Parking enforcement officer

A parking enforcement officer (PEO),[1][2] traffic warden[1] (British English), parking inspector/parking officer[3] (Australia and New Zealand), or civil enforcement officer[1] is a member of a traffic control department or agency who issues tickets for parking violations. The term parking attendant is sometimes considered a synonym[4] but sometimes used to refer to the different profession of parking lot attendant.[2]

Even where parking meters are no longer used, the term "meter maid" is often still used to refer to female PEOs.[5][6]

San Francisco Parking Attendant Vehicle
A parking attendant vehicle in San Francisco.
Northern Constabulary Vauxhall van (Traffic Wardens) (1)
A Traffic Warden van in Inverness.
"Meter maid" in Stockholm in 1961
"Meter maid" in Stockholm, 1961

Other duties

On 9 December 2007, the mayor of Stockholm, Mikael Söderlund, announced that the tasks of the parking enforcement officers will be broadened to include fining graffiti vandals and litterers. Trade union representatives say these officers are not prepared to take on new tasks, already stretched by metering vehicles, and that they fear the risk of violence. Those authorities in England that invested in vehicles with onboard computer and camera equipment have also begun policing bus lanes.[7] With the combination of the role of parking attendants in some areas of Great Britain into that of civil enforcement officers, many now routinely issue fixed penalties for such offences as littering, public drinking, anti-social behaviour and noise violations in addition to dealing with nuisance parking offences which previously escaped the attention of parking attendants as they contravened legislation other than the Road Traffic Act 1991. Nevertheless, the National Careers Service does not list any of these new tasks.[1] Parking wardens in New Zealand are also empowered by law to enforce the use of special vehicle lanes, such as bus and transit lanes.[8] In Auckland, Parking wardens may also undertake bylaw enforcement duties (for example, bylaws placing restrictions on parking during special events).[9]

By country


In Canada, parking enforcement duties are frequently handled under the umbrella of bylaw enforcement by bylaw enforcement officers. No jurisdictions remain where persons employed for the purpose of enforcing traffic bylaws are referred to as "meter maids" and increasingly fewer offices of "parking enforcement officer" exist. Most officials once employed as PEOs are now utilized to perform a variety of bylaw enforcement duties, often including animal control or the enforcement of other bylaws. The position is increasingly upgraded to that of the more professional position of bylaw enforcement officer. Common duties of bylaw enforcement officers include parking enforcement, property and zoning regulation, and regulation of general conduct of persons in public. Bylaw officers, however, only have the power to issue civil citations as such as penalties for most municipal bylaw violations.

The cities of Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver still employ officials with the title of parking enforcement officer. In the case of Montreal and Toronto, PEOs are a sub-division of their respective police force : the Montreal SPVM (where they are nicknamed "green onions" due to their formerly green uniforms) and the Toronto Police Service (where they have been nicknamed 'blue hornets' because of their blue uniform stripe, which is red on police officers' uniforms). In Vancouver's case, PEOs are employees of the municipal government, not affiliated with the Vancouver Police Department.

Canadian parking enforcement officers are de facto peace officers while in the performance of their duties and inasmuch as that designation is required for the performance of their duties, even if they are not sworn officers or constables. Case law has upheld this legal interpretation. See bylaw enforcement officer for case-law excerpts. This means that assault on a Canadian parking enforcement officer or bylaw officer conducting traffic bylaw enforcement is punishable under the Criminal Code of Canada as assault on a peace officer and carries higher penalties than standard assault.

In some areas in Canada, parking enforcement services are subcontracted to a private organization, such as the Canadian Corps of Commissionaires. However these facilities are usually privately owned parking lots and garage. Although some large municipalitys have long standing agreements.[10]

Toronto is deploying traffic wardens to help with congestion at major intersections in the city beginning in early 2018.[11] Their focus is to expedite flow of cars and pedestrians at problem intersections, where they will replace use of Toronto police officers in the same role.


