Parking meter

A parking meter is a device used to collect money in exchange for the right to park a vehicle in a particular place for a limited amount of time. Parking meters can be used by municipalities as a tool for enforcing their integrated on-street parking policy, usually related to their traffic and mobility management policies, but are also used for revenue.

Parking Meter Front
A digital CivicSmart brand parking meter which accepts coins or credit cards


Parking meter-1940
Parking meter ca. 1940

An early patent for a parking meter, U.S. patent,[1] was filed by Roger W. Babson, on August 30, 1928. The meter was intended to operate on power from the battery of the parking vehicle and required a connection from the vehicle to the meter.

Holger George Thuesen and Gerald A. Hale designed the first working parking meter, the Black Maria, in 1935. The History Channel's... History's Lost and Found documents their success in developing the first working parking meter. Thuesen and Hale were engineering professors at Oklahoma State University and began working on the parking meter in 1933 at the request of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma lawyer and newspaper publisher Carl C. Magee.[2] The world's first installed parking meter was in Oklahoma City on July 16, 1935.[3][4][5] Magee received a patent for the apparatus on 24 May 1938.[6]

Industrial production started in 1936 and expanded until the mid-1980s. The first models were based on a coin acceptor, a dial to engage the mechanism and a visible pointer and flag to indicate expiration of paid period. This configuration lasted for more than 40 years, with only a few changes in the exterior design, such as a double-headed design (to cover two adjacent parking spaces), and the incorporation of new materials and production techniques.[7]

M.H. Rhodes Inc. of Hartford, Connecticut started making meters for Mark-Time Parking Meter Company of Miami, where the first Rhodes meters were installed in 1936. These were different from the Magee design because only the driver's action of turning a handle was necessary to keep the spring wound, while Magee's meters needed a serviceman to wind the spring occasionally.[8]

A fully mechanical Duncan brand parking meter which accepts U.S. pennies, nickels, and dimes

Upon insertion of coins into a currency detector slot or swiping a credit card or smartcard into a slot, and turning a handle (or pressing a key), a timer is initiated within the meter. Some locations now allow payment by mobile phone (to remotely record payments for subsequent checking and enforcement).[9] A dial or display on the meter indicates the time remaining. In many cities, all parking meters are designed to use only one type of coin. Use of other coins will fail to register, and the meter may cease to function altogether. For example, in Hackensack, New Jersey all parking meters are designed for quarters only.[10]

In 1960, New York City hired its first crew of "meter maids"; all were women. It was not until 1967 that the first man was hired.[11]

In the mid-1980s, a digital version was introduced, replacing the mechanical parts with electronic components: boards, keyboards and displays. This allowed more flexibility to the meter, as an EEPROM chip can be reconfigured more easily than corresponding mechanical components.

By the beginning of the 1990s, millions of parking meter units had been sold around the world, but the market was already looking into new solutions, like the collective pay and display machines and new forms of payment that appeared along with electronic money and communication technologies.

Melbourne Parking Meter
A modern pay and display parking meter in Melbourne, Australia.

Fully electrical

Multi-space parking meter
A solar-powered multi-space meter in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Similar meters are also used in White Rock, British Columbia,[12] and Houston, Texas.[13] Solar is optional.

More modern parking meters are generically called multispace meters (as opposed to single space meters) and control multiple spaces per block (typically 8-12) or lot (unlimited). While with these meters the parker may have to walk several car lengths to the meter, there are significant benefits in terms of customer service, performance and efficiency.[14] Multispace meters incorporate more customer-friendly features such as on-screen instructions and acceptance of credit cards for payment—no longer do drivers have to have pockets full of coins. While they still may be prone to coin jams and other types of vandalism, most of these meters are wireless and can report problems immediately to maintenance staff, who can then fix the meters so that they are not out of service for very long.

With pay by space meters, the driver parks in a space, goes to the meter and enters the space number and makes payment. The meter memorizes the time remaining, and enforcement personnel press the bay buttons to check for violations.

