The Parc des Buttes-Chaumont (pronounced [paʁk de byt ʃomɔ̃]) is a public park situated in northeastern Paris, France, in the 19th arrondissement. Occupying 24.7 hectares (61 acres), it is the fifth-largest park in Paris, after the Bois de Vincennes, Bois de Boulogne, Parc de la Villette and Tuileries Garden.
Opened in 1867, late in the regime of Napoleon III, it was built according to plans by Jean-Charles Alphand, who created all the major parks demanded by the Emperor. The park has 5.5 kilometres (3.4 miles) of roads and 2.2 kilometres (1.4 miles) of paths. The most famous feature of the park is the Temple de la Sibylle, inspired by the Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy, and perched at the top of a cliff fifty metres above the waters of the artificial lake.
|Parc des Buttes-Chaumont|
|Location||19th arrondissement, Paris|
|Area||61 acres (25 ha)|
|Created||1 April 1867|
|Operated by||Direction des Espaces Verts et de l’Environnement (DEVE)|
|Status||Open all year|
|Public transit access||Located near the Métro stations: Buttes Chaumont, Laumière and Botzaris|
The park took its name from the bleak hill which occupied the site, which, because of the chemical composition of its soil, was almost bare of vegetation – it was called Chauve-mont, or bare hill. The area, just outside the limits of Paris until the mid-19th century, had a sinister reputation; it was close to the site of the Gibbet of Montfaucon, the notorious place where from the 13th century until 1760, the bodies of hanged criminals were displayed after their executions. After the 1789 Revolution, it became a refuse dump, and then a place for cutting up horse carcasses and a depository for sewage. The director of public works of Paris and builder of the Park, Jean-Charles Alphand, reported that "the site spread infectious emanations not only to the neighboring areas, but, following the direction of the wind, over the entire city."
Another part of the site was a former gypsum and limestone quarry mined for the construction of buildings in Paris and in the United States. This raw material was used for a long time to produce plaster and lime. In order to make lime, gypsum was heated in furnaces. This activity was maintained until the second half of the 19th century. By the end of the 1850s, the quarry was exhausted. That quarry also yielded Eocene mammal fossils, including Palaeotherium, which were studied by Georges Cuvier. This not-very-promising site was chosen by Baron Haussmann, the Prefet of Paris, for the site of a new public park for the recreation and pleasure of the rapidly growing population of the new 19th and 20th arrondissements of Paris, which had been annexed to the city in 1860.
The work on the park began in 1864, under the direction of Alphand, who used all the experience and lessons he had learned in making the Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes. Two years were required simply to terrace the land. Then a railroad track was laid to bring in cars carrying two hundred thousand cubic meters of topsoil. A thousand workers remade the landscape, digging a lake and shaping the lawns and hillsides. Explosives were used to sculpt the buttes themselves and the former quarry into a picturesque mountain fifty meters high with cliffs, an interior grotto, pinnacles and arches. Hydraulic pumps were installed to lift the water from the canal of the Ourcq River up the highest point on the promontory, to create a dramatic waterfall.
The chief gardener of Paris, horticulturist Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps, then went to work, planting thousands of trees, shrubs and flowers, along with creating sloping lawns. At the same time, the city's chief architect, Gabriel Davioud, designed the miniature Roman temple on the top of the promontory, modeled after that at Tivoli near Rome, as well as belvederes, restaurants modeled after Swiss chalets, and gatehouses like rustic cottages, completing the imaginary landscape. The park opened on 1 April 1867, coinciding with the opening of the Paris Universal Exposition, and becoming an instant popular success with the Parisians.
The heart of the park is an artificial lake of 1.5 hectares (3.7 acres) surrounding the Île de la Belvédère, a rocky island with steep cliffs made from the old gypsum quarry. On the top is the Temple de la Sibylle, fifty meters above the lake. The island is connected by two bridges with the rest of the park. the island is surrounded by paths, and a steep stairway of 173 steps leads from the top of the belvedere down through the grotto to the edge of the lake.