Dishub llajr
An Indonesian Traffic Warden

In Indonesia, traffic wardens or also known as parking enforcement officers are under the Ministry of Transportation and are known as "Dishub" or "LLAJR". Beside enforcing parking regulations, they also assist the Police in directing traffic and maintain discipline in the road especially for public transportation vehicles such as public buses, taxis, trucks, etc. which use yellow license plate. Their uniform is white (used to be blue, but has since been changed due to similarity with the air force's uniform) which is different from the Police that wear Brown. They are usually stationed in Bus Terminals, public transportation stations, and other public transportation agencies in Indonesia.


In the Republic of Ireland, parking enforcement officer are employed by councils to enforce laws relating to the parking and stopping of motor vehicles. They were introduced by the Local Authorities (Traffic Wardens) Act 1975. Under the Road Traffic Acts, traffic wardens are empowered to issue on the spot parking tickets and fines for non-display for a tax disc. It is an offence to refuse to provide your name and address when demanded to do so by a traffic warden.

New Zealand

In New Zealand, a local authority may appoint a person to hold the office of parking warden.[12] Parking wardens have jurisdiction on a public road within the local authority's region, and are warranted upon appointment to enforce parking offences and special vehicle lane offences. [13] Parking offences include (but are not limited to): incorrect parking, having an expired warrant-of-fitness or registration, having bald/smooth tyres, parking over the time limit, and parking longer than paid for. The fines for various parking offences are considerably lower than many other places around the world, with fines as low as $12 for minor offences. However, abuse and violence against officers is common, resulting in some councils adopting body worn cameras for them. Parking wardens may direct people to remove their vehicle off a public road if it causes an obstruction on the road or to any vehicle entrance, or if it is desirable in the interests of road safety or the interests of the Public. They can also (for the reasons just mentioned) enter (or authorise a person to enter) a vehicle for the purposes of moving it or preparing it for towing, and like Ireland, by law can request a persons identifying details.[14]

The term 'parking warden' is considered to be a misnomer, as they deal with matters more than just parking, especially as the law also empowers them to enforce certain moving violations, such as unauthorised use of a special vehicle lane. [15]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom (UK), traffic wardens have historically been employed by the territorial police force to help with traffic management and parking regulations. Parking attendants have more recently been introduced by local authorities to pursue decriminalised parking enforcement. Accusations of overzealousness on the part of parking attendants is likely due to high pressure management focused around delivering a certain number of tickets per day, leading to allegations of corruption and illegality.[16] This brings accusations that their real purpose is to raise revenue for the local authority rather than keep the traffic moving. Those who receive fines argue that the "punishment does not fit the crime,"[17] pointing to the size of fines levied for minor parking violations in comparison with fines generally issued for more serious motoring offences or other offences such as shoplifting. Public dislike of parking attendants in the UK is such that they have been stabbed,[18] received death threats,[19] and been issued stab-proof vests[20] and cotton swabs to take DNA samples when members of the public spit on them, for later prosecution.

Enforcement of laws dealing with the parking of motor vehicles in the UK can be the responsibility of one or more of the following persons:

Civil enforcement officers (England, Wales, Scotland), including those previously known as parking attendants (whose duties might still be limited to parking contraventions or might now be extended to other road traffic contraventions where a local authority has chosen to do so),[21] are employed by local authorities or a contractor providing their services to a local authority. Since the advent of decriminalised parking enforcement, they have largely replaced traffic wardens as the primary enforcers of parking regulations. They have the power to issue penalty charge notices (PCNs) for parking contraventions dealt with by ss.63-79 Road Traffic Act 1991; in areas where their duties have been extended beyond that of a parking attendant they can also issue PCNs for parking offences coming under other legislation such as e.g. parking a vehicle entirely on a footway or the parking of a detached vehicle trailer or skip.

Traffic attendants (Northern Ireland) issue parking offence penalty charge notices (i.e. a civil penalty not a criminal penalty) for the Roads Service using powers under the Traffic Management (Northern Ireland) Order 2005.