Parking meter in Downtown Austin, Texas

Other advances with parking meters include vehicle detection technology, which allows the pay by space meters to know when there is a car parked in a space. This opens the door for benefits for parking managers, including providing way-finding (directing drivers to unoccupied spaces via the web or via street signs), enabling remote violation detection, and gathering vital statistics about parking supply and demand. Some meters allow payment for additional time by phone, and notify drivers when they are about to expire.[15] Parking meters in Santa Monica use vehicle detectors to prevent drivers from "feeding the meter" indefinitely, and to delete remaining time when a car departs so the next car cannot take any time without paying.[16] Meters in Madrid give discounted and free parking to drivers of hybrid and electric vehicles, respectively.[16] Drivers can reserve meters spots in Los Angeles by cellphone.[17]

Another advancement with parking meters are the new solar-powered meters that accept credit cards and still coins as well. Credit card enabled solar powered “smart” single-space meters[18] were installed in Los Angeles in 2010, and Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa stated "the city's Department of Transportation had projected the 10,000 Coin & Card parking meters installed over the last six months would generate 1-1.5 million in revenue each year".[19] These parking meters replace the top of the meter, but use the existing pole, and use solar power, which can help with sending technicians a wireless signal when in need for repair. DDOT (the District of Columbia Department of Transportation) states that this new parking meter will provide: "better return on tax payer's investment, a variety of options, reduced maintenance, a variety of easy payment options, and increased reliability".[20]

New digital meters now account for all of New York City's 62,000 single-space parking meters, which are more accurate and more difficult to break into. New York City retired its last spring-loaded, single-space, mechanical parking meter – which was located at West 10th Street and Surf Avenue in Coney Island – on December 20, 2006. "The world changes. Just as the [subway] token went, now the manual meter has gone," said Iris Weinshall, the city's transportation commissioner, at a small ceremony marking the occasion, the New York Times reported.[21]

Security issues

Seattle - Worker emptying parking meter, 1960
A worker emptying cash from a parking meter in 1960.
Par fee machine
Machines accept not only coins, but bills, credit, debit and prepaid cards.

Parking meters are exposed to the elements and to vandals so protection of the device and its cash contents is a priority. The meters are frequently targeted in areas where parking regulations and enforcement are widely perceived to be unfair and predatory.[22][23]

Some cities have learned the hard way that these machines must be upgraded regularly, essentially playing an arms race with vandals. In Berkeley, California, the cut-off remains of meter poles were a common sight during the late 1990s, and parking was largely free throughout the city until the city government installed digital parking meters with heavier poles in 2000 (which were eventually vandalized as well).[24]

Legality in the United States

In a 1937 case in Oklahoma,[25] H.E. Duncan contended that the ordinances impose a fee for the free use of the streets, which is a right of all citizens of the state granted by state law. The Courts ruled that free use of the streets is not an absolute right, but agreed with an unpublished 1936 Florida court decision that said, "If it had been shown that the streets on which parking meters have been installed under this ordinance are not streets where the traffic is sufficiently heavy to require any parking regulations of this sort, or that the city was making inordinate and unjustified profits by means of the parking meters, and was resorting to their use not for regulatory purposes but for revenue only, there might have been a different judgment."[26]

One of the first parking meter tickets resulted in the first court challenge to metered parking enforcement. Rev. C.H. North of Oklahoma's City's Third Pentecostal Holiness Church had his citation dismissed when he claimed he had gone to a grocery store to get change for the meter.[27]

The North Carolina Supreme Court judged that a city could not pledge on-street parking meter fee proceeds as security for bonds issued to build off-street parking decks. The court said, "Streets of a municipality are provided for public use. A city board has no valid authority to rent, lease or let a parking space on the streets to an individual motorist 'for a fee' or to charge a rate or toll therefor. Much less may it lease or let the whole system of on-street parking meters for operation by a private corporation or individual."[28]

