Parking lot

A parking lot (American English) or car park (British English), also known as a car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface. In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. Shopping malls, sports stadiums, megachurches and similar venues often feature parking lots of immense area. See also multistorey car park.

Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Most existing lots have limited or no facilities to control runoff. Many areas today also require minimum landscaping in parking lots to provide shade and help mitigate the extent of which their paved surfaces contribute to heat islands. Many municipalities require a minimum number of parking spaces, depending on the floor area in a store or the number of bedrooms in an apartment complex. In the United States, each state's Department of Transportation sets the proper ratio for disabled spaces for private business and public parking lots. Various forms of technology are used to charge motorists for the use of a parking lot. Modern parking lots use a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces, retrieve their vehicles, and improve their experience.

Bad car parking
Car unnecessarily occupying two parking spaces at once, often frowned upon in many cultures
Angle parking lot diagram
Diagram of example parking lot layout with angle parking as seen from above.
Multi-level stack parking NYC 07 2010 9583
A parking lot in Manhattan, New York City, in 2010, with its capacity increased through multiple level stacked parking using mechanical lifts.
Subterranean parking lot
A subterranean parking lot of a Brazilian shopping mall taken in 2016.
Heightcaution
A sign at the entrance to an underground parking garage in March 2007, warning drivers of the maximum height clearance, in this case, roughly 2 meters (6.5 feet).
Car Park in Dazaifu, Fukuoka
Car park with drop arm in Dazaifu, Fukuoka

Parking minimums and maximums

In North America, parking minimums are requirements, as dictated by a municipality's zoning ordinance, for all new developments to provide a set number off-street parking spots. These minimums look to cover the demand for parking generated by said development at the peak times.[1] Thus different land uses, whether they be commercial, residential or industrial, have different requirements to meet when deriving the number of parking spots needed.

U.S. urban planners use Parking Generation Rates, a guidebook of statistical data from the Institution of Transportation Engineers, to source parking minimums. In these reports, the ITE define a type of land use's Parking Generation through an observational study. Parking Generation is statistically found by land use's, average generation rate, the range of generation rates, the subsequent standard deviation, and the total number of studies. To determine the parking generation rate of a building the ITE divides the peak parking observed by the floor area per 1000 square feet. This process is done by various studies to find the range. In the case of ITE studies, the observation of a single site multiple times is considered a stand-alone study. Then the average of the range is used to determine the average parking generation rate of a land use.[2] This handbook is updated every 5 years to determine the demand for parking for specific land uses. Parking Generation Rates provided by the ITE doesn’t explicitly state what parking minimums should be, but rather is just a collection of statistical data for urban planners to interpret and use for at their own volition. Regardless, ITE's Parking Generation has been an influential factor In most North American cities in the adoption parking ratios, according to land use, to determine the minimum spots required by new developments.

Parking Generation, regardless of its widespread use in North American cities, is disputed as a tool to determine parking minimums due to its questionable statistical validity. Statistical significance is a major qualm with Parking Generations due to the oversimplification of how the parking generation rate is derived. Peak parking observed by ITE doesn’t take into account the price of parking in relation to the number of parked cars.[3] Thus the demand at any given time for parking is always high because it is oversupplied and underpriced. Thus the calculation for the parking generation rate of a land use some would argue are inflated.

Adoption of parking minimums by municipalities, base on ratios from Parking Generation had a substantial effect on urban form. This can be seen in the lack of density characterized by the suburbanization of North America post-World War II.[4] The growth of the car industry and car culture, in general, has much to do with the mass movement of the middle-class away from urban centers and exterior of the city in single family detached homes. As populations grew and density dissipated automobiles became the main mode of transportation. Thus insuring that new developments insured off-street park became a necessity.

Parking minimums are also set for parallel, pull-in, or diagonal parking, depending on what types of vehicles are allowed to park in the lot or a particular section of it. Parking minimums initially took hold in the middle of the last century, as a way to ensure that traffic to new developments wouldn't use up existing spaces.[5]

Big cars may not fit properly in assigned parking spaces, creating issues with entering or leaving the car or blocking adjacent parking spaces.