Traffic wardens are employees of police forces and are primarily responsible for controlling traffic in general using powers available to authorised persons defined in the Road Traffic Act 1988. Their usage for parking enforcement is less common since the advent of decriminalised parking enforcement which in many areas transferred the enforcement of offences concerning simple parking in controlled areas to local authorities; other parking offences such as any involving penalty points and/or those not involving the 1991 Act (or equivalent in Northern Ireland) remain enforceable by traffic wardens. Traffic wardens in the Metropolitan Police could be promoted to traffic warden supervisor, traffic warden controller, senior traffic warden controller, and area traffic warden controller.

Traffic officers of the Highways Agency (England and Wales) operate under the Traffic Management Act 2004 and have various powers to deal with vehicles on a "relevant road" (chiefly motorways and trunk roads) which on other roads would be dealt with as parking offences by police or local authorities; this includes the power to remove such vehicles.

The power to deal with a parking offence on a highway generally remains available to a police constable.

Private parking enforcement (England and Wales), Landowners and Private car park operates within England increasingly use private parking enforcement to impose 'Penalty Charge Notices'[22] (Often abbreviated to PCN although not to be confused with Parking Charge Notices which are issued to Civil enforcement officers[23]) for infringements such as marking outside marked bays or over staying limited duration. The British Parking Association act as the industry body for parking operators[24]. Landowners and agents who pursue private parking charges through the courts do so on the basis of trespass the BPA[25] issue guidance to facilitate this through the use of onsite signage.

  • "A driver who uses your private car park with your permission does so under a licence or contract with you. If they park without your permission this will usually be an act of trespass. In all cases, the driver’s use of your land will be governed by your terms and conditions, which the driver should be made aware of from the start. You must use signs to make it easy for them to find out what your terms and conditions are."[26]Signs feature a 'penalty' based parking fee of around £100[27] and usually a discount for prompt payment.

In popular culture

The term 'meter maid' was popularised in The Beatles' song "Lovely Rita", in which the male singer, smitten with a female traffic warden, recalls:

Standing by a parking meter, when I caught a glimpse of Rita
Filling in a ticket in her little white book.
In a cap, she looked much older,
And the bag across her shoulder
Made her look a little like a military man.
Lovely Rita meter maid,
May I inquire discreetly,
When are you free to take some tea with me?

The A&E reality television show Parking Wars focuses on parking enforcement.

In the 1984 BBC television drama Threads, a deputized traffic warden armed with a machine gun is briefly shown keeping watch over an improvised internment camp for looters, following a nuclear strike on Sheffield. The warden's bandaged face was used in the promotional material for the film.[28]

In the 2016 Disney animated film Zootopia the main character, Judy Hopps, is disappointed to be assigned parking enforcement duties, but decides to excel at her task.[29]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Job profiles of the UK National Careers Service
  2. ^ a b United States Department of Labor Dictionary of Occupational Titles, classification number 375.587-010
  3. ^ Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ American Heritage Dictionary
  6. ^ Entry for "meter maid" in the Random House Dictionary, 2011.
  7. ^ Anders Sundström (9 December 2007). "P-vakter blir klotterjägare" (in Swedish). Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Canadian Corps of Commissionaires "Enforcement Services"". Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ "UK | Magazine | Confessions of a parking attendant". BBC News. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  17. ^ "Meter Maid Man". D4 Brothers. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  18. ^ "Parking attendant stabbed in arm". BBC News Online. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  19. ^ Magee, Julie (6 August 2011). "Parking attendants at Castlepoint face death threats". Bournemouth Echo. Bournemouth. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  20. ^ Kaiser, Robert (15 December 2014). "Robert Kaiser's Blog: Can Stab Resistant Vests Improve The Safety Of Parking Enforcement Professionals / Traffic Wardens?". PPSS Group. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  21. ^ s.76 Traffic Management Act 2004
  22. ^ "Home". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  23. ^ "Enforcement Agents - Penalty Charge Notice | North Hertfordshire District Council". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Who we are". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  25. ^ "British Parking Association - Representing organisations in the parking and traffic management industry". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  26. ^ "Code of Practice and Compliance Monitoring". Retrieved 11 June 2019.
  27. ^ "No Parking Sign [ Private Parking Car Park Enforcement Wheel Clamp Keep Clear ]". Parking Enforcement. 24 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  28. ^
  29. ^ Downhower, Annick J. (16 March 2016). "Protecting and Serving in "Zootopia"". Mid Valley News. El Monte, California. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

