Parent company

A parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operation by influencing or electing its board of directors. The [1] company is deemed a subsidiary of the parent company.

By country

Australia

The parent company-subsidiary company relationship is defined by Part 1.2, Division 6, Section 46 of the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth), which states:[2]

A body corporate (in this section called the first body ) is a subsidiary of another body corporate if, and only if:

(a) the other body:
(i) controls the composition of the first body's board; or
(ii) is in a position to cast, or control the casting of, more than one-half of the maximum number of votes that might be cast at a general meeting of the first body; or
(iii) holds more than one-half of the issued share capital of the first body (excluding any part of that issued share capital that carries no right to participate beyond a specified amount in a distribution of either profits or capital); or
(b) the first body is a subsidiary of a subsidiary of the other body.[3]

Singapore

The parent subsidiary company relationship is defined by Part 1, Section 5, Subsection 1 of the Companies Act, which states:[3]

5. —(1) For the purposes of this Act, a corporation shall, subject to subsection (3), be deemed to be a subsidiary of another corporation, if —

(a) that other corporation —
(i) controls the composition of the board of directors of the first-mentioned corporation;
(ii) controls more than half of the voting power of the first-mentioned corporation; or
(iii) [Deleted by Act 36 of 2014 wef 01/07/2015]
(b) the first-mentioned corporation is a subsidiary of any corporation which is that other corporation's subsidiary.

United Kingdom (UK)

In the United Kingdom, it is generally held that an organisation holding a 'controlling stake' in a company (a holding of over 51% of the stock) is in effect the de facto parent company of the firm, having overriding material influence over the held company's operations, even if no formal full takeover has been enacted. Once a full takeover or purchase is enacted, the held company is seen to have ceased to operate as an independent entity but to have become a tending subsidiary of the purchasing company, which, in turn, becomes the parent company of the subsidiary. (A holding below 50% could be sufficient to give a parent company material influence if they are the largest individual shareholder or if they are placed in control of the running of the operation by non-operational shareholders.)

See also

References

  1. ^ second
  2. ^ "CORPORATIONS ACT 2001 - SECT 46". AustLII. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
  3. ^ a b "Definition of subsidiary and holding company". Singapore Statutes Online. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
Advertising Age

Advertising Age, or Ad Age, is a global media brand publishing analysis, news and data on marketing and media. The magazine was started as a broadsheet newspaper in Chicago in 1930. Today, its content appears in multiple formats, including AdAge.com, daily e-mail newsletters, social channels, events and a bimonthly print magazine.

Ad Age is based in New York City. Its parent company, Detroit-based Crain Communications, is a privately held publishing company with more than 30 magazines, including Autoweek, Crain's New York Business, Crain's Chicago Business, Crain's Detroit Business, and Automotive News.

Alphabet Inc.

Alphabet Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Mountain View, California. It was created through a corporate restructuring of Google on October 2, 2015, and became the parent company of Google and several former Google subsidiaries. The two founders of Google assumed executive roles in the new company, with Larry Page serving as CEO and Sergey Brin as president.Alphabet's portfolio encompasses several industries, including technology, life sciences, investment capital, and research. Some of its subsidiaries include Google, Calico, Chronicle, GV, CapitalG, Verily, Waymo, X, Loon and Google Fiber. Some of the subsidiaries of Alphabet have altered their names since leaving Google and becoming part of the new parent company—Google Ventures becoming GV, Google Life Sciences becoming Verily and Google X becoming just X. Following the restructuring, Page became CEO of Alphabet and Sundar Pichai took his position as CEO of Google. Shares of Google's stock have been converted into Alphabet stock, which trade under Google's former ticker symbols of "GOOG" and "GOOGL". As of 2018, Alphabet is ranked No. 22 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.The establishment of Alphabet was prompted by a desire to make the core Google Internet services business "cleaner and more accountable" while allowing greater autonomy to group companies that operate in businesses other than Internet services.

Blue Dart Aviation

Blue Dart Aviation is a cargo airline based in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It operates with its main base as Chennai International Airport and services 7 Indian metro cities. German courier company Deutsche Post owns a 70% stake in the airline through its subsidiary Blue Dart Express. It provides service in 220 plus countries and territories all over the world through their parent company DHL.

Comcast Spectacor

Comcast Sports Ventures, doing business as Comcast Spectacor, is a Philadelphia-based American sports and entertainment company. It owns the Philadelphia Flyers of the National Hockey League, the upcoming Maine Mariners of the ECHL, the Philadelphia Wings of the National Lacrosse League, the Philadelphia Fusion of the Overwatch League, and formerly owned the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association. The company owns and manages the Wells Fargo Center and formerly managed the Spectrum in South Philadelphia (before that arena was demolished), plus several community skating rinks in the Philadelphia region known as Flyers Skate Zone. The Comcast SportsNet (CSN) regional sports networks were also owned by Comcast Spectacor prior to parent company Comcast's acquisition of a majority stake in NBCUniversal in January 2011; CSN is now operated through NBC Sports.

