Paris Peace Treaties, 1947

The Paris Peace Treaties (French: Traités de Paris) were signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946. The victorious wartime Allied powers (principally the United Kingdom, Soviet Union, United States, and France) negotiated the details of peace treaties with Italy, the minor Axis powers (Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria), and Finland, following the end of World War II in 1945.

The treaties allowed Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland to resume their responsibilities as sovereign states in international affairs and to qualify for membership in the United Nations.

The settlement elaborated in the peace treaties included payment of war reparations, commitment to minority rights, and territorial adjustments including the end of the Italian Colonial Empire in Africa, Greece, and Albania, as well as changes to the Italian–Yugoslav, Hungarian–Czechoslovak, Soviet–Romanian, Hungarian-Romanian, French–Italian, and Soviet–Finnish borders. The treaties also obliged the various states to hand over accused war criminals to the Allied powers for trial.[1]

Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
KingParisPeace1946
Canadian representatives at the Paris Peace Conference, Palais du Luxembourg. (L.-r.:) Norman Robertson, Rt. Hon. William Lyon Mackenzie King, Hon. Brooke Claxton, Arnold Heeney
TypeMultilateral Treaties
Signed10 February 1947
LocationParis, France
Original
signatories
UK, USA, Soviet Union, France, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland
RatifiersU.K., Soviet Union, USA, France, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Finland

Political clauses

The political clauses stipulated that the signatory should "take all measures necessary to secure to all persons under (its) jurisdiction, without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion, the enjoyment of human rights and of the fundamental freedoms, including freedom of expression, of press and publication, of religious worship, of political opinion and of public meeting."

No penalties were to be visited on nationals because of wartime partisanship for the Allies. Each government undertook measures to prevent the resurgence of fascist organizations or any others "whether political, military or semi-military, whose purpose it is to deprive the people of their democratic rights".

Border changes

Italy

Italy lost Italian Libya and Italian East Africa. The latter consisted of Italian Ethiopia, Italian Eritrea, and Italian Somaliland (Italy continued to govern the former Italian Somaliland as a UN trust territory until 1960). In the peace treaty, Italy recognized the independence of Albania (in personal union with the Italian monarchy after the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939). Italy also lost its concession in Tianjin, which was turned over to China. The Dodecanese Islands were ceded to Greece.

Italy had to cede all islands in the eastern Adriatic and most of Istria, including the provinces of Fiume, Zara, and most of Gorizia and Pola to Yugoslavia. The rest of the province of Pola, as well as the province of Trieste, became a new sovereign State (Free Territory of Trieste) under a provisional regime of Government [2] for which the United Nations Security Council was responsible.[3] Trieste officially returned to Italy with the Treaty of Osimo in 1975.

The border with France was only slightly modified in favor of France, mostly in uninhabited Alpine areas (except for the Tende valley and La Brigue) thus de facto remaining the same of 1860. Italian diplomats were able to maintain Aosta Valley despite the territorial demands of France and Alto Adige despite the territorial demands of Austria (thanks to the Gruber–De Gasperi Agreement signed some months before).

Italy avoided the occupation of the country, a fate that Germany and Japan shared, but its territorial losses included areas that had been part of the country before the advent of the Fascist regime in 1922 ( e.g. Libya and Dodecanese, which were conquered in 1911-12; East Gorizia, Istria, Adriatic Islands, and Zara, annexed in 1919).

Finland

Finland was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941 (thus confirming the territorial losses after the Winter War), except for the former province of Petsamo, which was ceded to the Soviet Union. In Finland, the reparations and the dictated border adjustment were perceived as a major injustice and a betrayal by the Western powers, after the sympathy Finland had received from the West during the Soviet-initiated Winter War of 1939–1940. However, this sympathy had been eroded by Finland's pragmatist collaboration with Nazi Germany between 1941 and 1944. During this time, Finland not only recaptured territory it had lost in 1940, but continued its offensive deeper into Soviet lands, occupying a broad strip of Soviet territory. This prompted the United Kingdom to declare war on Finland in December 1941, further weakening political support in the West for the country. The Soviet Union's accessions of Finnish territory was based on the Moscow Armistice signed in Moscow on 19 September 1944 and resulted in an extension of the accessions in the Moscow Peace Treaty that ended the Winter War.

Hungary

Hungary was restored to its borders before 1938. This meant restoring the southern border with Yugoslavia, as well as declaring the First and Second Vienna Awards null and void, cancelling Hungary's gains from Czechoslovakia and Romania. Furthermore, three villages (namely Horvátújfalu, Oroszvár, and Dunacsún) situated south of Bratislava were also transferred to Czechoslovakia.