External links

All Systems Down

All Systems Down is a 2018 novel by American writer Sam Boush. The novel deals with a Cyberwarfare attack on Western countries, focusing on three groups of characters in the United States.

All Worked Up

All Worked Up is an American reality television series that premiered on truTV on October 19, 2009 and ended on August 15, 2011. The show was filmed simply by following along with North Carolina repossession agents Ron Shirley, Amy Shirley, and Bobby Brantley, while reenacting process server Byran McElderry, South Carolina code enforcement agent (Shawn Abron), California parking enforcement agent Jackie Pucci, Florida bail bondsman Harold Jackson, Pennsylvania head of security for Ring of Honor Wrestling Zach Yeager, and others who routinely find themselves in volatile work situations. Ron, Amy and Bobby also starred in the series' spinoff, Lizard Lick Towing.

Code enforcement

Code enforcement, sometimes encompassing law enforcement, is the act of enforcing a set of rules, principles, or laws (especially written ones) and ensuring observance of a system of norms or customs. An authority usually enforces a civil code, a set of rules, or a body of laws and compel those subject to their authority to behave in a certain way.

In the United States, those employed in various capacities of code enforcement may be called Code Enforcement Officers, Municipal Regulations Officers, or with various titles depending on their specialization.

In the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand, various names are used, but the word Warden is commonly used for various classes of non-police enforcement personnel (such as Game Warden, Traffic Warden, Park Warden).

In Canada and some Commonwealth Countries, the term Bylaw Enforcement Officer is more commonly used, as well as Municipal Law Enforcement Officer or Municipal Enforcement Officer.

In Germany order enforcement offices are established under the state's laws and local regulations under different terms like Ordnungsamt (order enforcement office), Ordnungsdienst (order enforcement service), Gemeindevollzugsdienst (municipal code enforcement office), Polizeibehörde (police authority) or Stadtpolizei (city police) for general-duty bylaw enforcement units.

Various persons and organizations ensure compliance with laws and rules, including:

Building inspector, an official who is charged with ensuring that construction is in compliance with local codes.

Fire marshal, an official who is both a police officer and a firefighter and enforces a fire code.

Health inspector, an official who is charged with ensuring that restaurants meet local health codes.

Police forces, charged with maintaining public order, crime prevention, and enforcing criminal law.

Zoning enforcement officer, an official who is charged with enforcing the zoning code of a local jurisdiction, such as a municipality or county.

Parking enforcement officer, an official who is charged with enforcing street parking regulations.

Doe v. Groody

The Doe v. Groody, 361 F.3d 232 (3d Cir. 2004) lawsuit concerned a strip-search of a 10-year-old girl and her mother despite the fact that neither were criminal suspects nor named in any search warrant. In applying for a search warrant, officers requested the right to search whoever was in the house and were refused that request.

Firefighter (film)

Firefighter is a 1986 American made-for-television drama film directed by Robert Michael Lewis. The film is based on the true story of Cindy Fralick, the first female firefighter of the Los Angeles County Fire Department.

Fred Claus

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Herb Russell

Herb Russell was an American politician from Rutland City, Vermont. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected to the Vermont House of Representatives in 2010, representing the Rutland-5-3 district. He took office on January 5, 2011.