A 2009 lawsuit filed by the Independent Voters of Illinois-Independent Precinct Organization (IVI-IPO) claimed the City of Chicago's 2008 concession agreement for the operation of its parking meters to a private company violated state law.[29] In November 2010, portions of the suit were thrown out by the Cook County Circuit Court, including the claim that the city was using public funds unlawfully to enforce parking regulations after it was decided by the presiding judge that the city retained its ability to write tickets and enforce parking laws.[30] However, the judge allowed other parts of the suit to stand, including an accusation that the city unlawfully conceded some of its policing power and its ability to set parking and traffic policy to the private company in the concession agreement.[30] As of January 2011, the suit remained active, with the City of Chicago maintaining that the city retains all policing power, maintains responsibility for traffic management, and, through the concession agreement, retains control over rates.[31][32]

Variable pricing

Dr. Donald Shoup argues that parking meters should have variable prices to maintain an 85 percent occupancy rate.[33] This would facilitate an optimum turnover of vehicles resulting in an optimum turnover of customers for roadside shops. It would also reduce the amount of time wasted looking for a place to park. The SFpark system in San Francisco follows this recommendation.


Parking meter with a digital display

In the US states of Texas, Maryland, California, Massachusetts, Utah, Virginia, and the whole of the European Union (except many private car parks in the UK and possibly elsewhere), holders of a Disabled parking permit are exempt from parking meter fees. In some other states handicapped parking meters exist, which not only must be paid at the same rate as regular meters, but one will also be subject to receiving a violation ticket if a valid handicap license plate or placard is not displayed on the vehicle.

Some cities have gone to a device called a Parkulator, in which the users purchase a display device, usually for $5 or $10, then load it with as much time as they care to purchase.[34] They then activate the device when they park at a location, and place the display device on their dashboard so it is visible from the front windshield. The device counts down the time remaining on the device while it remains activated. When they return, then the clock stops running, and the person does not overpay for time unused. In the UK, it is now possible to park and pay with credit or debit card through a dedicated telephone service.[35] Civil Enforcement Officers that patrol the parking area are automatically informed through their handheld devices.

In-vehicle parking meters

EasyPark in-vehicle parking meter by On Track Innovations
An example of an in-vehicle parking meter, the EasyPark device by Parx

An In-Vehicle Parking Meter (IVPM) (also known as in-vehicle personal meter, in-car parking meter, or personal parking meter) is a handheld electronic device, the size of a pocket calculator, that drivers display in their car windows either as a parking permit or as proof of parking payment.[36] Implementation of IVPM began in the late 1980s in Arlington, VA,[37] and is spreading to campuses and municipalities worldwide as a centralized method of parking management, revenue collection, and compliance enforcement. There have since been similar adaptations including the Comet and SmartPark by Ganis Systems,[38] EasyPark by Parx (a subsidiary of On Track Innovations),[39] ParkMagic by ParkMagic Ireland,[40] iPark by Epark, and AutoParq by Duncan Industries. Another technology offers the possibility of reloading money (parking time) to the device via a secure Internet site.

See also


  • Meade McClanahan, sued city of Los Angeles to block installation of parking meters