In Europe, parking maximums are more common. As a condition of planning permission for a new development, the development must be designed so that a minimum percentage of visitors arrive by public transport. The number of parking places in the development is limited to a number less than the expected number of visitors.[6]

Parking and urban planning

The effect of large scale parking in-city has long been contentious. Elimination of historic structures in favor of garages or lots led to historical preservation movements in many cities. The acreage devoted to parking is widely seen as disrupting a walkable urban fabric, maximizing convenience to each individual building, but eliminating foot traffic among them. Large paved areas have been called "parking craters", "parking deserts", and similar terms, emphasizing their "depopulated" nature and the barriers they can create to walking movement. Due to a recent trend towards more livable and walkable communities, parking minimums (policies requiring each building to have at least a minimum number of parking spaces) have been criticized by both livable streets advocates[7] and developers alike. For a time, the British government recommended that local councils should establish maximum parking standards to discourage car use.[8] American cities such as Washington, DC, are now considering removing parking minimums as a way to add more housing for residents while encouraging the use of public transit.[9] Parking lots designed specifically for bicycle parking are also becoming more prevalent in response to increased environmental and health consciousness. These may include bicycle parking racks and locks, as well as more modern technologies for security and convenience.[10] For instance, a growing number of bicycle parking lots in Tokyo include automated parking systems.[11][12]

Legal issues

Handicapped Accessible sign
Universal sign for disabled parking.

Sweden and Denmark

Rural parking lot at Kovik, Gotland
Rural parking lot, Gotland, Sweden

In Sweden and Denmark, there are legally two types of car parking, either on streets and roads, or on private land. A parking violation on streets is a traffic crime, resulting in fines. A parking violation on private land (also if owned by the city) is a contract violation and gives additional parking fee (Swedish: kontrollavgift = check fee). The difference is small for the car owner and the owner is always responsible.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom has two types of car parking: either on public or on private land. The difference is that the police will investigate any reported accident on public land but have no legal obligation and will not do so on private land. Public road is defined by the Road Traffic Act 1972 and (Amendment) Regulations 1988 S.I. 1988/1036[13] as: "Road", in relation to England and Wales, means any highway and any other road to which the public has access, and includes bridges over which a road passes. There is also a House of Lords judgment on this matter.[14]

Civil enforcement officers enforce parking restrictions on public, council-run car parks. These include failure to purchase a ticket as payment (if available)/not parking in a marked bay/other offences.

United States

In the United States, each state's Department of Transportation sets the proper ratio for disabled spaces for private business and public parking lots. Certain circumstances may demand more designated spaces. These reserved spaces are mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines.[15]

In some jurisdictions, those in possession of the proper ID tags or license plates are also free from parking violation tickets for running over their metered time or parking in an inappropriate place, as some disabilities may prohibit the use of regular spaces. Illegally parking in a disabled parking space or fraudulent use of another person's permit is heavily fined.

Payment

Parking, 5c.,1949
Parking, 5 cents a day, Hollywood, United States, 1949.

Various forms of technology are used to charge motorists for the use of a parking lot.

Boom gates are used in many parking lots. A customer arrives to the entry ticket machine by vehicle, presses the ticket request push button, takes a ticket - which raises the barrier - and enters the parking lot. To exit the lot, the customer presents the ticket to a cashier in a booth at the exit and tenders payment, after which the cashier opens the boom gate.

In 1954, the first automated parking lots were built where, for a monthly fee, a driver with a magnetic key card could enter and exit the parking lot by raising and lowering the boom.[16]

A more modern system uses automatic pay stations, where the driver presents the ticket and pays the fee required before returning to their car, then drives to the exit terminal and presents the ticket. If the ticket has not been paid for, the boom barrier will not raise, which will force the customer to either press the intercom and speak to a staff member, or reverse out to pay at the pay station or cashier booth.

At the parking lots of some major airports in the United States, a driver can choose to swipe a credit card at the entry ticket dispenser instead of taking a ticket. When the driver swipes the same credit card at the exit terminal upon leaving the lot, the applicable parking fee is automatically calculated and charged to the credit card used.