The most famous feature of the park is the Temple de la Sibylle, a miniature version of the famous ancient Roman Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy. The original temple was the subject of many romantic landscape paintings from the 17th to the 19th century, and inspired similar architectural follies in the English landscape garden of the 18th century. The temple was designed by Gabriel Davioud, the city architect for Paris, who designed picturesque monuments for the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Parc Monceau, and other city parks. He also designed some of the most famous fountains of Paris, including the Fontaine Saint-Michel. The temple was finished in 1867.
The grotto is a vestige of the old gypsum and limestone quarry that occupied part of the site, now adjacent to rue Botzaris on the south side of the park. It is fourteen meters wide and twenty meters high, and has been sculpted and decorated with artificial stalactites as long as eight meters to make it resemble a natural grotto, in the style of the romantic English landscape garden of the 18th and 19th century. An artificial waterfall, fed by pumps, cascades from the top of the cave and down through the grotto to the lake.
A 12-metre (39 ft) masonry bridge, 22 metres (72 ft) above the lake, known as the "suicide bridge", allows access to the belvedere from the south side of the park. After a series of well-publicized suicides, the bridge is now fenced with wire mesh.
Most of the architecture of the park, from the Temple de la Sibylle, the cafes, and gatehouses to the fences and rain shelters, was designed by Gabriel Davioud, chief architect for the city of Paris. He created a picturesque, rustic style for the parks of Paris, sometimes inspired by ancient Rome, sometimes by the chalets and bridges of the Swiss Alps.
The main entrance to the park is at Place Armand-Carrel, where stands the mairie (town hall) of the 19th arrondissement, also designed by Davioud. There are five other large gates to the park — Porte Bolivar, Porte de la Villette, Porte Secrétan, Porte de Crimée, and Porte Fessart — and seven smaller gates.
As of 2019, the park hosts three restaurants (Pavillon du Lac, Pavillon Puebla, and Rosa Bonheur), two reception halls, two Guignol theatres, and two waffle stands. The two Guignol theatres were established in 1892.
The park has four Wi-fi zones as part of a citywide wireless Internet-access plan.
The park was envisioned by Napoleon III as a garden showcase, a vision that continue to guide the park's direction. Currently, there are more than 47 species of plants, trees, and shrubs cultivated in the park. Many of the plants and trees found in the park were those originally planted when the park was created.
The park boasts many varieties of indigenous and exotic trees (many of which are Asian species): in particular, several cedars of Lebanon planted in 1880, Himalayan cedars, Ginkgo Biloba, Byzantine hazelnuts, Siberian elms, European hollies, and bamboo-leafed prickly ashes, among many others.
Tree species found in the park include:
|Located near the Métro stations: Buttes Chaumont, Laumière and Botzaris.|
In September, the park hosts Paris's annual Silhouette Short Film Festival. The Silhouette Festival features seven days of French and international short films, followed by an awards ceremony.
In 2008, a modern version of the traditional Guinguette, Rosa Bonheur, was established inside the park. This unique restaurant and dance venue is government-sponsored by the Mairie of the 19th arrondissement.
The 19th arrondissement of Paris (XIXe arrondissement) is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as dix-neuvième.
The arrondissement, known as Butte-Chaumont, is situated on the right bank of the River Seine. It is crossed by two canals, the Canal Saint-Denis and the Canal de l'Ourcq, which meet near the Parc de la Villette.
The 19th arrondissement includes two public parks: the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, located on a hill, and the Parc de la Villette, which is home to the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie, a museum and exhibition centre, the Conservatoire de Paris, one of the most renowned music schools in Europe, and the Philharmonie de Paris, both part of the Cité de la Musique.Adolphe Alphand
Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃ ʃaʁl adɔlf alfɑ̃]), born in 1817 and died in 1891, interred at Père Lachaise Cemetery (division 66), was a French engineer of the Corps of Bridges and Roads.Avenue Foch
Avenue Foch (French pronunciation: [avny fɔʃ]) is a street in Paris, France, named after World War I Marshal Ferdinand Foch in 1929. It is one of the most prestigious streets in Paris, and one of the most expensive addresses in the world, home to many grand palaces, including ones belonging to the Onassis and Rothschild families. The Rothschilds once owned numbers 19-21.