  1. ^
  2. ^ Chan, Sewell. "New York Retires Last Mechanical Parking Meter." The New York Times. 20 December 2006
  3. ^ "Inglewood Website - News Details". Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ "Park-O-Meter". 16 July 1935. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  5. ^ "Coin-in-Slot Parking Meter Brings Revenue to City" Popular Mechanics, October 1935 mid-right side of page article
  6. ^ Tick, Tick, Tick, Smithsonian Magazine, May 2008, p. 18
  7. ^ "How A Parking Meter Works." Popular Science, December 1959, pp. 138-139
  8. ^ Leonard, Teresa (26 August 2015). "Parking meters found their way onto NC streets in 1930s, '40s". News & Observer. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
  9. ^ Wisdom, Martin. "Pay For DC Parking Meters By Cell Phone". My FOX DC. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
  10. ^ "Traffic Division". City of Hackensack. Archived from the original on 4 November 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ Dougherty, Conor (3 February 2007). "The Parking Fix". The Wall Street Journal.
  12. ^ "Pay Parking | City of White Rock". 5 October 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-05-27. Retrieved 19 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  13. ^ Media:ParkingmeterDowntownHoustonTexas.JPG
  14. ^ Kupferman, Dan. "Why Multi-Space parking meters?". Parking Network. Archived from the original on 14 February 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ Schlueb, Mark. "Orlando installs first 'smart' parking meters".
  16. ^ a b Board, U-T San Diego Editorial. "Smart parking meters: Too smart?".
  17. ^ "'Smart' parking meters catching on across U.S. -".
  18. ^ Mathis, Sommer. "D.C. Testing Solar-Powered, Credit Card Parking Meters". DCist. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ Lovelace, Dennis. "New Credit Card-Use Parking Meters Raking In The Dough". My FOX LA. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
  20. ^ "DDOT Starts Installation of New Solar-Powered Single Space Meters". District Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ Chan, Sewell (20 December 2006). "New York Retires Last Mechanical Parking Meter". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  22. ^ "Selling Off Unused Parking Meter Time: There's an App for That Los Angeles Magazine". 11 November 2014.
  23. ^ "Thieves smash and grab meter cash". Stuff.
  24. ^ Demian Bulwa, "Chicanery tops meters in Berkeley: Vandals wanting to park free put city in yet another jam," San Francisco Chronicle, 25 January 2004, A21
  25. ^ "OSCN Found Document:Ex parte DUNCAN". 10 December 1936. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  26. ^ STATE, EX REL. v. McCARTHY,
  27. ^ "Inc Magazine, 1 October 2002". 1 October 2002. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  28. ^ Britt v. Wilmington, 236 N.C. 446, 73 S.E.2d 289 (1952)
  29. ^ "Independent Voters of Illinois Independent Precinct v. State of Illinois" (PDF). Circuit Court of Cook County, IL. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  30. ^ a b Dumke, Mick. "Parking Meter Lawsuit Allowed to Proceed". Chicago News Cooperative. Archived from the original on 10 November 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  31. ^ Saffold, CFO City of Chicago, Gene. "Letter Concerning IVI-IPO Lawsuit" (PDF). City of Chicago. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  32. ^ Baxter, Brian. "Chicago's $1.16 Billion Parking Meter Privatization 'A Watershed Event'". The AM Law Daily. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
  33. ^ Elizabeth Press (20 December 2007). "Illustrating Parking Reform with Dr. Shoup". Streetfilms. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  34. ^ Hill-Holtzman, Nancy (19 January 1992). "Portable Parking Meters a Tick Away". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  35. ^ Leyden, John. "Park and pay by mobile comes to London". The Register. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  36. ^ "Parking Today". Parking Today. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  37. ^ "Electronic iPark Devices Available Again". Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  38. ^ "Comet Personal Parking Meter". Archived from the original on 11 June 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  39. ^ "EasyPark|Personal Parking Meter". EasyPark USA. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
  40. ^ "New Customers". Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)


External links

1935 in science

The year 1935 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

A3 road

The A3, known as the Portsmouth Road or London Road in sections, is a major road connecting London and Portsmouth passing close to Kingston upon Thames, Guildford, Haslemere and Petersfield. For much of its 67-mile (108 km) length, it is classified as a trunk road and therefore managed by Highways England. Almost all of the road has been built to dual carriageway standards or wider. Apart from bypass sections in London, the road travels in a southwest direction and, after Liss, south-southwest.

Close to its southerly end, motorway traffic is routed via the A3(M), then either the east-west A27 or the Portsmouth-only M275 which has multiple lanes leading off the westbound A27 — for non-motorway traffic, the A3 continues into Portsmouth alongside the A3(M), mostly as a single carriageway in each direction through Waterlooville and adjoining small towns. The other section of single carriageways is through the urban environs of Battersea, Clapham and Stockwell towards the northern end, which has to accommodate bus lanes and parking meter bays.

Carl Magee

Carlton Cole "Carl" Magee (January 1872 – February 1946) was an American lawyer and publisher. He also patented the first parking meter which was installed for use. He was born in Iowa. Magee graduated from Upper Iowa University in 1896.