In his first term Russell successfully sponsored legislation to tighten copper theft penalties. Successive terms worked on Rutland issues: Saving the Amtrak Ethan Allen working to secure grants while serving on House Transportation Committee to build Western Rail Corridor, New Dorr & Ripley bridges, NEW senior housing in renovated historic Watkins School, sponsored John Deere historic birthplace sign and sponsoring numerous other historic state markers signifying Rutland & Vermont Rail history around the state. He sponsored a resolution for intercity bus service for Rutland, with VTrans bringing back 'Vermont Transit Lines' routes through the Rutland Transit Center. Herb Russell was most proud to sponsor, in his final act before retiring from the

Vermont Legislature, the 'Vermont Marriage Equality' state historic marker located between Vermont Statehouse

and Supreme Court dedicated on Tuesday October 17, 2017 celebrating Vermont's role as 'first' in the nation!

A former flight attendant, Russell spent almost 30 years with American Airlines until retiring in 2004. He joined American in 1976, after spending a year with Allegheny Airlines and two years with Northwest Orient Airlines. He had previously attended two colleges, the State University of New York and the University of Kentucky. Since retiring from American Airlines in 2004, he has worked for the CRDA Casino Reinvestment Development Authority in Atlantic City, followed by South Jersey Transportation Authority, then after moving to Vermont at the historic Equinox Hotel in Manchester, Vermont and as a 'Passenger Conductor' on the Green Mountain Railroad. In Retirement Russell works as a Parking Enforcement Officer in Rehoboth Beach,

Delaware. He was appointed by Delaware Governor John Carney in May 2017 to serve on the Board of Architects in Dover.

In 2008 Russell was a leader in the successful effort to keep Amtrak's Ethan Allen Express train in Rutland, founding Friends of Rutland Rail. He has served on the board of the Vermont Rail Action Network

and Sustainable Rutland, both since 2009.

He ran for state representative in 2010, one of three candidates seeking one seat in the Rutland-5-3 district. The incumbent state representative, Democrat Steven Howard was vacating the seat to run for Lieutenant Governor. In the Democratic primary election held on August 24, Russell defeated Daniel P. White by 165 votes to 60. In the general election held on November 2, Russell was elected, defeating Republican nominee Carl J. Haas by 454 votes to 437. He took office on January 5, 2011. Russell announced he would not seek a third term, retiring in 2016. Russell returned to his beloved Rehoboth Beach, Delaware to retire among LGBTQ friends, where he remains active in CAMP Rehoboth as well as Epworth UMC.

While living in West Virginia in the 1990s, he ran twice for the West Virginia Senate, winning the 1992 primary, but did not appear on the general election ballot after a protracted case in the West Virginia Supreme Court. He lost a subsequent 1996 primary race. He moved to Vermont in 2007.

Russell is openly gay; he married long-time partner Roberto Font-Russell in 2009 but divorced in 2011 changing his name from Font-Russell back to Russell. He is one of six openly gay members of the Vermont Legislature, alongside representatives Bill Lippert (D–Hinesburg), Matt Trieber (D–Bellows Falls) and Joanna E. Cole (D–Burlington), as well as senators Brian Campion (D–Bennington) and Becca Balint (D–Windham).

I Will Survive

"I Will Survive" is a hit song first performed by American singer Gloria Gaynor, released in October 1978. It was written by Freddie Perren and Dino Fekaris. A top-selling song after its initial release, it sold 14 million copies worldwide and has remained a popular disco anthem, as well as being certified platinum by the RIAA.The song's lyrics describe the narrator's discovery of personal strength following an initially devastating breakup. It received heavy airplay in 1979, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and on the UK Singles Chart on consecutive weeks. The song is also frequently recalled as a symbol of female strength. In 2016, the Library of Congress deemed Gaynor's original recording to be "culturally, historically, or artistically significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Recording Registry.