Romania

Romania was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, with the exception of the border with Hungary giving Northern Transylvania back to Romania. This confirmed the 1940 loss of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union and the Treaty of Craiova, which returned Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, returning Vardar Macedonia to Yugoslavia and Eastern Macedonia and Western Thrace to Greece, but keeping Southern Dobruja per the Treaty of Craiova, leaving Bulgaria as the only former Axis power to keep territory that was gained during the Second World War.[4]

War reparations

The war reparation problem proved to be one of the most difficult arising from post-war conditions. The Soviet Union, the country most heavily ravaged by the war, felt entitled to the maximum amounts possible, with the exception of Bulgaria, which was perceived as being the most sympathetic of the former enemy states. (Bulgaria was part of the Axis but did not declare war on the Soviet Union). In the cases of Romania and Hungary, the reparation terms as set forth in their armistices were relatively high and were not revised.

War reparations at 1938 prices, in United States dollar amounts:

  • $360,000,000 from Italy:
    • $125,000,000 to Yugoslavia;
    • $105,000,000 to Greece;
    • $100,000,000 to the Soviet Union;
    • $25,000,000 to Ethiopia;
    • $5,000,000 to Albania.
  • $300,000,000 Finnish war reparations to the Soviet Union
  • $300,000,000 from Hungary:
    • $200,000,000 to the Soviet Union;
    • $100,000,000 to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
  • $300,000,000 from Romania to the Soviet Union;
  • $70,000,000 from Bulgaria:
    • $45,000,000 to Greece;
    • $25,000,000 to Yugoslavia.

Aftermath

The dissolution of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia did not lead to any renegotiation of the Paris Peace Treaties. However, in 1990 Finland unilaterally cancelled the restrictions the treaty had placed on its military.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Treaties of Peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Roumania and Finland (English Version). Washington, D.C.: Department of State, U.S. Government Printing Service. 1947. p. 17. Retrieved May 21, 2019 – via HathiTrust.
  2. ^ Article 21 and Annex VII, Instrument for the Provisional Regime of the Free Territory of Trieste
  3. ^ United Nations Security Council 16, 10 January 1947
  4. ^ Treaty of Peace with Bulgaria, Dated February 10, 1947, Paris. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. 1947. Retrieved April 3, 2019 – via HathiTrust.
  5. ^ http://www.nato.int/docu/review/1993/9301-3.htm

External links

Arms and the Covenant

Arms and the Covenant is a 1938 non-fiction book written by Winston Churchill. It was later published in the US as While England Slept; a Survey of World Affairs, 1932–1938. It highlighted the United Kingdom's lack of military preparation to face the threat of Nazi Germany's expansion and attacked the current policies of the UK government, led by his fellow Conservative Neville Chamberlain. It galvanised many of his supporters and built up public opposition to the Munich Agreement.

John F. Kennedy was inspired by the book's title when publishing his thesis, which he wrote during his senior year at Harvard College, and in which he examined the reasons for the UK's lack of preparation. Originally titled Appeasement in Munich, it was titled Why England Slept upon its 1940 publication.

Bulgaria–Romania border

The Bulgaria–Romania border is the state border between Bulgaria and Romania.

For most of its length, the border follows the course of the lower Danube River, up until the town of Silistra. From Silistra, the river continues north into the Romanian territory. East of that point, the land border passes through the historical region of Dobruja, dividing it into Northern Dobruja in Romania and Southern Dobruja in Bulgaria.

The Bulgaria–Romania border is an internal border of the European Union. However, as of 2019 neither country is part of the Schengen Area. As a result, border controls are conducted between the two countries, albeit often jointly (once per crossing).

Ciuc County

Ciuc County was a county (Romanian: județ) in the Kingdom of Romania. Its capital was Miercurea Ciuc. Its name was derived from the former county of the Kingdom of Hungary, Csík.

Háromszék County

Háromszék (Three Seats; Romanian: Trei Scaune) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Situated in south-eastern Transylvania, its territory is now in central Romania (in the counties of Covasna, Brașov and Bacău). The capital of the county was Sepsiszentgyörgy (now Sfântu Gheorghe).

May Crisis 1938

The May Crisis of 1938 was a brief episode of international tension caused by reports of German troop movements against Czechoslovakia that appeared to signal the imminent outbreak of war in Europe. Although the state of high anxiety soon subsided when no actual military concentrations were detected, the consequences of the crisis were, nevertheless, far-reaching.