The company was formed in 1974 by Flyers founder and chairman Ed Snider as Spectacor, the parent company of both the Flyers and the Spectrum. Snider had been instrumental in getting the Spectrum built in 1967 and assumed control of the arena in 1971. He sold a 63% stake in Spectacor to Comcast in 1996 but remained as chairman of the renamed Comcast Spectacor. Shortly afterward, Comcast Spectacor bought the 76ers; as the Spectrum's owner, Snider had been the Sixers' landlord since 1971. Comcast Spectacor sold the 76ers to Joshua Harris in 2011. In April 2016 Ed Snider died at his home in California. On September 22, 2016, Comcast announced that it will buy out the remaining 24% it does not own.

Corporate spin-off

A corporate spin-off, also known as a spin-out, or starburst, is a type of corporate action where a company "splits off" a section as a separate business.

Future US

Future US, Inc. (formerly known as Imagine Media and The Future Network USA) is an American media corporation specializing in targeted magazines and websites in the video games, music, and technology markets. Future US is headquartered in the San Francisco with a small sales office in New York City. Future US is owned by parent company, Future plc, a publishing company based in the United Kingdom.

Its magazines and websites include:

PC Gamer

Official Xbox Magazine

TechRadar

Maximum PC

Electronic Musician

Guitar Player

Guitar World

Multichannel News

Broadcasting & Cable

TWICE

Holding company

A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself; rather, its purpose is to own shares of other companies to form a corporate group. Holding companies allow the reduction of risk for the owners and can allow the ownership and control of a number of different companies.

In the United States, 80% of stock, in voting and value, must be owned before tax consolidation benefits such as tax-free dividends can be claimed. That is, if Company A owns 80% or more of the stock of Company B, Company A will not pay taxes on dividends paid by Company B to its stockholders, as the payment of dividends from B to A is essentially transferring cash from one company to the other. Any other shareholders of Company B will pay the usual taxes on dividends, as they are legitimate and ordinary dividends to these shareholders.

Sometimes a company intended to be a pure holding company identifies itself as such by adding "Holding" or "Holdings" to its name.

Hoopla (digital media service)

Hoopla Digital (stylized as "hoopla") is a web and mobile (iOS/Android) platform that provides a wide range of digital content (audio books, movies, music, ebooks, comics, and TV). hoopla allows library patrons to download or stream media content free of charge (paid for by their local library system).

Hoopla Digital is a division of the Holland, Ohio-based company Midwest Tape, and is housed in the same facility.

List of Kannada-language television channels

Below is the list of current satellite television channels in Kannada language, a Dravidian language widely spoken in the South Indian state of Karnataka. Apart from those in the below list, many other Kannada channels exist that are limited to certain cities or districts, run by local cable TV operators.

List of programs broadcast by UPN

The following is a list of programs broadcast by UPN. Some programs were carried over to The CW, a network formed through a partnership between WB parent company Time Warner and UPN corporate parent CBS Corporation, in September 2006 following the closure of The WB. Titles are listed in alphabetical order followed by the year of debut in parentheses.

List of television stations in the United Kingdom

This list of linear television stations in the United Kingdom refers to television in the United Kingdom which is available from digital terrestrial, satellite, cable, and IPTV providers, with an estimated more than 480 channels.

National Amusements

National Amusements, Inc. is an American privately-owned theater company and mass media holding company based in Dedham, Massachusetts and incorporated in Maryland. It was the parent company of the first incarnation of Viacom, and is the parent company of CBS Corporation and second incarnation of Viacom that were split off in 2006.

As of December 2016, National Amusements, directly and through subsidiaries, holds approximately 79.8% of the Class A (voting) common stock of Viacom Inc., constituting 10% of the overall equity of the Company, and holds approximately 79.5% of the Class A (voting) common stock and 2.4% of the Class B (non‐voting) common stock of CBS Corporation, constituting 9.1% of the overall equity of the Company.

The company operates more than 1,500 movie screens across the Northeastern United States, the United Kingdom, Latin America, and Russia under its Showcase Cinemas, Multiplex Cinemas, Cinema de Lux, and KinoStar brands.

Orbit Books

Orbit Books is an international publisher that specialises in science fiction and fantasy books. It was founded in 1974 as part of the Macdonald Futura publishing company. In 1992, its parent company was bought by Little, Brown & Co., at that stage part of the Time Warner Book Group.

In 1997, Orbit acquired the Legend imprint from Random House.In 2006, Orbit's parent company Little, Brown was sold by Time Warner to the French publishing group Hachette Livre.

