodger Stadium. Also, of the six championships from the Dodgers franchise, it remains the only one won at home.
This series was also the first meeting between teams from New York City and Los Angeles for a major professional sports championship. Seven more such meetings have followed with three more times each in the World Series and the NBA Finals, and the 2014 Stanley Cup Final.Carwalking
Carwalking is the act of stepping onto and walking across a stationary car. Depending on the technique and equipment used, carwalking can lead to damage of private property. Carwalking is a protest against the negative impacts of high motorization rates in urban areas. It often is a response to cars being parked illegally in areas exclusively allocated to pedestrians.Charter Arms Bulldog
The Bulldog is a 5-shot traditional double-action revolver designed by Doug McClenahan and produced by Charter Arms. It was introduced in 1973. The Bulldog has been available for the .44 Special and .357 Magnum cartridges. It was a top-selling gun during the 1980s and it is considered to be Charter Arms' trademark weapon. It has been produced by four different companies since it was released.Don't even think about it!
"Don't even think about it!" is an emphatic prohibition popularized by a 1993 Pepsi commercial featuring Shaquille O'Neal, a famous basketball player.Finn (Star Wars)
Designation FN-2187 (Finn) is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. The character first appeared in the 2015 film Star Wars: The Force Awakens as a First Order stormtrooper who, shocked by the Order's cruelty in his first combat mission, flees and joins forces with Rey and later the Resistance. He is portrayed by English actor John Boyega, who reprised the role in Star Wars: The Last Jedi and Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker.Lanikai Beach
Lanikai Beach is located in Lanikai, a community in the town of Kailua and on the windward coast of Oahu, Hawaii. Although there is a widespread belief that the name Lanikai means "heavenly sea", that is a misconception and a grammatical error, since in the Hawaiian language, the qualifier (lani) comes after the noun (kai). The name Lanikai was invented in the 1920ʻs by the developer Charles Frazier, who owned 300 acres of beachfront property in the area known to Native Hawaiians as Kaʻōhao. This small half-mile strip of beach is consistently ranked among the best beaches in the world. Adjacent to Lanikai Beach is a primarily upper-class residential area because of this it is accessible through public beach access paths. Although the beach itself is public property, it is not state land and is not a county beach park like many beaches in Hawaii. There is no public parking lot and the area lacks facilities like restrooms, showers or lifeguards. As of July 1, 2014, parking violation fines have increased from $35 to $200 in an effort to keep people from illegally parking in the residential area surrounding the beach accesses. Parking violations are strictly enforced and include, but are not limited to, no parking within four feet of a driveway entrance or apron, blocking the unimproved pedestrian right of way (where a sidewalk would normally be), within 30 feet of a stop sign, within ten feet of a fire hydrant, or on or within 20 feet of a crosswalk. However, there are legal parking areas in downtown Kailua.
During the weekdays, the beach is less crowded compared to the weekends, although it is still very difficult to find parking close to one of the public beach accesses. On weekends, the beach becomes extremely crowded and during vacation seasons such as winter and summer, the beach is almost completely packed every single day. Lanikai is a popular spot for photo shoots as renowned models and photographers frequent the place on nice days. What makes Lanikai Beach popular for photographers is having the two Islands in the background called the Na Mokulua or "mokes". Kayakers will often row out to land on the larger northern island, but no one is allowed to land on the southern island as it is a bird sanctuary. Water temperatures are generally 75–80 °F (24–26 °C) so you can spend plenty of time in the water. It has extremely soft powdery clean white sand. Lanikai Beach is regularly voted as one of the best beaches in America and is the only beach in the USA that was voted as one of the best beaches in the world.Due to its position on the Windward or east side of the island, Lanikai is recognized as being great place to watch the moonrise over the Mokuluas, especially during the full moon. Occasionally during the year the sun will rise directly between the Na Mokulua islands.New York City Department of Sanitation Police
The New York City Department of Sanitation (Police Enforcement Unit) is the law enforcement arm of the New York City Department of Sanitation (DSNY), primarily responsible for regulating, enforcing and investigating sanitation-related offenses within the City of New York.Parking
Parking is the act of stopping and disengaging a vehicle and leaving it unoccupied. Parking on one or both sides of a road is often permitted, though sometimes with restrictions. Some buildings have parking facilities for use of the buildings' users. Countries and local governments have rules for design and use of parking spaces.Parking lot
A parking lot (American English) or car park (British English), also known as a car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface. In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. Shopping malls, sports stadiums, megachurches and similar venues often feature parking lots of immense area. See also multistorey car park.
Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Most existing lots have limited or no facilities to control runoff. Many areas today also require minimum landscaping in parking lots to provide shade and help mitigate the extent of which their paved surfaces contribute to heat islands. Many municipalities require a minimum number of parking spaces, depending on the floor area in a store or the number of bedrooms in an apartment complex. In the United States, each state's Department of Transportation sets the proper ratio for disabled spaces for private business and public parking lots. Various forms of technology are used to charge motorists for the use of a parking lot. Modern parking lots use a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces, retrieve their vehicles, and improve their experience.Philadelphia Parking Authority
The Philadelphia Parking Authority (PPA) is an agency of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that manages many parking operations for Philadelphia.
The PPA was created by the Philadelphia City Council on January 11, 1950 for the purpose of conducting research for management of off-street parking and to establish a permanent, coordinated system of parking facilities in the city. Since then, the PPA's scope has expanded to include parking operations at the Philadelphia International Airport, most street-parking policy enforcement, and regulation and enforcement of taxicabs and limousines.The Parking Authority:
Generates needed revenue for the city
Coordinates the parking efforts of public agencies
Builds and operates public parking facilities
Does planning and analysis of parking requirementsto provide full parking services for Philadelphia residents, businesses and visitors.In popular culture it is the basis of the reality television show Parking Wars.Police Ten 7
Police Ten 7 is a New Zealand reality television show, devised, created and produced by Ross Jennings for Screentime with the assistance of the New Zealand Police for TVNZ 2. The show profiles wanted offenders and asks the public (viewers) to help the police in their search for them. In addition, the program follows the work of police officers in their patrols and other police activities.
The show is hosted and narrated by Detective Sergeant Rob Lemoto, who replaced original host Detective Inspector (ret) Graham Bell in 2014.
It also airs in Australia on Fox8 and in the UK on Pick
Police Ten 7 takes its name from the New Zealand Police ten-code 10-7, which means "Unit has arrived at job".Strict liability (criminal)
In criminal law, strict liability is liability for which mens rea (Latin for "guilty mind") does not have to be proven in relation to one or more elements comprising the actus reus (Latin for "guilty act") although intention, recklessness or knowledge may be required in relation to other elements of the offense. The liability is said to be strict because defendants will be convicted even though they were genuinely ignorant of one or more factors that made their acts or omissions criminal. The defendants may therefore not be culpable in any real way, i.e. there is not even criminal negligence, the least blameworthy level of mens rea.
Strict liability laws were created in the 19th century to improve working and safety standards in factories. Needing to prove mens reas on the part of the factory owners was very difficult and resulted in very few prosecutions. The creation of strict liability offenses meant that convictions were increased. Common strict liability offenses today include the selling of alcohol to underage persons.
These laws are applied either in regulatory offenses enforcing social behaviour where minimal stigma attaches to a person upon conviction, or where society is concerned with the prevention of harm, and wishes to maximise the deterrent value of the offense. The imposition of strict liability may operate very unfairly in individual cases. For example, in Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Storkwain, a pharmacist supplied drugs to a patient who presented a forged doctor's prescription, but was convicted even though the House of Lords accepted that the pharmacist was blameless. The justification is that the misuse of drugs is a grave social evil and pharmacists should be encouraged to take even unreasonable care to verify prescriptions before supplying drugs. Similarly, where liability is imputed or attributed to another through vicarious liability or corporate liability, the effect of that imputation may be strict liability albeit that, in some cases, the accused will have a mens rea imputed and so, in theory, will be as culpable as the actual wrongdoer.Tomoyo Shibata
Tomoyo Shibata (柴田 倫世, Shibata Tomoyo, born December 23, 1974 in Chikushino, Fukuoka, Japan, official name Tomoyo Matsuzaka) is a former announcer for Nippon TV in Japan.