Moscow Conference (1945)

The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (also known as the Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers) of the United States (James F. Byrnes), the United Kingdom (Ernest Bevin), and the Soviet Union (Vyacheslav Molotov) met in December 1945 to discuss the problems of occupation, establishing peace, and other Far East issues.

The Communique issued after the Conference on December 27, 1945 contained a joint declaration which covered a number of issues resulting from the end of World War II. It was signed by the foreign ministers of the three powers and contained the following sections:

Preparation of peace treaties with Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and Finland. (See Paris Peace Treaties, 1947)

Far Eastern Commission and Allied Council for Japan.

Far Eastern Commission

Allied Council for Japan

Korea: The rival U.S. and Soviet military commands in Korea would set up a Joint Commission to make recommendations of a single free government in Korea. This Commission was treated with great suspicion on both sides from its inception. Most important was the decision that a four-power trusteeship of up to five years would be needed before Korea attained independence.

China

The establishment by the United Nations of a commission for the control of atomic energyVeteran American diplomat George F. Kennan, who was then serving in the U.S. embassy in Moscow, observed the proceedings first hand, and wrote in his diary concerning James Byrnes, the U.S. Secretary of State:

The realities behind this agreement, since they concern only such people as Koreans, Rumanians, and Iranians, about whom he knows nothing, do not concern him. He wants an agreement for its political effect at home. The Russians know this. They will see that for this superficial success he pays a heavy price in the things that are real.

Nickel deposits of Finland

The Finnish nickel deposits were found in the Petsamo area near the Barents Sea. Until the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, this was the northernmost part of Finland. In 1934 it was estimated that the deposits contained over five million tons of nickel. In 1935, Canadian and French corporations began mining operations there.

The nickel deposits were a lesser known reason for Allied and German interest in the area during World War II, as potentially of great importance for production of arms and munitions. Both the planned Franco-British support of Finland in the Winter War, and German occupation of Denmark and Norway (Operation Weserübung) were partly motivated by control of the nickel mines.

During the period between the Winter War and the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, there were disputes between Finland and the Soviet Union over mining rights in Petsamo. Finland refused to allow the Soviet Union to mine nickel in Petsamo. This was one of the causes of hostility between the Soviet Union and Finland, which led to the Continuation War. As part of the German invasion, troops from Norway occupied the Petsamo region in 1941, securing the nickel supply.

The Continuation War ended in September 1944, with Finland's capitulation. Finland ceded Petsamo to the Soviet Union. All subsequent nickel production there has been under Soviet or Russian authority.

For the geology of Finnish nickel deposits see,

Genesis of nickel ores

Ultramafic intrusions

Paris Peace Conference

Paris Peace Conference may refer to:

Congress of Paris (1856), negotiations ending the Crimean War

Treaty of Paris (1898), an agreement that involved Spain ceding Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States

Paris Peace Conference, 1919, negotiations ending World War I

Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, which ended World War II for most nations

Paris Peace Accords, 1973 treaty ending American involvement in the Vietnam War

The Paris Peace Conference on Cambodia (July 1989 - October 1991), which resolved Cambodia–China relations#History

Paris Peace Forum, an event first held in 2018

Peace of Pressburg (1271)

The first Peace of Pressburg was a peace treaty concluded in Pressburg (then known as Pozsony in Hungarian and now as Bratislava, Slovakia). It was signed on 2 July 1271 between King Ottokar II of Bohemia and King Stephen V of Hungary. Under this agreement, Hungary renounced its claims on parts of present-day Austria and Slovakia, and Bohemia renounced its claims on territories conquered in Hungary.

Peace of Pressburg (1626)

The third Peace of Pressburg (also known as Treaty of Pressburg) was a peace treaty concluded in Pressburg (then known as Pozsony in Hungarian and now as Bratislava, Slovakia). It was signed on 30 December 1626 between Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, the leader of an uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy from 1619–1626, and Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II. The agreement put an end to the revolt by confirming the Peace of Nikolsburg (31 December 1621). In return, Bethlen agreed not to fight against the emperor anymore, nor would he ally with the Ottoman Turks.

Pentapolitana

Pentapolitana (or rarely Pentapolis) was a league of towns in the Middle Ages of the five most important Hungarian royal free cities (Latin: libera regiae civitas, Hungarian: szabad királyi város, German: Königliche Freistadt; Slovak: slobodné kráľovské mesto) of the Kingdom of Hungary; Kassa (today Košice), Bártfa (Bardejov), Lőcse (Levoča), Eperjes (Prešov), and Kisszeben (Sabinov) . The cities are currently in eastern Slovakia.