In summer 2006, it was announced that Orbit would expand internationally, with the establishment of Orbit imprints in the United States and Australia. Orbit Publishing Director Tim Holman relocated to New York to establish Orbit US as an imprint of Hachette Book Group USA. In June 2007, Orbit announced the appointment of Bernadette Foley as publisher for Orbit Australia, an imprint of Hachette Livre Australia.

SB Nation

SB Nation (originally known as Sports Blog Nation) is a sports blogging network owned by Vox Media. It was co-founded by Tyler Bleszinski and Markos Moulitsas in 2005. The blog from which the network formed was started by Bleszinski as Athletics Nation in 2003, and focused solely on the Oakland Athletics. It has since expanded to cover sports franchises on a national scale, including all Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League teams, as well as college and soccer teams, totaling over 300 community sites. In 2011, the network expanded into technology content with The Verge, leading to the parent company Sports Blogs Inc. being rebranded as Vox Media. SB Nation operates from Vox Media's offices in New York City and Washington, D.C.

Subsidiary

A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company that is owned or controlled by another company, which is called the parent company, parent, or holding company. The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability company. In some cases it is a government or state-owned enterprise. In some cases, particularly in the music and book publishing industries, subsidiaries are referred to as imprints.

In the United States railroad industry, an operating subsidiary is a company that is a subsidiary but operates with its own identity, locomotives and rolling stock. In contrast, a non-operating subsidiary would exist on paper only (i.e., stocks, bonds, articles of incorporation) and would use the identity of the parent company.

Subsidiaries are a common feature of business life, and most multinational corporations organize their operations in this way. Examples include holding companies such as Berkshire Hathaway, Jefferies Financial Group, WarnerMedia, or Citigroup; as well as more focused companies such as IBM or Xerox. These, and others, organize their businesses into national and functional subsidiaries, often with multiple levels of subsidiaries.

THQ Nordic

THQ Nordic GmbH (formerly Nordic Games GmbH) is an Austrian video game publisher based in Vienna. Formed in 2011, it is the primary publishing subsidiary of THQ Nordic AB. Originally named Nordic Games, as was the parent company, both companies were renamed THQ Nordic in August 2016 after the parent company had acquired the "THQ" trademark in 2014. THQ Nordic's core portfolio comprises assets that were acquired from other developers and publishers, such as from JoWooD Entertainment and its subsidiaries DreamCatcher Interactive and The Adventure Company in 2011, from THQ in 2013, and from NovaLogic in 2016. THQ Nordic has acquired and established nine subsidiary studios, including Black Forest Games, Bugbear Entertainment and HandyGames.

Taito

Taito Corporation (株式会社タイトー, Kabushiki gaisha Taitō) is a Japanese video game developer and publisher of arcade hardware and mobile phones, and an operator of video arcades. It is also a former publisher of home video games. Taito is wholly owned by Square Enix Holdings. Despite being a subsidiary to Square Enix Holdings, the parent company has kept the branding of Taito distinct from Square Enix.Taito is known for producing arcade games, such as Space Invaders, Bubble Bobble, and Arkanoid. Its arcade games found success around the world. Taito also imports and distributes American coin-op video games in Japan, where it owns several arcades, known as Taito Stations or Game Taito Stations.

Taito has its headquarters in the Shinjuku Bunka Quint Building in Yoyogi, Shibuya, Tokyo, sharing the facility with its parent company. In the past, the company had operated divisions in North America, Brazil, South Korea, Italy, the United Kingdom and China.

Tracking stock

Tracking stock or targeted stock are specialized equity offerings issued by a company that is based on the operations of a wholly owned subsidiary of a diversified firm. Therefore, the tracking stock will be traded at a price related to the operations of the specific division of the company being "tracked". Tracking stock typically has limited or no voting rights. Often, the reason for doing so is to separate a high-growth division from a larger parent company. The parent company and its shareholders remain in control of the subsidiary's or unit's operations.

TéléSAT

TéléSAT Numérique, commonly known as TéléSAT, is a Belgian satellite subscription television company aimed at the French-speaking community, also offering a triple play solution (satellite television, Internet, and landline telephone). It is available to residents in Belgium or Luxembourg.

Its parent company is the M7 Group S.A. which is also the parent company of Canal Digitaal in the Netherlands, TV Vlaanderen also in Belgium but aimed at the Flemish speaking community, Austriasat in Austria, AustriaSat Magyarország in Hungary, CS Link in the Czech Republic and Skylink in Slovakia

In 2010 the operator added the possibility to add a selection of Flemish stations to a client's subscription by adding the option "Espace TV Vlaanderen" at an additional monthly cost but which requires a triple LNB or motorised satellite dish.

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