In some parking lots, drivers present their tickets to and pay the cashiers at a separate cashier's office or counter (which are often located elsewhere from the entrances and exits of carparks). Such cashier's offices are called shroff offices or simply shroff in some parking lots in Hong Kong and other parts of East Asia influenced by the Hong Kong usage. If a ticket has not been paid, the barrier will not raise. In recent years, cashiers and shroff officers have often been replaced with automated machines. Another variant of payment has motorists paying an attendant on entry to the lot, with the way out guarded by a one-way spike strip that will only allow cars to exit.

Parking meters can also be used, with motorists paying in advance for the time required for the bay they are parked in. Pango (a play on "pay and go"[17]), a company founded in Israel in 2007, created a mobile app that allows users to both find and pay for available metered parking; the app can also be used to pay for garage parking.[17] Users' accounts are linked to a payment method, and the system remembers where a vehicle is parked and allows users to share a parking session with Facebook friends. Users may also, for a nominal monthly fee per registered car, subscribe to reminders that text alerts shortly before metered time expires,[18] and in some municipalities, users may buy additional metered time via cellphone. Philadelphia, encourages parking space turnover by charging escalating parking fees when metered time is added.[19][20] Another app, Streetline, whose primary purpose is to help motorists find open parking spots using their smartphones, includes a timer, so users can get back to a parking meter before it expires, and a filter that lets users choose between on-street and off-street parking spaces; it also connects to the phone's camera so a user can take a photograph of their car.[21]

Other lots operate on a pay and display system, where a ticket is purchased from a ticket machine and then placed on the dashboard of the car. Parking enforcement officers patrol the lot to ensure compliance with the requirement.

Similar to this is the system where the parking is paid by the mobile phone by sending an SMS message which contains the license plate number. In this case, the virtual cashier books the car and the time when the message is sent, and later a new SMS message must be sent whenever the time is due. The actual payment is then made via the mobile phone bill.

Since 1978 in the United Kingdom, it has been possible to pre-book parking with specialist companies, such as BCP. This is prevalent at all airports, major ports and cities.

Technology

Car park sensor
Sensors above each lot in this indoor parking lot determine if a car has already taken the lot

Modern parking lots use a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces using parking guidance and information system, retrieve their vehicles, and improve their experience. This includes adaptive lighting, sensors, indoor positioning system (IPS) and mobile payment options. The Santa Monica Place shopping mall in California has cameras on each stall that can help count the lot occupancy and find lost cars.[22]

In outdoor parking lots, GPS can be used to remember the location of a vehicle (some apps saves location automatically when turning off the car when a smartphone breaks communication with a vehicle's Bluetooth connection). In indoor parking lots, one option is to record one's Wi-Fi signature (signal strengths observed for several detectable access points) to remember the location of a vehicle.[23]

Online booking technology service providers have been created to help drivers find long-term parking in an automated manner, while also providing significant savings for those who book parking spaces ahead of time. They use real-time inventory management checking technology to display parking lots with availability, sorted by price and distance from the airport.

There are mobile apps providing services for the reservation of longterm parking lot spaces similar to online or aggregate parking facility booking services. Some longterm parking mobile apps also have turn-by-turn maps to locate the parking lot, notably US and UK based ParkJockey.

Environmental considerations

Parking lot landscaped with trees
Parking lot landscaped with trees, 2009.

Water pollution

Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Virtually all of the rain (minus evaporation) that falls becomes urban runoff. To avoid flooding and unsafe driving conditions, the lots are built to effectively channel and collect runoff.[24] Parking lots, along with roads, are often the principal source of water pollution in urban areas.[25]

Motor vehicles are a constant source of pollutants, the most significant being gasoline, motor oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals. (PAHs are found in combustion byproducts of gasoline, as well as in asphalt and coal tar-based sealants used to maintain parking lots.) Many parking lots are also significant sources of trash which ends up in waterways.[26]

Treatment of pollution : Traditionally, the runoff has been shunted directly into storm sewers, streams, dry wells or even sanitary sewers. However, most larger municipalities now require construction of stormwater management facilities for new lots. Typical facilities include retention basins, infiltration basins and percolation trenches.[27] Some newer designs include bioretention systems, which use plants more extensively to absorb and filter pollutants. However, most existing lots have limited or no facilities to control runoff.