The first meeting of the representatives of the towns in question took place in 1412. The actual alliance arose between 1440 and 1445.

The main role of the Pentapolitana was to control and to develop trade as there were important ancient trade routes in the region of the north-eastern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, present-day eastern Slovakia. The leading town of the Pentapolitana was Košice.

In 1549, i.e. during the Reformation period, the Pentapolitana created its own Lutheran confession, the Confessio Pentapolitana.

Postage stamps and postal history of Kastellorizo

Kastellorizo is the easternmost Greek island and is situated in the Eastern Mediterranean. It lies about 2 miles (3 km) from the Anatolian coast (Lycia), more or less halfway between Rhodes and Antalya.

Soviet occupation of Romania

The Soviet occupation of Romania refers to the period from 1944 to August 1958, during which the Soviet Union maintained a significant military presence in Romania. The fate of the territories held by Romania after 1918 that were incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1940 is treated separately in the article on Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.

During the Eastern Front offensive of 1944, the Soviet Army occupied what had been the Kingdom of Romania prior to the military occupation. The northwestern part of Moldavia was occupied as a result of armed combat that took place between the months of April and August of that year, while Romania was still an ally of Nazi Germany. The rest of the territory was occupied after Romania changed sides in World War II, as a result of the royal coup launched by King Michael on August 23, 1944. On that date, the King announced that Romania had unilaterally ceased all military actions against the Allies, accepted the Allied armistice offer, and joined the war against the Axis Powers. As no formal armistice offer had been extended yet, the Red Army occupied most of Romania as enemy territory prior to the signing of the Moscow Armistice of September 12, 1944.

The armistice convention and eventually the Paris Peace Treaties of 1947 provided a legal basis for the Soviet military presence in Romania, which lasted until 1958, reaching a peak of some 615,000 in 1946.Soviet authors and the 1952 Constitution of Romania referred to the events of 1944 as the "liberation of Romania by the glorious Soviet Army". On the other hand, most Romanian and Western sources use the term "Soviet occupation of Romania," some applying it to the whole period from 1944 to 1958.

Treaty of Lubowla

Treaty of Lubowla of 1412 was a treaty between Władysław II, King of Poland, and Sigismund of Luxemburg, King of Hungary. Negotiated in the town of Stará Ľubovňa in modern Slovakia, it was confirmed later that year in Buda.

Treaty of Speyer (1570)

The Treaty of Speyer, signed at the Diet of Speyer in 1570, was a peace agreement between the two Hungarian Kingdoms, Royal Hungary led by Maximiliam II, and the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, ruled by John Sigismund Zápolya. John Sigismund abdicated as King of Hungary, however Maximiliam II recognized John Sigismund's authority as "Prince of Transylvania" and in return John Sigismund accepted Maximiliam II as King of Hungary with suzerainty over his principality.

John Sigismund became princeps Transsylvaniae et partium regni Hungariae dominus – Prince of Transylvania and of a part of the Kingdom of Hungary. According to the treaty Principality of Transylvania continued to be part of the Kingdom of Hungary in the sense of public law.

Truce of Adrianople (1547)

The Truce of Adrianople in 1547, named after the Ottoman city of Adrianople (present-day Edirne), was signed between Charles V and Suleiman the Magnificent. Through this treaty, Ferdinand I of Austria and Charles V recognized total Ottoman control of Hungary, and even agreed to pay to the Ottomans a yearly tribute of 30,000 gold florins for their Habsburg possessions in northern and western Hungary. The Treaty followed important Ottoman victories in Hungary, such as the Siege of Esztergom (1543).

Virolahti

Virolahti (Swedish: Vederlax) is the southeastern-most municipality of Finland on the border of Russia. It is located in the Kymenlaakso region. The municipality has a population of 3,148 (31 January 2019) and covers an area of 558.92 square kilometres (215.80 sq mi), of which 186.97 km2 (72.19 sq mi) is water. The population density is 8.46 inhabitants per square kilometre (21.9/sq mi).

The municipality is unilingually Finnish.

Before World War I the Russian Emperor Nicholas II used to spend summers with his family in the archipelago of Virolahti with his yacht Standart, Finland being an autonomous province within the Russian Empire between 1809 and 1917.

The Vaalimaa border crossing, which connects the municipality with Russia, is located in Virolahti.

Virolahti lost some of its area (over 100 km2 (39 sq mi)) to Soviet Union in Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 after World War II.

World War II reparations

After World War II, both West Germany and East Germany were obliged to pay war reparations to the Allied governments, according to the Potsdam Conference. Other Axis nations were obliged to pay war reparations according to the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947.

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