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Mr. Bean (animated TV series)

Mr. Bean: The Animated Series (also known as simply Mr. Bean) is a British animated sitcom produced by Tiger Aspect Productions in association with Richard Purdum Productions, Varga Holdings and Sunwoo Entertainment (for its first three seasons). Based on the 1990-95 British live-action television sitcom of the same name created by Richard Curtis and Rowan Atkinson, the series centers on Mr. Bean (voiced by the latter), Teddy, Irma Gobb and the Reliant Regal's mysterious driver with the addition of new characters such as Mrs. Wicket, Bean's landlady and her evil cat Scrapper. In February 2001, the series was officially announced, with it premiering shortly afterwards.Debuting on 5 January 2002 and ending on 2 June 2004, three seasons and 52 episodes were originally broadcast, each consisting of two 11-minute segments. The first two seasons were originally broadcast on ITV1 at a prime time Saturday night slot. In May 2004, the series left ITV1 and the third and final season was instead broadcast daily on CITV due to the series's popularity with younger audiences.

In January 2014, CITV announced a revival of the series with Rowan Atkinson returning as the voice of Mr. Bean, along with other cast members reprising their roles. The revival now features 78 new episodes; the new episodes began airing from 16 February 2015 onwards. The revival now contains more actual dialogue than in the original series which mostly featured little sound effects and mumbling.


An officer is a person who has a position of authority in a hierarchical organization. The term derives from the late Latin from officiarius, meaning "official".

Ottawa By-law Services

The City of Ottawa's By-law and Regulatory Services Branch (BLRS) (Services des Règlements Municipaux in French) is a uniformed municipal law enforcement agency providing regulatory services to the residents and visitors of the City of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.


Peo may refer to:

Reckong Peo, the capital of Kinnaur district in IndiaPEO may stand for:

Parking enforcement officer, an official who issues parking tickets

Plasma electrolytic oxidation, a surface-treatment process for metals

Polyethylene oxide, alternate name for Polyethylene glycol, a polymer

peo, ISO 639-2 and ISO 639-3 language code for Old Persian

Pankyprya Ergatyk Omospontha (Pancyprian Federation of Labour), an umbrella organization for trade unions in Cyprus

P.E.O. Sisterhood, an international women's organization with headquarters in North America

Professional employer organization, a service provider of outsourced human resource management

Professional Engineers Ontario, professional and regulatory organization for engineers in Ontario, Canada

Program executive officer, an individual, civilian or military, responsible for large scale U.S. military acquisitions

Programs Evaluation Office, a covert U.S. paramilitary mission in Laos in 1955-1962

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia, alternate term for chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, an eye disorder

San Marino Police Department

The San Marino Police Department is the police department serving San Marino, California. The headquarters of the San Marino Police Department is located at 2200 Huntington Drive, inside of San Marino City Hall. The department employs 25 sworn officers, 7 cadets, and multiple civilian employees.

Stacy Francis

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Tabitha (TV series)

Tabitha is an American fantasy sitcom and a spin-off of Bewitched that aired on ABC from September 10, 1977 to January 14, 1978. The series starred Lisa Hartman in the title role as Tabitha Stephens, the witch daughter of Samantha and Darrin Stephens who was introduced on Bewitched during its second season.

In the series, Tabitha is portrayed as a young woman working as a production assistant at a television station and living in Los Angeles. The supporting cast includes David Ankrum as Tabitha's brother, Adam, with whom she works; Karen Morrow as Tabitha's and Adam's meddlesome aunt, Minerva; Robert Urich as an egomaniacal talk show host who is a sometime love interest for Tabitha; and Mel Stewart as Tabitha's and Adam’s cranky, but loveable, boss. Unlike Bewitched, which was a hit for ABC and aired for eight seasons, Tabitha failed to catch on with viewers and was canceled after one season.

Traffic police

Traffic police or traffic officers, often referred to colloquially as traffic cops, are police officers who direct traffic or serve in a traffic or roads policing unit enforcing rules of the road. Traffic police include officers who patrol major roads and also police who address traffic infractions on other roads. It has been noted that:

...traffic police, who are regarded as peripheral to most police forces, participate in both authoritative intervention and symbolic justice. Perhaps alone of all the assignments, traffic police are full-service police. They are different from the rest, however, because their work is limited to a particular venue — namely, public thoroughfares — and to particular people — namely, those who operate motor vehicles. But in terms of work, traffic police are detectives as well as patrol officers.


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