Alternative paving materials : An alternative solution today is to use permeable paving surfaces, such as brick, pervious concrete, stone, special paving blocks, or tire-tread woven mats. These materials allow rain to soak into the ground through the spaces inherent in the parking lot surface. The ground then may become contaminated in the surface of the parking lot park, but this tends to stay in a small area of ground, which effectively filters water before it seeps away. This can however create problems if contaminants seep into groundwater, especially where there is groundwater abstraction 'downstream' for potable water supply.

P3030027ParkingLot wb
A California parking lot in 2006, with landscaping and a diagonal parking pattern designed for one-way traffic.

Landscaping

Many areas today also require minimum landscaping in parking lots. This usually principally means the planting of trees to provide shade. Customers have long preferred shaded parking spaces in the summer, but parking lot providers have long been antagonistic to planting trees because of the extra cost of cleaning the parking lots.

Paved surfaces contribute to heat islands in two ways. The first is through excessive accumulation of heat. Dark materials and the enclosed canyons created by city buildings trap more of the sun's energy. The reflection rate of paving compared to natural surfaces is important as higher reflectance means cooler temperatures. Black pavements, the hottest, have solar reflectances of 5 to 10 percent. Lighter pavements have solar reflectance rates of 25 percent or higher. Reflectance values for soils and various types of vegetation range from 5 to 45 percent. The second cause of heat islands is the low moisture content of paving and building materials. Such materials are watertight, so no moisture is available to dissipate the sun's heat through evaporation.[28]

Tree planting has been shown to significantly reduce temperatures in open, paved areas. In one study in Alabama, daytime summer temperatures of 120°F were recorded in the centre of a bare parking lot, whereas where a small island of trees was present, temperatures only reached 89°F. It also found that a further 1°F temperature reduction could be obtained for every additional canopy tree planted.[29]

Land usage

A parking lot needs fairly large space, around 25 square meters, or 270 square feet per parking spot. This means that lots usually need more land area than for corresponding buildings for offices or shops if most employees and visitors arrive by car. This means covering large areas with asphalt.

Services

Some lots have charging stations for battery vehicles. Some regions with especially cold winters provide electricity at most parking spots for engine block heaters, as antifreeze may be inadequate to prevent freezing.