It is located in the 16th arrondissement and runs from the Arc de Triomphe southwest to the Porte Dauphine at the edge of the Bois de Boulogne city park. It is the widest avenue in Paris and is lined with chestnut trees along its full length.Avenue George V
Avenue George V is a street in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. It is 730 metres (800 yards) long and 40 metres (44 yards) wide. It starts at the Alma and ends at No. 99 avenue des Champs-Elysées, and marks the western limit of Paris's "golden triangle" (triangle d'or). Four Seasons Hotel George V is located on this avenue.Until Bastille Day 1918, the avenue was called Avenue d'Alma. It received its current name in honour of the British monarch George V, who was on the throne at the time, and had supported France during the First World War.Belleville (commune)
Belleville was a French commune (municipality) in the Seine département, lying immediately east of Paris, France. It was one of four communes entirely annexed by the city of Paris in 1860. Its territory is now shared by the 19th and 20th arrondissements, but a neighborhood has retained its name: the quartier de Belleville. The village was built on and around a hill, the second highest of the French capital after Montmartre. The composer and conductor Jules Pillevesse (1837–1903) was born in Belleville.Buttes Chaumont (Paris Métro)
Buttes Chaumont is a station on line 7bis of the Paris Métro. The station is located on Avenue Simon Bolivar in the 19th arrondissement, near the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, after which it was named.
While the metro line opened as a branch of line 7 from Louis Blanc to Pré Saint-Gervais on 18 January 1911, the opening of the station was delayed by 13 months to 13 February 1912 due to the difficulty of its construction in a backfilled quarry. As a result, the station is built with arches over each of the tracks to strengthen the station box. On 3 December 1967 this branch was separated from line 7, becoming line 7bis.Faux bois
Faux bois (from the French for false wood) refers to the artistic imitation of wood or wood grains in various media. The craft has roots in the Renaissance with trompe-l'œil. It was probably first crafted with concrete using an iron armature by garden craftsmen in France called "rocailleurs" using common iron materials: rods, barrel bands, and chicken wire.
Early examples of the craft survive at Parc des Buttes-Chaumont opened for an exposition in Paris in 1867. In 1873, the inventor of ferrocement, Joseph Monier expanded his patents to include bridges. He designed the first bridge of reinforced concrete, crossing the moat at the Chateau Chazelet, in France. It was sculpted to resemble timbers and logs. Ferrocement faux bois uses a combination of concrete, mortar and grout applied to a steel frame or armature to sculpt lifelike representations of wooden objects. Final sculpting can be done while the mixture is wet, in a putty state, or slightly stiff. Techniques vary among artisans. Most popular in the late 19th century through the 1940s, ferrocement faux bois has largely disappeared with the passing of those most expert in its practice. What few objects remain from that peak period (mostly in the form of garden art, such as planters and birdbaths) are now highly prized by collectors.
In Mexico and Texas, this style is sometimes known as "el trabajo rústico" (the rustic work). It is often characterized by a more realistic look in both composition and coloring, as well as a more finely detailed finish than comparable European work. One highly regarded artist who worked in this style was Dionicio Rodriguez, a Mexican who relocated to Texas in the early 1920s. Although Rodriguez is not widely known, his large-scale faux bois installations have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dionicio's great-nephew is one of the handful of artists still creating faux bois today.France Miniature
France Miniature is a miniature park tourist attraction in Élancourt, France featuring scale models of major French landmarks and monuments in an outdoor park.Grand Synagogue of Paris
The Grand Synagogue of Paris, generally known as Synagogue de la Victoire or Grande Synagogue de la Victoire, is situated at 44, Rue de la Victoire, in the 9th arrondissement. It also serves as the official seat of the chief rabbi of Paris.History of parks and gardens of Paris
Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than three thousand hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace, and redone by André Le Nôtre in 1664; and the Luxembourg Garden, belonging to a château built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the French Senate. The Jardin des Plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants. Between 1853 and 1870, the Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the neighborhoods of the city. One hundred sixty-six new parks have been created since 1977, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987–1991) and Parc André Citroën (1992).Some of the most notable recent gardens of Paris are not city parks, but parks belonging to museums, including the gardens of the Rodin Museum and the Musée du quai Branly.Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps
Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps (June 7, 1824 at Saint-Antoine-du-Rocher – September 12, 1873 at Vichy) was a French horticulturist and landscape architect. He was the chief gardener of Paris during the reign of Emperîor Napoleon III, and was responsible for planting the great gardens of the French Second Empire; the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris, Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, the remaking of the Luxembourg Garden, and many smaller Parisian parks and gardens. He was also responsible for planting trees along the new boulevards of Paris. His landscape gardens, with their lakes, winding paths, sloping lawns, groves of exotic trees and flower beds, had a large influence on public parks throughout Europe and in the United States.