Shibata is the wife of pitcher Daisuke Matsuzaka. They met during the 2000 Sydney Olympics, married in 2005, and have two children, one daughter and one son.While secretly dating in 2000, Shibata became embroiled in a national scandal with Matsuzaka. On August 30, 2000, Matsuzaka's drivers license was suspended for the next two months for a speeding violation of greater than 50 km/h over the legal limit. Two weeks into the suspension, on September 13, 2000, Matsuzaka drove a car owned by the Seibu Lions to Shibata's home although he did not possess a valid driver's license at the time. During the overnight visit, Matsuzaka illegally parked his car outside Shibata's home. His car was ticketed and towed by the police, and to cover up the offense Akira Kuroiwa, then Public Relations Manager for the team, lied to the police that Kuroiwa operated the car and committed the parking violation that night. The cover-up was blown by a tabloid whose photojournalist recorded the whole incident. Both men were prosecuted, and Matsuzaka paid 195,000 yen in fine. Details of the story caused a scandal, embarrassing Matsuzaka and his team, the Seibu Lions.Traffic stop
A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.Traffic ticket
A traffic ticket is a notice issued by a law enforcement official to a motorist or other road user, indicating that the user has violated traffic laws. Traffic tickets generally come in two forms, citing a moving violation, such as exceeding the speed limit, or a non-moving violation, such as a parking violation, with the ticket also being referred to as a parking citation, or parking ticket.
In some jurisdictions, a traffic ticket constitutes a notice that a penalty, such as a fine or deduction of points, has been or will be assessed against the driver or owner of a vehicle; failure to pay generally leads to prosecution or to civil recovery proceedings for the fine. In others, the ticket constitutes only a citation and summons to appear at traffic court, with a determination of guilt to be made only in court.Traffic violations reciprocity
Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."Violation of law
A violation of law is any act (or, less commonly, failure to act) that fails to abide by existing law. Violations generally include both crimes and civil wrongs. Some acts, such as fraud, can violate both civil and criminal laws.
Civil law violations usually lead to civil penalties like fines, criminal offenses to more severe punishments.
The severity of the punishment should reflect the severity of the violation (retributive justice). In realistic situations and for minor violations, however, altruistic punishment was shown not 'to fit the crime'.This subdivision is similar to the distinction between misdemeanours, and felonies.Other examples of violations of law include:
Infraction, in United States law, minor or petty offenses that do not require jury trial. In common usage, "violations" are treated as synonymous with infraction.
Willful violation, in U.S. law an act with intentional disregard for a regulation, statute and policy
Infringement, various violations of laws or rights, usually used in the context of intellectual property
e.g. copyright violation
Breach of contract
against traffic rules
Moving violation, any violation of law committed by a driver while the vehicle is in motion
Parking violation, parking a motor vehicle in a restricted place or an unauthorized mannerWheel clamp
A wheel clamp, also known as wheel boot, parking boot, or Denver boot, is a device that is designed to prevent motor vehicles from being moved. In its most common form, it consists of a clamp that surrounds a vehicle wheel, designed to prevent removal of both itself and the wheel.
In the United States, the device became known as a "Denver boot" after the city of Denver, Colorado, which was the first place in the country to employ them, mostly to force the payment of outstanding parking tickets.While primarily associated with law enforcement and parking violations, a variety of wheel clamps are now available to consumers as theft deterrent devices for personal use as an alternative to the steering-wheel lock.
|Rules of the road|
|Road user guides|
|Traffic violations reciprocity|