See also

References

  1. ^ Shoup, Donald (9 December 1999). "The Trouble With Minimum Parking Requirements" (PDF). Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  2. ^ Parking Generation. ITE. 07/10. ISBN 1-933452-55-2. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  3. ^ SHOUP, DONALD C. "Truth in Transportation Planning" (PDF). Journal of Transportation and Statistics. 66: 1–6.
  4. ^ Kwak, Nancy (2015). A World of Homeowners. University of Chicago Press. pp. 10–23. ISBN 9780226282497.
  5. ^ Vanderbilt, Tom (18 September 2015). "There's No Such Thing as Free Parking". Archived from the original on 3 February 2012 – via Slate. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ "Parking standards for new developments". www.wycombe.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 16 January 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ Fried, Ben (20 August 2008). "How to Fix Off-Street Parking Policy, Before It's Too Late". StreetsBlog NYC. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ Communities.gov.uk Archived 2009-03-06 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Out, Damned Spot! How D.C.'s Onerous Parking Requirements Slow Development". Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ "Parking Management Software". Hamari Society. 11 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  11. ^ Springer, Kate; Han, Sol (19 October 2016). "Japan's crazy underground bike vaults". CNN Style. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  12. ^ "Invisible Bicycles: Tokyo's High-Tech Underground Bike Parking". Web Urbanist. 26 March 2015. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ "Road Traffic Act 1988". www.opsi.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 2006-09-09. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. ^ Department, Law Lords. "House of Lords - Clark (A.P.) and Others v. Kato, Smith and General Accident Fire & Life Assurance Corporation PLCCutter v. Eagle Star Insurance Company". publications.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 2017-02-24. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ ADA Accessibility Guidelines Parking and Passenger Loading Zones Archived 2011-05-14 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Key Card Inserted In Slot Opens Gate At Automated Parking Lot". Popular Science. August 1954. p. 94. (mid page)
  17. ^ a b Furman, Phyllis (August 6, 2013). "Parking app Pango making tracks in NYC, adding 20 more garages over next few weeks (App that speeds up pick-ups and payments spreading to 110 Manhattan garages by year-end)". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  18. ^ Staff Writer (November 4, 2014). "Mt. Vernon Launches Pango Mobile Payments for Parking on November 5". Mount Vernon Inquirer.
  19. ^ Philadelphia Parking Authority Staff (May 21, 2015). "Pango Mobile Parking App Coming to Philadelphia". The PPA Blog.
  20. ^ "PANGO Mobile Parking". Parking Network. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ Motavalli, Jim (October 11, 2012). "New York Times contributor blogs about interesting ways of getting around. Streetline app aims to end the hunt for a parking space". Mother Nature Network. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ Martha Groves (January 23, 2011). "Servant or snoop in the parking garage?". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 31, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. ^ Joshua Correa, Ed Katz, Patricia Collins, Martin Griss (November 2008). "Room-Level Wi-Fi Location Tracking" (pdf). Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley MRC-TR-2008-02. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-03. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. ^ Schueler, Thomas R. "The Importance of Imperviousness". Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine Reprinted in The Practice of Watershed Protection. Archived 2008-12-23 at the Wayback Machine 2000. Center for Watershed Protection. Ellicott City, MD.
  25. ^ United States. National Research Council. Washington, DC. "Urban Stormwater Management in the United States". Archived 2013-08-31 at the Wayback Machine October 15, 2008. p.5
  26. ^ G. Allen Burton, Jr., Robert Pitt (2001). Stormwater Effects Handbook: A Toolbox for Watershed Managers, Scientists, and Engineers. New York: CRC/Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-924-7. Archived from the original on 2009-05-19. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Chapter 2.
  27. ^ California Stormwater Quality Association. Menlo Park, CA. "Stormwater Best Management Practice (BMP) Handbooks". Archived January 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine 2003.
  28. ^ Wolf, Kathleen (2004). Trees, Parking and Green Law: Strategies for Sustainability (PDF). Georgia: USDA Forest Service, Southern Region Georgia Forestry Commission. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-05-28. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  29. ^ "Green Parking Lot Resource Guide" (PDF). National Service Center for Environmental Publications. EPA. February 2008. p. 40. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 5, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
Apollo 12

Apollo 12 was the sixth crewed flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon. It was launched on November 14, 1969, from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, four months after Apollo 11. Commander Charles "Pete" Conrad and Lunar Module Pilot Alan L. Bean performed just over one day and seven hours of lunar surface activity while Command Module Pilot Richard F. Gordon remained in lunar orbit. The landing site for the mission was located in the southeastern portion of the Ocean of Storms.

On November 19 Conrad and Bean achieved a precise landing at their expected location within walking distance of the site of the Surveyor 3 robotic probe, which had landed on April 20, 1967. They carried the first color television camera to the lunar surface on an Apollo flight, but transmission was lost after Bean accidentally destroyed the camera by pointing it at the Sun. On one of two moonwalks they visited Surveyor 3, and removed some parts for return to Earth.

The Lunar Module lifted off from the Moon on November 20 and docked with the command module, which then, after completing its 45th lunar orbit, traveled back to Earth. The Apollo 12 mission ended on November 24 with a successful splashdown.

Ashby station (BART)

Ashby is a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) station located under Adeline Street and perpendicular to Ashby Avenue in South Berkeley of Berkeley, California. The station includes park-and-ride facilities with 715 automobile parking spaces in two separate parking lots.

Big A Sign

The Big A Sign is a 230-foot-tall (70 m), 210-ton red metal sign in the shape of the letter "A" with a halo on top (mirroring the Los Angeles Angels logo), situated in the parking lot of Angel Stadium in Anaheim, California. The sign was originally installed in 1966 behind the left field fence but was moved to the parking lot in 1979 when American football's Los Angeles Rams started sharing the stadium with MLB's Los Angeles Angels. The sign is also responsible for the nickname of Angel Stadium as "The Big A".The halo lights up after every Angels win (regardless of whether it happens at home or on the road), which gives rise to the catchphrase "Light That Baby Up!" amongst Angels fans. (When Dick Enberg was an Angels broadcaster in the 1970s, he would punctuate the team's victories with the phrase "And the halo shines tonight!")