Barillet-Deschamps was born in 1824, the son of a gardener. His first job in 1841 was as a monitor and teacher in a revolutionary new kind of prison colony called "La Paternelle," founded near Tours in 1839, where the prisoners learned farming and gardening. From there he went to Bordeaux, where he started a gardening enterprise, and met Baron Haussmann, then the Prefect of the Gironde Department. He also met Jean-Charles Alphand, an engineer who worked for Haussmann.
When the Emperor Napoleon III brought Haussmann to Paris to be the new Prefect of the Seine Department, Haussmann summoned both Alphand and Barillet-Deschamps to Paris. The Emperior had conceived a plan to create large new parks around Paris, to provide green space and recreation for the rapidly growing population of the city. He named Alphand as the head of the new Service des Promenades et Plantations de Paris, and Alphand chose Barillet-Deschamps as the first jardinier en chef, or Chief Gardener of Paris. Barillet-Deschamps worked in close collaboration with Alphand, the engineer Eugene Belgrand (1810-1870), who was charged with providing water to the new parks, and with the architect Gabriel Davioud, who designed all the structures in the parks.
Under Alphand’s guidance, Barillet-Deschamps created the landscapes of the Bois de Boulogne and the Bois de Vincennes, and then the Luxembourg Garden as it appears today; Parc Monceau; the Parc des Buttes Chaumont; and Parc Montsouris. The scale of the projects was gigantic: For the Bois de Boulogne alone, he planted 420,000 trees and seeded 273 hectares of lawns, using 150 kilograms of seed per hectare. To provide trees, shrubs and flowers for the park, he had gardens and greenhouses built near the racetrack of Longchamps, and at Auteuil. He created another garden at Petit-Bry, on the banks of the Marne River, specially to grow trees to line the boulevards of Paris. At Vincennes, near the fortifications of Paris, he planted another garden especially for cultivating ornamental plants.
At Passy, close to the Parc de la Muette, he built another complex of greenhouses, called the Fleuriste de la Muette, especially for flowers and exotic plants. This complex was composed of thirty greenhouses, lit with gas lights, each with its own conditions devoted to different varieties of plants. One group of greenhouses was filled entirely with thousands of fuchsia, chrysanthemum, canna, pelagorium, verveine, calceolaire, and ageratum plants. Individual greenhouses were built to grow palm trees, ficus, camellias, solanum, Caladium, and begonias; and others for banana trees, hibiscus, ferns and other highly specialized plants. There were nearly three million plants in the greenhouses of the Fleuriste de la Muette, tended by about one hundred gardeners. In addition to the large gardens new gardens around the edges of Paris, Barillet-Dechamps was responsible for providing trees to line the newly built avenues that Baron Haussmann was building. A line of holes each three meters wide and one meter deep was dug along each side each boulevard. His gardeners used specially equipped carts, each of which carried one tree. Each cart carrying a tree was positioned over the hole and carefully lowered it into place. The trees came from the garden that Barille-Deschamps had built along the Marne for that purpose. The trees used most often were chestnut trees and platane trees, which Haussmann himself preferred he had seen rows of plantanes in Provence when he was Prefect of the Department of the Var, and he admired their wide leaves and the shade they gave. By 1868, Barillet-Deschamps had planted 102,154 trees along the boulevards of Paris. In addition to his Paris gardens, Barillet-Deschamps traveled widely to advise other cities on their gardens. He helped in the design of gardens in Marseille, in Turin, in Belgium, in Austria, in Prussia, in Turkey, and in Egypt. He began working on a garden for the Khedive of Egypt in 1873, and was still working on it when he became ill, returned to France, and died in Vichy in 1873 at the age of fifty.Le Paysan de Paris
Le Paysan de Paris is a surrealist book about places in Paris by Louis Aragon which was first published in 1926 by Editions Gallimard.