Magee founded the Magee's Independent in 1922, which would change its name to the New Mexico State Tribune in 1923 and to the Albuquerque Tribune in 1933. The Tribune became defunct in 2008. Magee was important in bringing the Teapot Dome Scandal to the fore. When a judge Magee had once accused of corruption knocked him down in a hotel lobby, Magee drew his pistol and fired, accidentally killing a bystander. Magee was acquitted of manslaughter, but moved to Oklahoma City to run the Oklahoma News. He was the paper's editor until he was transferred to the Oklahoma City News.

Park-O-Meter is a parking meter production company headquartered in Russellville (Pope County). The predecessor company to the current Park-O-Meter, Inc. (or POM) was co-founded by Carl Magee, designer of the world’s first parking meter.

Carl Magee was an attorney and newspaper editor who joined the Oklahoma City Chamber of Commerce traffic committee in 1933 and, shortly thereafter, was charged with lessening the escalating traffic congestion in the city’s downtown. Local merchants complained that their sales were hurt by low traffic turnover, since parking spaces adjacent to downtown businesses were occupied by the same cars all day. Magee conceived the idea of a coin-operated timer that could be used to increase traffic turnover in busy commercial thoroughfares, and he sponsored a contest at the University of Oklahoma to develop such a device. After the contest, Magee designed and patented his own model and sought Professors H. G. Thuesen and Gerald Hale from Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Oklahoma State University) to help him develop his model into an operating meter. The first model eventually created was powered by a clock-type mainspring, which required subsequent winding; this was accomplished by parking patrons after feeding coins into the meter. Magee later partnered with Gerald Hale to form the Magee-Hale Park-O-Meter Company, predecessor to the modern POM, Inc.

The first parking meters were installed in downtown Oklahoma City on July 16, 1935, and charged five cents per hour. Businesses benefited greatly from the decreased parking congestion, but some outraged citizens complained and even initiated legal action in response to installation of the meters. Legal action failed to halt implementation of the meters, however, and the added benefits of revenue generation quickly led other cities to install parking meters of their own.

The earliest Magee-Hale meters were manufactured in Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, by Rockwell International, which moved its meter production to Russellville in 1963. POM, Inc., as constituted today was organized in 1976 to purchase the parking meter production operations from Rockwell, as well as its Russellville plant.

New ownership and production facility expansion occurred at POM in the 1980s, and POM unveiled its patented “Advanced Parking Meter” (APM) in 1992, featuring a choice of battery or solar power, among other improvements. According to its website, the company today “has the largest plant in the world devoted to the manufacturing of digital parking meters.”

Magee switched from Republican to Democrat and ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate.

He is best known in journalism today for the E.W. Scripps Company motto, adopted from Dante for the Albuquerque Tribune and which is now carried by all Scripps chain newspapers: “Give Light and the People Will Find Their Own Way.”

Magee died in Tulsa, Oklahoma in February 1946.

Donald F. Duncan Sr.

This is about the American manufacturer. For others, see Donald Duncan (disambiguation).Donald F. Duncan Sr. (June 6, 1892 – May 15, 1971) was an American entrepreneur and inventor, and founder of the Duncan Toys Company.

Duncan is most commonly associated with the Yo-Yo, the commercial success and iconic status they enjoyed during the 20th century in the United States and the world being largely the result of his marketing efforts. Duncan is often miscredited with invention of the Yo-Yo. The name Yo-Yo was a trademark of his company from 1930 until 1965, when the case Donald F. Duncan, Inc. v. Royal Tops Mfg. Co., 343 F.2d 655 (7th Cir. 1965) resulted in a federal court of appeals ruling in favor of the Royal Tops Company, asserting that the trademark had become a part of common speech.Duncan, who was born in Kansas City, Missouri, founded other companies, including the Good Humor mobile frozen treats franchise and a parking meter manufacturing company. Most notable among the innovations credited to Duncan is the concept of the premium incentive, a marketing tactic wherein the consumer is encouraged to collect proofs of purchase and redeem them for rewards, such as small toys or discount coupons.