Big Yellow Taxi

"Big Yellow Taxi" is a song written, composed, and originally recorded by Canadian singer-songwriter Joni Mitchell in 1970, and originally released on her album Ladies of the Canyon. It was a hit in her native Canada (No. 14) as well as Australia (No. 6) and the UK (No. 11). It only reached No. 67 in the US in 1970, but was later a bigger hit there for her in a live version released in 1974, which peaked at No. 24. Charting versions have also been recorded by The Neighborhood (who had the original top US 40 hit with the track in 1970, peaking at No. 29), Maire Brennan, Amy Grant and Counting Crows.

Blue Creek Conservation Area

Blue Creek Metropark is a conservation area located in Whitehouse, Ohio that is part of the Toledo Metroparks.

Visit the new area on the east side of Schadel Road, across the street from the historic hog barn.

The rustic area has a parking lot and a one-mile loop trail leading to a wetland and a quarry pond. Fishing is permitted in the pond. A temporary restroom is located in the parking lot.

.

De jure

In law and government, de jure (; Latin: de iure, "in law"; Latin pronunciation: [deː juːre]) describes practices that are legally recognised, regardless whether the practice exists in reality. In contrast, de facto ("in fact") describes situations that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised. The terms are often used to contrast different scenarios: for a colloquial example, "I know that, de jure, this is supposed to be a parking lot, but now that the flood has left four feet of water here, it's a de facto swimming pool". To further explain, even if the signs around the flooded parking lot say "Parking Lot" (the signs effectively being the "law" determining what it is) it is "in fact" a swimming pool (with the water, the current practical circumstances, determining what it is).

Freedom Square, Yerevan

The Freedom Square or Liberty Square (Armenian: Ազատության հրապարակ, Azatut'yan hraparak), also known as Opera Square and Theatre Square (Թատերական հրապարակ, T'aterakan hraparak) until 1991, is a town square located in Kentron (Center) district of Yerevan, Armenia. The square is part of the Yerevan Opera Theater complex, located just to the south of the main opera building, between the opera park and the Swan lake. Along with the Republic Square, the Freedom Square is one of the two main squares in central Yerevan. It is bordered with four streets: Tumanyan Street, Teryan Street, Sayat Nova Avenue and Mashtots Avenue. The statues of writer Hovhannes Tumanyan and composer Alexander Spendiaryan are located in the square.

Heavy Metal Parking Lot

Heavy Metal Parking Lot is a 1986 documentary short produced by Jeff Krulik and John Heyn about heavy metal music fans tailgating in the parking lot outside the Capital Centre in Landover, Maryland on May 31, 1986, before a Judas Priest concert. The show was part of the Fuel for Life tour, with opening act Dokken.

James McNew

James McNew is an American musician. He has been the bass player for the rock band Yo La Tengo since their 1992 album, May I Sing with Me.He was previously a member of the band Christmas, being featured on their third album Vortex.He also has a solo side project, Dump.The documentary The Parking Lot Movie highlighted McNew's career as a parking lot attendant in Charlottesville, Virginia, prior to his career as a musician.

La Garita Wilderness

The La Garita Wilderness is a U.S. Wilderness Area located in the La Garita Mountains of southern Colorado. The 129,626-acre (524.58 km2) wilderness established in 1964 in Gunnison and Rio Grande National Forests includes segments of the Colorado Trail and the Continental Divide Trail. At 14,014 feet (4,271 m), San Luis Peak is the highest point in the wilderness area.

One entrance to the wilderness area is via Forest Road 787 from Saguache Park and Cochetopa Park off State Highway 114 west of Saguache, Colorado. There is a parking lot for visitors to the wilderness area at the south end of FS 787. Cochetopa Park may also be entered from the east over Cochetopa Pass via Saguache County Road NN14.