It was dedicated to the surrealist painter André Masson and its preface was on the theme of a modern mythology. The two main sections of the books describe two places in Paris in great detail: Le Passage de l'Opera and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont. The detailed descriptions provide a realistic backdrop for surrealist spectacles such as the transformation of a shop into a seascape in which a siren appears and then disappears. This literary device is le merveilleux quotidien — a contrast of the mundane with the marvellous.Arnold Bennett described the work as stimulating but uneven. He thought it the best of the six books which he bought in Paris when visiting there in 1927. Walter Benjamin was deeply affected by the book, which became a point of departure for his unfinished magnum opus, The Arcades Project. Louis Aragon was disappointed with the book's reception by the French literary establishment which he considered too bourgeois and commercial.List of parks and gardens in Paris
Paris, France today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than three thousand hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. The following is a list of public parks and gardens in the city.Parc Montsouris
Parc Montsouris is a public park in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, at the southern edge of Paris directly south of the center. Opened in 1869, Parc Montsouris is one of the four large urban public parks, along with the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Parc des Buttes Chaumont, created by Emperor Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann, at each of the cardinal points of the compass around the city, in order to provide green space and recreation for the rapidly growing population of Paris. The park is 15.5 hectares in area, and is designed as an English landscape garden.The Park contains a lake, a cascade, wide sloping lawns, and many notable varieties of trees, shrubs and flowers. It is also home to a meteorology station, a cafe and a guignol theater. The roads of the park are extremely popular with joggers on weekends.
The park is bounded to the south by Boulevard Jourdan and the Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris (CIUP); to the north by Avenue Reille; to the east by Rue Gazan and Rue de la Cité Universitaire; and to the west by Rue Nansouty and Rue Émile Deutsch-de-la-Meurthe.
The "Cité Universitaire" stop on the line on the RER B is located in the center of Parc Montsouris.Parc de Belleville
The Parc de Belleville, one of the parks and gardens of the 20th arrondissement of Paris, is situated between the Parc des Buttes-Chaumont and the Père Lachaise Cemetery.Parc de Bercy
Parc de Bercy is a public park located along the right bank of the Seine in the 12th arrondissement of Paris. It was created in 1994-1997 as one of the major architectural projects of French President François Mitterrand on the site of a former wine depot. With a combined area of 13.9 hectares, composed of three different gardens on different themes connected by foot bridges, it is the tenth largest park in the city. It is accessible by Bercy and Cour Saint-Émilion Métro stations, and by a foot bridge to the National Library of France on the other side of the river.Passage Brady
Passage Brady is one of two iron-and-glass covered arcades (known in French as the Passages couverts de Paris) located in the 10th arrondissement of Paris, France constructed in 1828. It lies between Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis and Rue du Faubourg-Saint-Martin.
It is famous for the several Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi restaurants located in the arcade.Solidays
Solidays is a French annual music festival that takes place at the Longchamp Racecourse in Paris at the end of June. Organised by Solidarité sida (a French HIV/AIDS awareness group for youth), the event brings together more than 150 artists and 170 000 festival-goers for three days (Friday, Saturday and Sunday). The proceeds from the festival are donated to organisations fighting against AIDS, especially for those focusing on the African continent.
The festival has been held since 1999. The performers involved in Solidays accept a reduced fee or appear for free as a sign of their solidarity. The 2013 edition raised over 2 million euros. The festival also features bungee jumping in addition to the music.Over the years, many French and foreign artists have appeared at Solidays, including DJ Snake, Bigflo & Oli, Kungs, Mac Miller, Vanessa Paradis, M83, Synapson, Paul Kalkbrenner, Bénabar, Madeon, Shaka Ponk, David Guetta, Kool & the Gang, Stromae, Louis Bertignac, Lily Allen, Louise Attaque, Grand Corps Malade, Earth, Wind & Fire and Diplo.Square des Batignolles
The Square des Batignolles, which covers 16,615 square metres of land (approximately four acres), is the largest green space in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. Designed in the naturalistic English-garden style, it lies in the district (quartier) of Batignolles, near the new Parc Clichy-Batignolles.
|Parks and gardens|
|Culture and events|