He died in a car accident in Palm Springs, California.

Duncan's Birthday has been immortalized as National Yo-Yo Day, June 6.

Driving in Slovenia

Driving in Slovenia can be performed by licensed individuals over the age of 18. Vehicles drive on the right side of the road in Slovenia.

Filbert Street (San Francisco)

Filbert Street in San Francisco, California starts at Lyon Street on the east edge of The Presidio and runs east, crossing Van Ness Avenue and Columbus Avenue. It ends on Telegraph Hill at Kearny Street below Coit Tower and eventually resumes as a pedestrian stairway known as the Filbert Street Steps.

The Filbert Street Steps descend the east slope of Telegraph Hill along the line where Filbert Street would be if the hill weren't so steep. The steps run through the Grace Marchant Garden, which resident Grace Marchant started in 1949 and is now tended to and paid for by the residents of the "street." From there, the steps run down to an eastern stub of Filbert Street and the walkway through the plaza to The Embarcadero. Many houses in this residential neighborhood are accessible only from the steps. As on paved streets, several fire hydrants and a solitary parking meter are located along the steps.

Free Parking

Free Parking is a Parker Brothers card game inspired by the "Free Parking" space of the Monopoly board game.

In-vehicle parking meter

An in-vehicle parking meter (IVPM) (also known as in-vehicle personal meter, in-car parking meter, or personal parking meter) is a handheld electronic device, roughly the size of a pocket calculator, that drivers display in their car windows either as a parking permit or as proof of parking payment. IVPM was first implemented in the late 1980s in Arlington, VA, and is spreading to campuses and municipalities worldwide as a centralized method of parking management, revenue collection, and compliance enforcement.

Lookingglass, Oregon

Lookingglass is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in the Lookingglass Valley of Douglas County, Oregon, United States, about 9 miles (14 km) southwest of Roseburg. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 855. Lookingglass is considered a suburb of Roseburg.

Muni Meter

Muni Meter is the name used by the New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) for its pay and display centralized parking meter system. The Muni Meter system was introduced broadly in 2009, following a period of experimentation that began in 1999. Muni Meters are located on streets adjacent to a group of parking spots, with no designated striping that separates spots. A driver parks their car, pays at the Muni Meter (using coins, credit cards, or prepaid parking cards), and takes a receipt provided by the Meter. They then display that receipt on their vehicle's dashboard. The system reduces the number of individual meter devices required, increases the number of parking spots available (by allowing as many cars to park as can fit) and, some argue, reduces losses due to unused time left on meters (which may then be reused by subsequent parkers).

Parking enforcement officer

A parking enforcement officer (PEO), traffic warden (British English), parking inspector/parking officer (Australia and New Zealand), or civil enforcement officer is a member of a traffic control department or agency who issues tickets for parking violations. The term parking attendant is sometimes considered a synonym but sometimes used to refer to the different profession of parking lot attendant.Even where parking meters are no longer used, the term "meter maid" is often still used to refer to female PEOs.

Pay-by-phone parking

Pay-by-phone parking allows any driver parking in a fare required space the option to divert the expense to a credit card or to a mobile network operator via the use of a mobile phone, mobile application or computer, opposed to inserting cash into a parking meter or pay and display machine. SMS pay-by-phone parking was invented by young Croatian innovators and introduced by Vipnet. Since its introduction in Croatian capital Zagreb in 2001 under name M-parking, the number of registered users has steadily increased. By 2004, the Croatian M-parking scheme was the largest in Europe (with over 130,000 users). Today pay-by-phone parking is used by millions of people all around the world.

Prepayment meter

Prepayment meter can refer to:

Electricity meter

Water meter

Gas meter

Parking meter

Richard M. Daley

Richard Michael Daley (born April 24, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 54th Mayor of Chicago, Illinois from 1989 to 2011. Daley was elected mayor in 1989 and was reelected five times until declining to run for a seventh term. At 22 years, he was the longest-serving Chicago mayor, surpassing the tenure of his father, Richard J. Daley.