London Grove, Pennsylvania

London Grove is an unincorporated community in West Marlborough Township in Chester County, Pennsylvania, United States. London Grove is located at the intersection of Pennsylvania Route 926 and Newark Road north of Avondale. There was a blacksmithshop (at the middle of the intersection) and a general store, now the parking lot for a apartment building.

Mount Eisenhower

Mount Eisenhower (formerly Mount Pleasant) is a mountain in the Presidential Range in the White Mountains of New Hampshire approximately 4,760 ft (1,450 m) high. Named after President Dwight D. Eisenhower, its summit offers a 360° view of New Hampshire's mountains. It is inaccessible by road.

The Crawford Path, carrying the Appalachian Trail, crosses the mountain near its summit. It separates from the summit loop trail at 4,400 feet (1,300 m), 0.3 mi (0.5 km) south of the summit, and rejoins it 0.3 mi (0.5 km) northeast of the summit, having made a net elevation gain of about 40 feet (12 m) and reached a maximum on Eisenhower of about 4,520 feet (1,380 m).

The shortest trail route to the summit of Eisenhower is from a parking lot on Mount Clinton Road, to its west-northwest, via primarily the Edmands Path. Several routes are available from points more or less southwest of it on Route 302; the most used of these (probably roughly equal in popularity to the Edmands route) is via the Crawford Path, starting from a parking lot on Mount Clinton Road, very near 302 and just north of the Highland Center in the Crawford Notch area. Mount Monroe lies on the ridge northeast of Mt. Eisenhower, and Mount Pierce to the southwest. All three of these peaks are included on the peak-bagging list of four-thousand footers in New Hampshire. Mount Franklin, an "unofficial" peak (not prominent enough to be included in the list), lies between Mount Eisenhower and Mount Monroe.

Multistorey car park

A multistorey car park (UK English) or parking garage (US English; also called a multistorey, parkade (mainly Canadian), parking structure, parking ramp, parking deck or indoor parking) is a building designed for car parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place. It is essentially an indoor, stacked car park. Parking structures may be heated if they are enclosed.

Design of parking structures can add considerable cost for planning new developments, and can be mandated by cities or states in new building parking requirements. Some cities such as London have abolished previously enacted minimum parking requirements.

Parking Lot (song)

"Parking Lot" is a song by Canadian recording artist Nelly Furtado, taken from her fifth studio album, The Spirit Indestructible (2012). The song was written by Furtado and co-written and produced by Rodney "Darkchild" Jerkins, who also produced her two previous singles "Big Hoops" and "Spirit Indestructible". It was released as the third single from the album on September 17, 2012.

It is an upbeat, mid-tempo song, featuring marching band, strong drums, sing-along chants, and a cowbell in the background. The song received favorable from music critics, with some highlighting it as the best single from the album and commending her half-singing, half-rapping mode and called it a nostalgic track.

The music video was released on September 18, 2012, and it was directed by Ray Kay. The clip sees Furtado serving up funky dance moves with a crew of dancers. Those moves were compared to her 2006-2007 Loose era. It received positive reviews, with critics commending its visuals and her urban attitude.

Porter Mountain

Porter Mountain is one of the Adirondack High Peaks. It is number 38 in order of height, and one of the easier hikes of the Adirondack Forty-Sixers. It is named after Noah Porter, one of the first to climb it, later president of Yale University.

It is often climbed to with Cascade Mountain. While it lacks the pseudo-alpine open summit of Cascade, there are nevertheless wide views available from the summit, particularly of the Johns Brook Valley to the east (which Porter blocks from Cascade); it is often less crowded than Cascade.

A yellow-blazed trail leaves the trail to Cascade about 0.5 miles (0.80 km) short of that mountain's summit, and leads down into the mountain pass between the two peaks about 1 mile (1.6 km) to Porter's summit.

It is also possible to follow this trail from its other terminus, over neighboring Blueberry Mountain from Keene Valley, although that involves a greater vertical ascent and a longer trip. The trailhead to Blueberry Mountain and subsequently Porter Mountain is accessible from a parking lot next to Marcy Airfield on route 73.

Ray Nitschke Field

Ray Nitschke Field is one of the two outdoor practice facilities of the Green Bay Packers (the other is Clarke Hinkle Field). These fields, together with the Don Hutson Center, comprise the team's training complex.

The field is named for Ray Nitschke, who played for the Packers from 1958 to 1972 and whose number 66 was retired by the team. Nitschke is a member of both the Pro Football and Packers Hall of Fames.

On June 18, 2003, the Brown County Board voted 23–0 to approve a new lease for Ray Nitschke Field which gave the Packers the use of the site through 2020. The lease began in 2004 and started at $125,000 with an increase of $5,000 in each succeeding year. The Packers had been leasing the field from the County since 1997 for $15,000 a year. This field had an artificial FieldTurf surface, installed in 2004 (Clarke Hinkle Field has a natural grass surface).

The Packers have since signed a 15-year lease with Brown County to move the field closer to the Don Hutson Center, with their paying $200,000 to the county this year and increasing $6,500 each subsequent year. The new location is in a former parking lot for the Resch Center and as part of the deal the Packers had to build a 205-space parking lot at the former site of Nitschke Field.

On August 1, 2009, the Packers unveiled major renovations to the practice facility, including bleacher seating for 1500 fans, a sound system for announcements and music as well as natural grass field with underground heating. The heating system will enable the team to host outdoor practices in the winter, something they have been unable to do in the past. The exterior facade uses the same brick style as Lambeau Field and the 170 × 75-yard field is considered a state-of-the-art practice field unlike anything else in the National Football League.

Smuggler Cove Marine Provincial Park

Smuggler Cove Marine Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada.

Smuggler Cove is a small, picturesque all-weather anchorage on the south side of Sechelt Peninsula near Secret Cove. To access this park by land, visitors can hike 4 km from a parking lot off Hwy 101. This park provides camping, hiking, swimming, kayaking and picnicking. Park Size: 185 hectares. 16 km West of Sechelt on the Sunshine Coast. Accessible by boat from the north end of Welcome Pass. Also accessible from Brooks Road off Hwy 101 halfway between Secret Cove and Halfmoon Bay on the Sunshine Coast. It is a 4 km hike from the parking lot to Smuggler Cove.

The Smuggler Cove Marine Provincial Park draws many boaters and sightseers every year to the protected cove. Many come to explore the many bays of the area, rock cliffs and beach areas. The marine park is considered a wetland park so there are some very sensitive ecological areas along the path designed to protect the ecosystem. Please stay on walking paths and have dogs leashed.

Smuggler Cove is an all-weather anchorage with three large anchoring basins for cruising boats. The best entry to the park by boat is through Welcome Passage at low tide when reef and rock projections are visible. The local area has provided many eye bolts located along the shoreline to accommodate stern pins.

Smuggler Cove Marine Provincial Park has some wilderness camping facilities on site. Wilderness camping means no amenities. The hike-in campsite is permitted year round only in the five designated campsites located in the cove. Follow the trail for about 1 km ( 0.4 mi.) from the cove to the camping area from the parking lot. There is no drinking water on site so bring your own. There are two pit toilets.

Trackless train

A trackless train — or tram (U.S. English), road train, land train, parking lot tram, Dotto train or Choo-Choo train — is a road-going articulated vehicle used for the transport of passengers, comprising a driving vehicle pulling one or more carriages connected by drawbar couplings, in the manner of a road-going railway train.

Similar vehicles may be used for transport of freight or baggage for short distances, such as at a factory or airport.

Trinitite

Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glassy residue left on the desert floor after the plutonium-based Trinity nuclear bomb test on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The glass is primarily composed of arkosic sand composed of quartz grains and feldspar (both microcline and smaller amount of plagioclase with small amount of calcite, hornblende and augite in a matrix of sandy clay) that was melted by the atomic blast. It is usually a light green, although color can vary. It is mildly radioactive but safe to handle.In the late 1940s and early 1950s, samples were gathered and sold to mineral collectors as a novelty. Traces of the material may be found at the Trinity Site today, although most of it was bulldozed and buried by the United States Atomic Energy Commission in 1953. It is now illegal to take the remaining material from the site; however, material that was taken prior to this prohibition is still in the hands of collectors.

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