As Mayor, Daley took over the Chicago Public Schools, developed tourism, oversaw the construction of Millennium Park, increased environmental efforts and the rapid development of the city's central business district downtown and adjacent near North, near South and near West sides. He also expanded employee benefits to same-sex partners of city workers, and advocated for gun control.

Daley received criticism when family, personal friends, and political allies disproportionately benefited from city contracting. He took office in a city with regular annual budget surpluses and left the city with massive structural deficits. His budgets ran up the largest deficits in Chicago history. A national leader in privatization, he temporarily reduced budgetary shortfalls by leasing and selling public assets to private corporations, but this practice removed future sources of revenue, contributing to the city's near insolvency at the end of his tenure. Police brutality was a recurring issue during his mayorship.

Roger Babson

Roger Ward Babson (July 6, 1875 in Gloucester, Massachusetts – March 5, 1967 in Lake Wales, Florida) was an American entrepreneur, economist and business theorist in the first half of the 20th century. He is best remembered for founding Babson College. He also founded Webber College, now Webber International University, in Babson Park, Florida, and the defunct Utopia College, in Eureka, Kansas.

Babson was born to Nathaniel Babson and his wife Ellen Stearns as part of the 10th generation of Babsons to live in Gloucester, Massachusetts. Roger attended Massachusetts Institute of Technology and worked for investment firms before founding Babson's Statistical Organization (1904), which analyzed stocks and business reports; it continues today as Babson-United, Inc..On March 29, 1900 Babson married his first wife Grace Margaret Knight, who died in 1956. In 1957 he remarried to Nona M. Dougherty, who died in 1963. Babson died in 1967.


Serco Group plc is a British provider of public services with headquarters based in Hook, Hampshire. Serco operates in six sectors of public service provision: Health, Transport, Justice, Immigration, Defence, and Citizens Services.

It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. The majority of Serco's turnover is generated from UK operations, but the company also operates in Continental Europe, the Middle East, the Asia Pacific region and North America.

Slug (coin)

A slug is a counterfeit coin that is used to make illegal purchases from a coin-operated device, such as a vending machine, payphone, parking meter, transit farebox, copy machine, coin laundry, gaming machine, or arcade game. By resembling various features of a genuine coin, including the weight, size, and shape, a slug is designed to trick the machine into accepting it as a real coin.

Though slug usage is a violation of the law, prosecution for slug usage is rare due to the low value of the theft and the difficulty in identifying the offender. Offenders in casinos are most likely to be prosecuted, as casinos have high levels of video surveillance and other security measures, and are more proactive in enforcement.Losses caused to vendors by slug usage may be the result of the loss of sales, the absence of revenue following the distribution of merchandise that was obtained at the vendor's expense, or the loss of cash that is distributed by the machine for overpayment with slugs. Honest customers may also suffer losses when change returned for overpayment is in the form of a slug rather than a genuine coin.

Soft ergonomics

Soft Ergonomics is the study of designing virtual interfaces that cater towards the wellness of the human body, its emotional and cognitive abilities.

Soft Ergonomics is a subset of Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering, a larger body of the study of human abilities for designing equipment and devices that fit the human body. Soft Ergonomics can be thus defined as the ability of any virtual interface(computer application, website, ATM options, parking meter etc.) to make it comfortable for the user to use the interface while working on the user's request.

The Vane Sisters

"The Vane Sisters" is a short story by Vladimir Nabokov, written in March 1951. It is famous for providing one of the most extreme examples of an unreliable narrator. It was first published in the Winter 1958 issue of The Hudson Review and then reprinted in Encounter during 1959. The story was included in Nabokov's Quartet (1966), Nabokov's Congeries (1968; reprinted as The Portable Nabokov, 1971), Tyrants Destroyed and Other Stories (1975), and The Stories of Vladimir Nabokov (1995).

The narrator, a professor, recounts his experiences with the two sisters, and meditates upon the possibility of intervention by ghosts into his reality.


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